Philippines and Manila
The Philippines officially known as the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.
To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan; west across the South China Sea sits Vietnam; southwest is the island of Borneo across the Sulu Sea, and to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other islands of Indonesia; Sony SVS13AA11L Battery
while to the east it is bounded by the Philippine Sea. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator make the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world’s greatest biodiversity. Sony SVS131A11L Battery
At 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi), the Philippines is the 73rd-largest country in the world, consisting of an archipelago of 7,107 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions: Sony SVS131B11L Battery
Sony PCG-41414L BatteryLuzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Its capital city is Manila while its most populous city is Quezon City.
With a population of more than 98 million people, the Philippines is the seventh-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. An additional 12 million Filipinos live overseas,
Sony PCG-41413L Batterycomprising one of the world’s largest and most influential diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago’s earliest inhabitants. Sony SVS151A11L Battery
Sony PCG-41412L BatteryThey were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples who brought with them influences from Malay, Hindu, and Islamic societies. Various nations were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sony SVS151B11L Battery
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 marked the beginning of an era of Spanish interest and eventual colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. Sony PCG-4121DL Battery
Sony PCG-41217L BatteryThe Spanish Empire began to settle with the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from New Spain (present day-Mexico) in 1565 who established the first Spanish settlement in the archipelago, which remained a Spanish colony for more than 300 years.
Sony PCG-41216L Battery During this time, Manila became the Asian hub of the Manila–Acapulco galleon fleet.
As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, there followed in quick succession the Philippine Revolution, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic; the Spanish–American War; and the Philippine–American War. Sony PCG-4121EL Battery
In the aftermath, the United States emerged as the dominant power; aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands. After World War II,[15
Sony PCG-41215L Battery] the Treaty of Manila established the Philippine Republic as an independent nation. Since then, the Philippines has had an often tumultuous experience with democracy, with popular “people power” movements overthrowing a dictatorship in one instance, Sony PCG-4121FL Battery
but also underlining the institutional weaknesses of its constitutional republic in others. The nation’s large size and economic potential have led it to be classified as a middle power.
The name Philippines is named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Sony PCG-4121GL Battery
Sony PCG-41214L BatterySpanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos during his expedition in 1542 named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, Sony PCG-41213L Battery other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan’s name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands. Sony PCG-41211L Battery
The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of the country’s history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. Sony PCG-41212L Battery
From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–46), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, sony PCG-4R2L battery
sony PCG-6124L battery a translation of the Spanish name. During the American period,[clarification needed When?] the name Philippines began to appear and it has since become the country’s common name. Since independence, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. sony PCG-4Q4L battery
A Tagalog couple of the Maginoo caste depicted on a page of the 16th century Boxer Codex.
The metatarsal of Callao Man is reported to have been reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago[24sony PCG-4Q3L battery
] thereby replacing the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 24,000 years ago, as the oldest human remains found in the archipelago. Negritos were among the archipelago’s earliest inhabitants, sony PCG-4Q1L battery
sony PCG-6123L batterybut their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated. There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes that the ancestors of the Filipinos evolved locally. sony PCG-6X1L battery
sony PCG-6122L battery Wilhelm Solheim’s Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the antediluvian Sundaland area around 48000 to 5000 BCE rather than by wide-scale migration. sony PCG-6X2L battery
sony PCG-6121L battery The Austronesian Expansion Theory states that Malayo-Polynesians coming from Taiwan began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BCE, displacing earlier arrivals. Whatever the case, sony PCG-6X7L battery
by 1000 BCE the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gathering tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and maritime-centered harbor principalities. sony PCG-6X8L battery
The 1st millennium saw the rise of the harbor principalities and their growth into Maritime states composed of autonomous barangays independent of, or allied with, larger nations which were either Malay thalassocracies led by Datus or Indianized Kingdoms led by Rajahs. The chief among which were the Rajahnate of Butuan, sony PCG-6XAL battery
sony PCG-6Z3L batterywhich attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri Bata Shaja, the Kingdom of Tondo, ruled over by the Lakandula dynasty and the Rajahnate of Cebu which was led by Rajamuda Sri Lumay. sony PCG-6XBL battery
sony PCG-6Z2L battery Other nations in this era include the State of Ma-i and the Confederation of Madja-as. Sulu, before its Islamization was also an Indianized Kingdom under its first ruler, Rajah Sipad the Older. The great epics; the Hinilawod, Darangan, Biag Ni Lam-Ang and etc. trace their origins to this era. Sony SVS13AB1GL Battery
The 1300s heralded the arrival and eventual spread of the Islamic religion in the Philippine archipelago. In 1380, Karim ul’ Makdum and Shari’ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab trader born in Johore, arrived in Sulu from Malacca and established the Sultanate of Sulu by converting Sulu’s Rajah and marrying his daughter. Sony SVS131C1DL Battery
Sony PCG-61913L Battery  Also, at the end of the 15th century, Shariff Mohammed Kabungsuwan of Johor introduced Islam in the island of Mindanao and he subsequently married Paramisuli, an Iranun Princess from Mindanao, Sony SVS131C24L Battery
Sony PCG-61911L Batteryand established the Sultanate of Maguindanao. The sultanate system even extended itself further and the Confederation of sultanates in Lanao was a logical extension of this. Eventually, Sony SVS131E1DL Battery
Islam had begun to spread out from the southern Philippines into the north. Even Manila itself was nominally islamized since the reign of Sultan Bolkiah in 1485 to 1521, wherein, the Sultanate of Brunei subjugated Tondo by installing the Muslim, Rajah Suleiman to the throne. Sony SVS131G1DL Battery
The rivalries between the disparate Datus, Rajahs, Sultans and Lakans together with their respective states competing over the limited territory and people of the islands eventually simplified Spanish colonization by allowing its conquistadors to effectively employ a strategy of divide and conquer for rapid conquest. Sony SVS151C1GL Battery
Fort Santiago in Manila, built by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1590
José Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, and Mariano Ponce: leaders of the Propaganda Movement
Sony PCG-71C12L Battery] Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. In 1571, after dealing with the local royal families in the wake of the Tondo Conspiracy and defeating the Chinese pirate warlord Limahong,
Sony PCG-71C11L Batterythe Spanish established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies.
Spanish rule contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican War of Independence. Sony SVS151E1GL Battery
The Manila galleons and its large naval fleet linking Manila to Acapulco traveled once or twice a year between the 16th and 19th centuries. Sony PCG-61A11L Battery
Trade introduced foods such as corn, tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, and pineapples from the Americas. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools, Sony PCG-61A13L Battery
Sony PCG-61A14L Batterya university, and hospitals. While a Spanish decree introduced free public schooling in 1863, efforts in mass public education mainly came to fruition during the American period.
Sony PCG-71315L BatterySpanish galleon bombarding the Muslim pirates of the southern Philippines in 1848
During its rule, the Spanish fought off various indigenous revolts and several external colonial challenges from Chinese pirates, the Dutch, and the Portuguese. In an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years’ War, British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764. Sony PCG-71713L Battery
Sony PCG-71313L Battery They found local allies like Diego and Gabriela Silang who took the opportunity to lead a revolt, but Spanish rule was eventually restored following the 1763 Treaty of Paris. Sony PCG-71811L Battery
In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Philippine society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines (criollos) and those of mixed ancestry (mestizos) became wealthy. The influx of Spanish and Latino settlers secularized churches and opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula (peninsulares). Sony PCG-71911L Battery
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Sony PCG-71218L Battery The ideals of revolution also began to spread through the islands. Criollo dissatisfaction resulted in the revolt in Cavite El Viejo in 1872 that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution. Sony PCG-71913L Battery
Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three priests — Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (collectively known as Gomburza) — were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed.[52Sony PCG-71914L Battery
Sony PCG-71312L Battery] This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, Sony PCG-91211L Battery
Sony PCG-91112L Battery1896, on charges of rebellion. As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the secret society called the Katipunan, a society along the lines of the freemasons, Sony PCG-91311L Battery
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which sought independence from Spain through armed revolt. Bonifacio and the Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo of Cavite province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio’s position as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo took over. Sony SVE141D11L Battery
American Occupational Period
In 1898, the Spanish-American War began in Cuba and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898, and the insurgent First Philippine Republic was established Sony SVE141L11L Battery
Sony PCG-61713L Battery the following year. Meanwhile, the islands were ceded by Spain to the United States for 20 million US dollars in the 1898 Treaty of Paris. As it became increasingly clear the United States Sony SVE151E11L Battery
Sony SVE171G112 Battery would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out. The Americans then destroyed the first Philippine Republic, nevertheless, it was survived by three cantonal republics: Sony SVE151G11L Battery
Sony SVE171E12L BatteryThe Republic of Zamboanga, The Republic of Negros and The Tagalog Republic. Yet, these too were crushed and total American control was expanded over the entirety of the archipelago which was administered as an insular area. Sony SVE151G13L Battery
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In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and established a puppet government. Sony SVE171C11L Battery
Sony SVE171E11L BatteryMany atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war such as the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre that culminated during the Battle of Manila. Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated over a million Filipinos had died. Sony PCG-71316L Battery
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Lowering of the American flag on July 4, 1946
On July 4, 1946, the Philippines attained its independence. Immediately after World War II, the Philippines faced a number of challenges. Sony PCG-71318L Battery
The country had to be rebuilt from the ravages of war. It also had to come to terms with Japanese collaborators. Sony PCG-71211L Battery
Meanwhile, disgruntled remnants of the Hukbalahap communist rebel army that had previously fought against and resisted the Japanese continued to roam the rural regions. This threat to the government was dealt with by Secretary of National Defense and later President Ramon Magsaysay, Sony PCG-71212L Battery
Sony PCG-61316L Batterybut sporadic cases of communist insurgency continued to flare up long afterward. In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Nearing the end of his second term and constitutionally barred from seeking a third, he declared martial law on September 21, 1972. Sony PCG-71215L Battery
Sony PCG-61315L Battery By using political divisions, the tension of the Cold War, and the specter of communist rebellion and Islamic insurgency as justifications, he governed by decree. Sony PCG-71216L Battery
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On August 21, 1983, Marcos’ chief rival opposition leader Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, Jr. ignored warnings and returned from exile in the United States. He was assassinated as he was taken off the plane at the Manila International Airport
Sony PCG-61311L Battery (now called the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in his memory). With political pressure building, Marcos eventually called for snap presidential elections in 1986. Corazon Aquino, Benigno’s widow, Sony PCG-61211L Battery
Sony PCG-61215L Batterywas persuaded to become the presidential candidate and standard bearer of the opposition. The elections were widely considered rigged when Marcos was proclaimed the winner. This led to the People Power Revolution, Sony PCG-3B1L Battery
instigated when two long-time Marcos allies – Armed Forces of the Philippines Vice Chief-of-Staff Fidel V. Ramos and Secretary of National Defense Juan Ponce Enrile –Sony PCG-3B2L Battery
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Sony PCG-3H4L Battery resigned and barricaded themselves in Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame. Exhorted by the Cardinal Archbishop of Manila Jaime Sin, people gathered in support of the rebel leaders and protested on Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). In the face of mass protests and military defections, Sony PCG-3B4L Battery
The return of democracy and government reforms after the events of 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, a persistent communist insurgency, and military conflict with Islamic separatists. Sony PCG-3C3L Battery
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Sony PCG-3H1L Battery The economy improved during the administration of Fidel V. Ramos, who was elected president in 1992. However, the economic improvements were negated with the onset of the East Asian financial crisis in 1997. Sony PCG-3D4L Battery
Sony PCG-3G5L Battery In 2001, amid charges of corruption and a stalled impeachment process, Ramos’ successor Joseph Estrada was ousted from the presidency by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and replaced by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Sony PCG-3E3L Battery
Sony PCG-3G3L Battery Her administration that lasted 9 years was tied with graft and corruption and numerous political scandals. As a result of the May 2010 elections, Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III was elected president. Sony PCG-3F1L Battery
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Politics and government
Benigno S. Aquino III, the current and 15th president of the Republic of the Philippines
The Philippines has a democratic government. It is a constitutional republic with a presidential system. It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao which is largely free from the national government. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration. Sony PCG-9Z1L Battery
The President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet. Sony PCG-9Z2L Battery
 The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house,
Sony PCG-8141L Batterywith members elected to a three-year term. The senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation.[ Sony PCG-7142L Battery
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3] The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.
Security and defense
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BRP Gregorio del Pilar (PF-15), a Hamilton-class cutter of the Philippine Navy
Main articles: Armed Forces of the Philippines and Philippine National Police
Philippine defense is handled by the Armed Forces of the Philippines and is composed of three branches:
Sony PCG-7185L Batterythe Air Force, the Army, and the Navy (including the Marine Corps). Civilian security is handled by Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG). Sony PCG-7152L Battery
In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the largest separatist organization, the Moro National Liberation Front, is now engaging the government politically. Other more militant groups like the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, Sony PCG-7153L Battery
Sony PCG-7183L Batterythe communist New People’s Army, and the Abu Sayyaf still roam the provinces, but their presence has decreased in recent years due to successful security provided by the Philippine government. Sony PCG-7154L Battery
The Philippines has been an ally of the United States since World War II. A mutual defense treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951. The Philippines supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean and Vietnam wars. It was a member of the now dissolved SEATO,
Sony PCG-7181L Batterya group that was intended to serve a role similar to NATO and that included Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. After the start of the War on Terror, the Philippines was part of the coalition that gave support to the United States in Iraq. Sony PCG-7161L Battery
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Sony PCG-7174L BatteryThe United States designated the country a major non-NATO ally. The Philippines is currently working to end its domestic insurgency with help from the United States.
Main article: Foreign relations of the Philippines
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The Philippine Embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
The Philippines’ international relations are based on trade with other nations and the well-being of the 11 million overseas Filipinos living outside the country. As a founding and active member of the United Nations, Sony PCG-7171L Battery
Sony PCG-7172L Battery the Philippines has been elected several times into the Security Council. Carlos P. Romulo was a former President of the United Nations General Assembly. The country is an active participant in the Human Rights Council as well as in peacekeeping missions, particularly in East Timor. Sony PCG-21313L Battery
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In addition to membership in the United Nations, the country is also a founding and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among states in the Southeast Asian region.[8Sony PCG-41112L Battery
1] It has hosted several summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc. The relations it currently enjoys with other Southeast Asian states are in contrast to its relations with them before the 1970s when it was one of the allies of the US Forces against, Sony PCG-51111L Battery
with then the North Vietnam and was heavily disputing Sabah with Malaysia; although, disagreements continue to exist due to the Spratly Islands.
Sony PCG-81411L BatteryMembers of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
The Philippines values its relations with the United States. It supported the United States during the Cold War and the War on Terror and is a major non-NATO ally. Sony PCG-51211L Battery
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Sony PCG-81314L Battery Despite this history of goodwill, controversies related to the presence of the now former U.S. military bases in Subic Bay and Clark and the current Visiting Forces Agreement have flared up from time to time.[7Sony PCG-51312L Battery
Sony PCG-81313L Battery6] Japan, the biggest contributor of official development assistance to the country, is thought of as a friend. Although historical tensions still exist on issues such as the plight of comfort women, much of the animosity inspired by memories of World War II have faded. Sony PCG-51411L Battery
Relations with other nations are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western and European countries while similar economic concerns help in relations with other developing countries. Historical ties and cultural similarities also serve as a bridge in relations with Spain and Latin America. Sony PCG-51412L Battery
Sony PCG-81311L BatteryDespite issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting overseas Filipino workers and obstacles posed by Islamic insurgency in Mindanao, relations with Middle Eastern countries (including Egypt, Iran, Sony PCG-51511L Battery
Sony PCG-81214L Battery Iraq, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) are friendly as seen in the continuous employment of more than two million overseas Filipinos living there.
With communism no longer the threat it once was, once hostile relations in the 1950s between the Philippines and the People’s Republic of China have improved greatly. Sony PCG-51513L Battery
Sony PCG-81114L Battery Issues involving Taiwan, the Spratly Islands, and concerns of expanding Chinese influence, however, still encourage a degree of carefulness. Recent foreign policy has been mostly about economic relations with its Southeast Asian and Asia-Pacific neighbors. Sony PCG-61412L Battery
The Philippines is an active member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Latin Union, Sony PCG-71111L Battery
Sony PCG-81113L Battery the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement. It is also seeking to strengthen relations with Islamic countries by campaigning for observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Sony PCG-81111L Battery
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Main article: Administrative divisions of the Philippines
The Philippines is divided into three island groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. As of March 2010, these were divided into 17 regions, 80 provinces, 138 cities, 1,496 municipalities, and 42,025 barangays.[88Sony VPCF115FM battery
Sony VPCF119HX battery] In addition, Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the definition of the territorial sea around the Philippine archipelago does not affect the claim over Sabah.
A clickable map of the Philippines exhibiting its 17 regions and 80 provinces.
About this image
The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands with a total land area, including inland bodies of water, of approximately 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi). Its 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi) of coastline makes it the country with the 5th longest coastline in the world. It is located between 116° 40′, and 126° 34′ E. Sony VPCF11FGX battery
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longitude and 4° 40′ and 21° 10′ N. latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea to the east, the South China Sea to the west, and the Celebes Sea to the south. Sony VPCF11LFX battery
Sony VPCF11PFX batteryThe island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the north. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are located to the south-southwest and Palau is located to the east of the islands. Sony VPCF11DGX battery
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Most of the mountainous islands are covered in tropical rainforest and volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is Mount Apo. It measures up to 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao.
Sony VPCF11BFX battery The Galathea Depth in the Philippine Trench is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world. The trench is located in the Philippine Sea. The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon. Manila Bay, upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, Sony VPCF112FX battery
Sony VPCF11AFX batteryis connected to Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River. Subic Bay, the Davao Gulf, and the Moro Gulf are other important bays. The San Juanico Strait separates the islands of Samar and Leyte but it is traversed by the San Juanico Bridge.
Sony VPCF1190X batteryIfugao/Igorot utilized terrace farming to grow crops in the steep mountainous regions of northern Philippines.
Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction.[ Sony VPCF11CGX battery
Sony VPCF119GX battery94] Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake. There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, Sony VPCF116FX battery
Sony VPCF11NFX batteryand Taal Volcano. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century.[96Sony VPCF111FX battery
Sony VPCF11GGX battery] Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, the area represents a habitat for biodiversity conservation, the site also contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in Asia.[ sony VPCEB3AFM battery
sony VPCEB15FM battery97] The white sand beaches that make Boracay a popular vacation getaway are made of coral remnants.
Due to the volcanic nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa and one of the largest copper deposits in the world.[9sony VPCEA24FM battery
8] It is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Despite this, poor management, high population density, and environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped.[98sony VPCEA36FM battery
sony VPCEB17FX battery] Geothermal energy, however, is another product of volcanic activity that the country has harnessed more successfully. The Philippines is the world’s second-biggest geothermal producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country’s electricity needs being met by geothermal power. sony VPCEB33FMbattery
Flora and fauna
Main article: Wildlife of the Philippines
See also: List of threatened species of the Philippines
The Philippines’ rainforests and its extensive coastlines make it home to a diverse range of birds, plants, animals, and sea creatures.[10sony VPCEB11FM battery
103] Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere.[ sony VPCEH14FM battery
sony VPCEB12FX battery104] Endemic species include the tamaraw of Mindoro, the Visayan spotted deer, the Philippine mouse deer, the Visayan warty pig, the Philippine flying lemur, and several species of bats.[
sony VPCEB11GX battery105] The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise. sony VPCEH25FM battery
Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta), one of the smallest primates.
The Philippines lacks large predators, with the exception of snakes, such as pythons and cobras, saltwater crocodiles and birds of prey, such as the national bird, known as the Philippine Eagle, which scientists suggest as the largest eagle in the world. sony VPCEH35FM battery
sony VPCEB13FX battery  The largest crocodile in captivity was captured in the southern island of Mindanao. Other native animals include the palm civet cat, the dugong, and the Philippine tarsier associated with Bohol. With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands,[10sony VPCEB11FX battery
sony VPCEB14FX battery4] Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora, including many rare types of orchids and rafflesia. The narra is considered as the most important type of hardwood.
Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as 2,200,000 square kilometers (849,425 sq mi) producing unique and diverse marine life and are an important part of the Coral Triangle.[8sony VPCEH12FX battery
sony VPCEH11FX battery9] The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively. However, new records  and species discoveries[ sony VPCEH13FX battery
sony VPCEH390X battery115] continuously increase these numbers underlining the uniqueness of the marine resources in the Philippines. The Apo Reef is the country’s largest contiguous coral reef system and the second-largest in the world.[1sony VPCEH15FX battery
sony VPCEH37FX battery16] The Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of pearls, crabs, and seaweeds.
Deforestation, often the result of illegal logging, is an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the country’s total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999.[118sony VPCEH16FX battery
sony VPCEH36FX battery] Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia, which the Philippines is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 20th century.[12sony VPCEH190X battery
sony VPCEH34FX battery0] According to Conservation International, “the country is one of the few nations that is, in its entirety, both a hotspot and a megadiversity country, placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation.”
Typhoon Megi (known as Juan)over the Philippines
Main article: Climate of the Philippines
The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate and is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: tag-init or tag-araw, the hot dry season or summer from March to May; tag-ulan, the rainy season from June to November; and tag-lamig, sony VPCEH1AFX battery
sony VPCEH2CFX battery the cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan.[12sony VPCEH1BFX battery
1] Temperatures usually range from 21 °C (70 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F) although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.
The average yearly temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. sony VPCEH1CFX battery
sony VPCEH290X batteryWhether in the extreme north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), sony VPCEH1DFX battery
making it a popular destination during hot summers. Likewise, Tagaytay is a favored retreat.
Sitting astride the typhoon belt, most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and thunderstorms from July to October,[1sony VPCEH2AFX battery
sony VPCEH27FX battery23] with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys.[1sony VPCEH22FX battery
sony VPCEH24FX battery23] The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 1911 cyclone, which dropped over 1,168 millimeters (46.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio City.[12sony VPCEH23FX battery
7] Bagyo is the local term for a tropical cyclone in the Philippines. For the PAGASA, at least 19-22 storms would enter in their area and 10-13 storms would hit the Philippines.
Main article: Economy of the Philippines
The national economy of the Philippines is the 41st largest in the world, with an estimated 2013 gross domestic product (nominal) of $272.207 billion. Sony SVE151G11M battery
Sony SVE14AE15M battery Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand. Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso (₱ or PHP).
Makati in Metro Manila, the country’s financial center.
A newly industrialized country, the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Of the country’s total labor force of around 38.1 million,[5sony SVE15138CXS battery
] the agricultural sector employs close to 32% but contributes to only about 14% of GDP. The industrial sector employs around 14% of the workforce and accounts for 30% of GDP.
Sony SVE14AG18M battery Meanwhile the 47% of workers involved in the services sector are responsible for 56% of GDP.
The unemployment rate as of July 2009 stands at around 7.6% and due to the global economic slowdown inflation as of September 2009 reads 0.70%. Gross international reserves as of July 2011 are $83.201 billion.[1sony SVE15132CXS battery
sony SVE1511GFXW battery30] In 2004, public debt as a percentage of GDP was estimated to be 74.2%; in 2008, 56.9%. Gross external debt has risen to $66.27 billion. The country is a net importer. sony SVE1512GCXW battery
After World War II, the country was for a time regarded as the second wealthiest in East Asia, next only to Japan.[ Sony SVE171E11M battery
Sony SVE14AG15M battery132] However, by the 1960s its economic performance started being overtaken. The economy stagnated under the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos as the regime spawned economic mismanagement and political volatility.[76sony SVE15125CXS battery
sony SVE1511CFXS battery] The country suffered from slow economic growth and bouts of economic recession. Only in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization did the economy begin to recover. sony SVE15115MFXS battery
The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. But the extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. sony SVE15126CXS battery
sony SVE1511BGXS battery This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth.[6Sony SVE151E11M battery
sony SVE1511AFXS battery5] There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades. sony SVE15134CXS battery
sony SVE15135CXS battery  Yet average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole and the daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2.[1sony SVE15112FXS battery
sony SVE1411CFXW battery37] Despite enjoying sustained economic growth during the 2000s (decade), as of 2010, the country’s economy remains smaller than those of its Southeast Asian neighbors Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore in terms of GDP and GDP per capita (nominal). sony SVE15113FXS battery
Other incongruities and challenges exist. The economy is heavily reliant on remittances which surpass foreign direct investment as a source of foreign currency. Regional development is uneven with Luzon sony SVE15115FXS battery
sony SVE14A37CXH battery139] although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the country. Despite constraints, service industries such as tourism and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country. sony SVE1511NFXS battery
sony SVE14A35CXH battery  Goldman Sachs includes the country in its list of the “Next Eleven” economies. but China and India have emerged as major economic competitors. sony SVE1512JCXW battery
Goldman Sachs estimates that by the year 2050, it will be the 14th largest economy in the world. HSBC also projects the Philippine economy to become the 16th largest economy in the world, 5th largest economy in Asia and the largest economy in the South East Asian region by 2050.
The Philippines is a member of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Asian Development Bank which is headquartered in Mandaluyong City, the Colombo Plan, the G-77, and the G-24 among other groups and institutions. sony SVE1512KCXS battery
Main articles: Demographics of the Philippines, Filipino people, and Overseas Filipino
Ethnic groups per province
Population in Philippines increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame. The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.[14sony SVE1513APXS battery
sony SVE151290X battery5] As of 2011, the Philippines has become the world’s 12th most populous nation, with a population of over 94 million. It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. The population growth rate between 1995 to 2000 of 3.21% decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005 to 2010 period, but remains a contentious issue.
sony SVE15128CXS battery  The population’s median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. Life expectancy at birth is 71.94 years, 75.03 years for females and 68.99 years for males. sony SVE1513BCXS battery
There are about 11 million Filipinos outside the Philippines. Since the liberalization of United States immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. sony SVE1713ACXB battery
In 2007 there were an estimated 3.1 million. According to the United States Census Bureau, immigrants from the Philippines made up the second largest group after Mexico that sought family reunification.[152sony SVE1713CCXB battery
sony SVE17137CXB battery] Some two million Filipinos work in the Middle East, with nearly a million in Saudi Arabia alone.
Main article: Ethnic groups of the Philippines
According to the 2000 census, 28.1% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Bisaya/Binisaya, 7.5% Hiligaynon, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, and 25.3% as “others”, which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro, the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the Ibanag, and the Ivatan.[15sony SVE1713DCXB battery
sony SVE171290X battery5] There are also indigenous peoples like the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Bajau, and the tribes of Palawan. Negritos, such as the Aeta and the Ati, are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands. sony SVE1713ECXB battery
Filipinos generally belong to several Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people.[15sony SVE1712BCXB battery
sony SVE17132CXB battery6] It is believed that thousands of years ago Austronesian-speaking Taiwanese aborigines migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan, bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing, eventually displacing the earlier Negrito groups of the islands. They were later supplanted by arrivals of Chinese and Japanese in the northern islands, and Malays, Indians, sony SVE17122CXB battery
sony SVE17127CXB battery Arabs in the southern islands. Later arrivals during the colonial period include more Japanese, Indians, Spaniards, Americans, as well as other European peoples. Intermarriage between the groups is evident in the major cities and urban areas. Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery
Sony VGP-BPS15/S Battery Descendants of such mixed couples are known as mestizos.
The two most important non-indigenous minorities include the Chinese and the Spaniards. Chinese Filipinos, mostly descended from immigrants from Fujian, Sony VGP-BPL14 Battery
Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery China after 1898, number 2 million, although there is an estimated 28 million Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry, stemming from precolonial Chinese migrants.[1Sony VGP-BPL14B Battery
Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery63] Chinese Filipinos have a prominent role in the country’s private sector, and are part of the larger bamboo network, a network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia that share common family and cultural ties.[164Sony VGP-BPS10 Battery
Main article: Cities of the Philippines
Metro Manila is the most populous of the 12 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the 11th most populous in the world. As of the 2007 census, it had a population of 11,553,427, comprising 13% of the national population.[1Sony VGP-BPS12/Q Battery
Sony VGP-BPS14/B Battery65] Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, and Rizal) of Greater Manila, the population is around 21 million.
Metro Manila’s gross regional product is estimated as of July 2009 to be ₱468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery
and accounts for 33% of the nation’s GDP. In 2011, it ranked as the 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in Southeast Asia, according to PricewaterhouseCoopers.[168Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery
Sony VGP-BPS14 Battery] Cebu City in the Visayas and Davao City in Mindanao are other
Ethnologue lists 175 individual languages in the Philippines, 171 of which are living languages while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery
Sony VGP-BSP13/S Battery They are part of the Borneo–Philippines group of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family.
According to the 1987 Philippine Constitution, Filipino and English are the official languages. Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog, Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Battery
Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery spoken mainly in Metro Manila and other urban regions. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. The constitution designates regional languages such as Bicolano, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Tagalog, Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery
and Waray-Waray as auxiliary official languages and mandates that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.
Other languages such as Aklanon, Cuyonon, Ifugao, Itbayat, Ivatan, Kalinga, Kamayo, Kankanaey, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Masbateño, Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery
Romblomanon, Surigaonon, Tausug, Yakan, and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces. The Chavacano language, a creole language born from Spanish, is also spoken in Cavite and Zamboanga. Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery
The Philippines is a secular nation having a constitution separating the state and church. However, more than 90% of the population are Christians: about 80% belong to the Roman Catholic Church while 10% belong to other Christian denominations, such as the Iglesia ni Cristo, Sony VGP-BPS22 Battery
Sony VGP-BPS26A Battery2] As a result of Spanish cultural influence, the Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being East Timor, a former Portuguese colony. Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery
Between 5% and 10% of the population are Muslim, most of whom live in parts of Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago – an area known as Bangsamoro or the Moro region. Some have migrated into urban and rural areas in different parts of the country. Most Muslim Filipinos practice Sunni Islam according to the Shafi’i school. Sony VGP-BPL14 battery
Philippine traditional religions are still practiced by many aboriginal and tribal groups, often syncretized with Christianity and Islam. Animism, folk religion, and shamanism remain present as undercurrents of mainstream religion, Sony VGP-BPL14/B battery
Sony VGP-BPS12/Q batterythrough the albularyo, the babaylan, and the manghihilot. Buddhism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religion, are dominant in Chinese communities. There are also followers of Hinduism, Sikhism, and Judaism and Baha’i. Sony VGP-BPS14 battery
The National Statistics Office reports a simple literacy rate of 93.4% and a functional literacy rate of 84.1% for 2003.[1Sony VGP-BPS14/B battery
36] Literacy is about equal for males and females. Spending for education is around 2.5% of GDP. According to the Department of Education, or DepEd, there were 44,846 elementary schools and 10,384 secondary schools registered for the school year 2009–2010 while the Commission on Higher Education (CHEDSony VGP-BPS14/S battery
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) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, 607 of which are public and 1,573 private. Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to OctoberSony VGP-BPL12 battery
Sony vgp-bps24 battery and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs. Republic Act No. 9155 gives the framework of basic education in the Philippines and provides for compulsory elementary education and free high school education. Sony VGP-BPS12 battery
Several government agencies are involved with education. The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and nonformal education; the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) Sony VGP-BPL20 battery
administers the post-secondary middle-level education training and development; and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises the college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulates standards in higher education.[ Sony VGP-BPS20/B battery
Sony VGP-BPL22 battery179] In 2004, madaris were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education. Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State University and College (SUC) or Local College and University (LCU).[1Sony VGP-BPL14 battery
Sony VGP-BPS22 battery77] SUCs are funded by the national government as determined by the Philippine Congress. The University of the Philippines is the national university of the Philippines.
Main articles: Health in the Philippines and List of hospitals in the Philippines
Most of the national burden of health care is taken up by private health providers. In 2006, total expenditures on health represented 3.8% of GDP. Sony VGP-BPL14/S battery
67.1% of that came from private expenditures while 32.9% was from government. External resources accounted for 2.9% of the total. Health expenditures represented about 6.1% of total government spending. Sony VGP-BPS14/B battery
Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was $52. The proposed national health budget for 2010 is ₱28 billion (about $597 million) or ₱310 ($7) per person. The government share of total spending on health has declined steadily, and with more people, there has been less to spend per person. Sony VGP-BPS14/S battery
There are an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses, 43,220 dentists, and 1 hospital bed per every 769 people.[183Sony VGP-BPS26 battery
Sony VGP-BPS22A battery] Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. 70% of nursing graduates go overseas to work. The country is the biggest supplier of nurses. In 2001 there were about 1,700 hospitals,
Sony VGP-BPL22 battery of which about 40% were government-run and 60% private. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 25% of all deaths. According to official estimates, 1,965 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported in 2003, Sony VGP-BPL26 battery
Sony VGP-BPS22 batteryof which 636 had developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Other estimates have as many as 12,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in 2005.
A jeepney and a bus, common forms of public transport in the Philippines
The transportation infrastructure in the country is relatively underdeveloped. Partly this is due to the mountainous terrain and the scattered geography of the islands, Sony VGP-BPS26A battery
but it is also the result of the government’s persistent underinvestment in infrastructure. In 2003, only 3.6% of GDP went to infrastructure development which was significantly lower than that of some of its neighbors. Sony SVS13AA11M battery
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 Consequently, while there are 203,025 kilometers (126,154 mi) of roads in the country, only around 20% of the total is paved.
Nevertheless there are many ways to get around, especially in urban areas. Buses, jeepneys, taxis, and motorized tricycles are commonly available in major cities and towns. Sony SVS131B12M battery
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Sony SVS1511W9EB batteryIn 2007, there were about 5.53 million registered motor vehicles with registration increasing at an average annual rate of 4.55%. Train services are provided by three main railway networks that serve different areas of Metro Manila and parts of Luzon:
Sony SVS1511V9EB battery the Manila Light Rail Transit System (LRT), the Manila Metro Rail Transit System (MRT), and the Philippine National Railways (PNR).
Terminal 3 of Ninoy Aquino International Airport, the main gateway to the country
As an archipelago, inter-island travel via watercraft is often necessary. The busiest seaports are Manila, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, Sony SVS151A12M battery
Sony SVS1511N3ES batteryand Zamboanga. Passenger ships and other sea vessels such as those operated by 2GO Travel and Sulpicio Lines serve Manila, with links to various cities and towns. In 2003, the 919-kilometer (571 mi) Sony SVS1311E3EW battery
Sony SVS1511M3EW batteryStrong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established.
Some rivers that pass through metropolitan areas, such as the Pasig River and Marikina River, have air-conditioned commuter ferries. Sony SVS1311P9EB battery
Sony SVS1511L3ES batteryThe Pasig River Ferry Service has numerous stops in Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina. There are 3,219 kilometers (2,000 mi) of navigable inland waterways. Sony PCG-4121DM battery
There are 85 public airports in the country, and around 111 more that are private. The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) is the main international airport. Other important airports include the Clark International Airport, Sony PCG-4121EM battery
Sony PCG-41217M battery Mactan-Cebu International Airport, Francisco Bangoy International Airport and Zamboanga International Airport. Philippine Airlines, Asia’s oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name, and Cebu Pacific, the leading low-cost airline, are the major airlines serving most domestic and international destinations.[19Sony PCG-41211M battery
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The Philippines has a sophisticated cellular phone industry and a high concentration of users. As of 2008, there are about 67.9 million cellular phone subscribers in the Philippines. Text messaging is a popular form of communication Sony PCG-41218M battery
Sony PCG-41215M battery and has fostered a culture of quick greetings and forwarded jokes among Filipinos. In 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day. Out of this growing number of avid text message senders, Sony PCG-41414M battery
Sony PCG-41212M battery over five million of them use their cellular phones as virtual wallets, making it a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks. Sony PCG-41214M battery
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The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company commonly known as PLDT is the leading telecommunications provider. It is also the largest company in the country.[1Sony VPCEA3S1R Battery
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Sony SVE1511J1EW battery99] Its wholly owned subsidiaries Smart Communications and Piltel, along with Globe Telecom of the Ayala Group, BayanTel, and Sun Cellular are the major cellular service providers in the country. Sony SVE1711T1EB battery
There are approximately 383 AM and 659 FM radio stations and 297 television and 873 cable television stations. Estimates for internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people.[201Sony SVE1711K1EW battery
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Sony SVE1511H1EW battery] Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent internet activities.
Culture and society
Main articles: Culture of the Philippines, Literature of the Philippines, Music of the Philippines, and Original Pilipino Music
Sony SVE1511B1EW batteryPercussion instruments that make up the Philippine kulintang ensemble, an example of pre-Hispanic musical tradition
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Sony SVE1511S1EB battery05] heritage, yet its culture also displays a significant amount of Spanish and American influences. Traditional festivities known as barrio fiestas (district festivals) to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are common. The Moriones Festival and Sinulog Festival are a couple of the most well-known. Sony SVE1511G1EB battery
Sony SVE1511S1EW battery These community celebrations are times for feasting, music, and dancing. Some traditions, however, Sony SVE1513A1ES battery
are changing or gradually being forgotten due to modernization. The Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has been lauded for preserving many of the Sony PCG-41311M battery
various traditional folk dances found throughout the Philippines. They are famed for their iconic performances of Philippine dances such as the tinikling and singkil that both feature the use of clashing bamboo poles.
Sony VGP-BPS20 batteryBarasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan where the First Philippine Republic was founded.
One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos. However, a Spanish name and surname does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, Sony PCG-41313M battery
Sony VGP-BPS20/S batteryunique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial decree, the Clavería edict, for the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of the Spanish naming system on the population.[20Sony SVE1513A1ESI battery
Sony VGP-BPS20/B batterySpanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II.[ Sony PCG-41315M battery
Sony VGP-BPL20 battery33] Some examples remain, mainly among the country’s churches, government buildings, and universities. Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Sony PCG-4R2M battery
Sony VPCZ23K9E batterythe San Agustín Church in Manila, the Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte, the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Ilocos Sur, and the Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo.[2Sony PCG-4R2M battery
Sony VPCZ13Z9E/X battery08] Vigan in Ilocos Sur is also known for the many Hispanic-style houses and buildings preserved there.
The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the ready acceptance and influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos’ love of fast food, Sony PCG-4U2M battery
film, and music. Fast food outlets are found on many street corners. American global fast food chain stalwarts have entered the market, Sony SVE1513B1EW battery
Sony SVE171E13M battery but local fast food chains like Goldilocks and most notably Jollibee, the leading fast food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against their foreign rivals.[2Sony PCG-6Z4M battery
Sony VPCZ13V9E battery11] Filipinos regularly listen to and watch contemporary American, Asian, and European music and film just as they enjoy Original Pilipino Music (also known as OPM) and local films
Main article: Philippine cuisine
The halo-halo is a dessert made of ice, milk, various fruits, and ice cream.
Philippine cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian origins to become a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic, . Sony PCG-6112M battery
Sony VPCZ13 battery Chinese, American, and other Asian influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, such as the paellas and cocidos created for fiestas. Sony PCG-6121M battery
Sony PCG-6124M battery Popular dishes include lechón, adobo, sinigang, kare-kare, tapa, crispy pata, pancit, lumpia, and halo-halo. Some common local ingredients used in cooking are calamondins, coconuts, saba (a kind of short wide plantain), mangoes, Sony SVE1513C1EB battery
Unlike many of their Asian counterparts, Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Philippine cuisine, Sony VPCZ11 battery
the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork. The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan is seen more often in less urbanized areas. Sony VPCZ11X9E battery
Mythology and literature
Main articles: Philippine literature, Philippine mythology, and Deities of Philippine mythology
Baybayin, one of several indigenous scripts of the Philippines
Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. While each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell, Hindu and Spanish influences can nonetheless be detected in many cases. Sony VPCZ11X9E/B battery
Sony VPCZ12X9E/B battery Philippine mythology mostly consists of creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures, such as the aswang, the manananggal, the diwata/engkanto,
Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created in the 19th century. Sony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery
Sony VPCZ12V9E/B batteryFrancisco Balagtas the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Filipino language. José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tángere (Touch Me Not) Sony VPCZ12C7E/B battery
Sony VPCZ12V9E battery and El Filibusterismo (The Filibustering, also known as The Reign of Greed) and is considered a national hero. His depiction of the injustices of Spanish rule, and his death by firing squad, inspired other Philippine revolutionaries to seek independence. Sony VPCZ12M9E battery
Sony VPCZ12M9E/B battery In the 20th century, among those officially recognized as National Artists of the Philippines in literature are NVM Gonzalez, Nick Joaquin, F. Sionil Jose, and Alejandro Roces. Sony PCG-6P2M Battery
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Main articles: Cinema of the Philippines, Television in the Philippines, Radio in the Philippines, and Philippine drama
Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English. Other Philippine languages, including various Visayan languages are also used, especially in radio due to its ability to reach remote rural locations that might otherwise not be serviced by other kinds of media. Sony PCG-6R1M Battery
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Sony PCG-791M BatteryThe dominant television networks ABS-CBN, GMA and TV5 also have extensive radio presence.
The entertainment industry is vibrant and feeds broadsheets and tabloids with an unending supply of details about celebrities and sensationalist scandals du jour. Drama and fantasy shows are anticipated as are Latin telenovelas, Asianovelas, Sony PCG-6E1M Battery
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Sony SVE1513Y1ES battery In the Claws of Light) and Himala (Miracle). In recent years it has become common to see celebrities flitting between television and movies and then moving into politics provoking concerns. Sony PCG-6G2M Battery
Main article: Sports in the Philippines
A PBA basketball game at the Smart Araneta Coliseum, Southeast Asia’s largest arena.
Various sports and pastimes are popular in the Philippines including basketball, boxing, cockfighting, volleyball, football, badminton, karate, taekwondo, billiards, ten-pin bowling, chess, and sipa. Motocross, Sony PCG-6J1M Battery
Sony PCG-7N2M Batterycycling, and mountaineering are also becoming popular. Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines.[22Sony PCG-6J2M Battery
Sony PCG-7N1M Battery0] In almost every corner of the cities, there is a basketball court.
The Philippines has participated in the Summer Olympic Games since 1924, making it the first country in Southeast Asia to compete and win a medal.[221Sony PCG-6L1M Battery
Sony PCG-7M1M Battery] The country had competed in every Summer Olympic Games since then, except when they participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics. The Philippines is also the first tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympics. Sony PCG-6L2M Battery
Traditional Philippine games such as luksung baka, patintero, piko, and tumbang preso are still played primarily as children’s games among the youth.[ Sony PCG-7Y1M Battery
Sony PCG-7H1M Battery223] Sungka is a traditional native Philippine board game. Card games are popular during festivities, with some, including pusoy and tong-its, being used as a form of illegal gambling. Mahjong is played in some Philippine communities. Sony PCG-8V1M Battery
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Sony PCG-7G1M BatteryThe yo-yo, a popular toy in the Philippines, was introduced in its modern form by Pedro Flores with its name from the Ilokano language.
Arnis (Eskrima or Kali in some regions) is the national martial art and sport.[2Sony SVE1513J1EW battery
Sony PCG-7D1M Batterythe Philippine government included Filipino martial arts into the national sports arena. The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports also incorporated them into the physical education curriculum for high school and college students. Sony PCG-8W2M Battery
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Some Filipinos recognized for their achievements include Francisco Guilledo, Flash Elorde, Nonito Donaire and Manny Pacquiao in boxing; Paulino Alcántara in football (soccer); Carlos Loyzaga, Robert Jaworski, and Ramon Fernandez in basketball; Efren Reyes in billiards; Eugene Torre in chess; and Rafael Nepomuceno in bowling.[227sony VPCF11C4E/B battery
Manila (English: /məˈnɪlə/; Filipino: Maynila, [majˈnilaʔ]) is the capital city and the second largest city of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities (along with the municipality of Pateros) that make up the National Capital Regionsony VPCF11D4E battery
called Metro Manila which has a population of 12 million.
The City of Manila is located on the eastern shore of Manila Bay and is bordered by the cities of Navotas and Caloocan to the north; Quezon City and San Juan to the northeast; Mandaluyong to the east; Makati to the southeast, and Pasay to the south. sony VPCF11S1E/B battery
Manila has a total population of 1,652,171 according to the 2010 census and is the second most populous city in the Philippines, behind Quezon City. The populace inhabit an area of only 38.55 square kilometres (14.88 sq mi), Sony SVE1513L1ES battery
Sony SVE1513U1ES battery making Manila the most densely populated city in the world.
The city is divided into six legislative districts and consists of sixteen areas: Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Port Area, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Andres, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz, sony VPC-F21Z1E battery
sony VPCF12S1E/B battery Santa Mesa and Tondo. Bustling commerce and some of the most historically and culturally significant iconic landmarks in the country, as well as the seat of the executive and judicial branches of the government are found in the city. sony VPCF22J1E battery
sony VPCF12Z1E battery Manila is also home to many scientific and educational institutions, numerous sport facilities, and other culturally and historically significant venues.
Listed as a global city, Manila has its strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, Sony SVE1513P1EW battery
The earliest written account of the city is the 10th-century Laguna Copperplate Inscription which describes a context of a Malay kingdom maintaining diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Medang. sony VPCF23M1E battery
sony VPCF13S1E/B battery The city had preferential trade with Ming dynasty China which registered the place as “東都” (Dongdu). It then became a province of the Maharajanate of Majapahit and was called by its Sanskrit title, “षेलुरोन्ग्” sony VPCF22S1E battery
sony VPCY21S1E/G battery9] or simply Maynila. By the 15th century, it was nominally islamized when the Spanish Conquistadors first arrived. They renamed the area into Nuevo Reino de Castilla and shortened the alternative name, sony VPCF23S1E battery
sony VPCY21S1E/L batteryMaynila to Manila. Manila eventually became the center of Spanish activity in the Far East and one end of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade route linking Europe, Latin America and Asia.[1sony VPCF11S1E battery
sony VPCF23N1E battery0] The city would eventually be given the moniker of the “Pearl of the Orient”, as a result of its central location in the vital Pacific sea trade routes. Several Chinese insurrections, local revolts, a British Occupation and a Sepoy mutiny[11sony VPCF11Z1E/BI battery
sony VPCF23P1E battery] also occurred shortly thereafter. Manila also saw the rise of the Philippine Revolution which was followed by the arrival of the Americans who made contributions to the city’s urban planning[1sony VPCF12F4E/H battery
sony VPCF24Q1E battery2] and development only to have most of those improvements lost in the devastation of World War II. Since then the city has been rebuilt.
The earliest evidence of human habitation in and around the area of Manila is found the via the nearby Angono Petroglyphs dated to around 3000 BC. Sony SVE1512Y1ES battery
Furthermore, negritos, a class of Australoid peoples, became the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippine islands. They were found across Luzon before the Malayo-Polynesians migrated in and assimilated them. sony VPCF13E4E battery
A page from the 16th century Boxer Codex showing a Tagalog couple of the Maginoo caste.
The Kingdom of Maynila flourished during the latter half of the Ming Dynasty as a result of direct trade relations with China. sony VPCF13J0E/H battery
sony VPCF13M1E/H battery Ancient Tondo was maintained as the traditional capital of the empire, with its rulers as sovereign kings and not mere chieftains, and were addressed variously as panginuan or panginoon (“lords”);sony VPCF13M1E/B battery
sony VPCF12Z1E/BI battery anak banwa (“son of heaven”); or lakandula (“lord of the palace”), the Emperor of China considered the Lakans (rulers of ancient Manila) “王” (Kings). In the 13th century, the city consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter at the shores of the Pasig River, on top of previous older towns. sony VPCF13Z8E battery
sony VPCF12S1E/B battery Manila was then invaded by the Indianized empire of Majapahit as referenced in the epic eulogy poem Nagarakretagama which inscribed its conquest by Maharaja Hayam Wuruk. Selurong “षेलुरोन्ग्” which is a historical name for the city of Manila is listed in Canto 14 alongside Sulot, which is now Sulu, and Kalka. Sony VPCZ21L9E/B battery
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During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah from 1485 to 1521, Sony SVE1512N1EB battery
Sony SVE1712Q1EW batterythe Sultanate of Brunei invaded, wanting to take advantage of Tondo’s China trade by attacking its environs and establishing “كوتا سلودوڠ Kota Saludong/ Selurong” (Now Manila). They ruled under and gave yearly tribute to the Sultanate of Brunei as its satellite state. Sony VPCZ21S9E/B battery
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Sony VPCZ11E7E batteryThey established a new dynasty under the local leader who accepted Islam and became Rajah Salalila or Tariq Sulayman I. He also established a trading challenge to the already rich House of Rajah Lakandula in Tondo. Sony VPCZ21X9E/B battery
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Sony VPCZ11D7E battery Islam was further strengthened by the arrival of Muslim traders from the Arab-Indian area and Southeast Asia. Manila was temporarily besieged by the invasion of Chinese pirate-warlord Limahong (1574) Sony VPCZ13B7E battery
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Sony VPCZ11C7E battery before it became the seat of the colonial government of Spain.
Viceroyalty of New Spain
On June 24, 1571, Sony SVE1512N1ESI battery
Sony SVE1712L1EW battery Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from New Spain, now Mexico, and then exercised rule of the Spanish city of Manila as a territory of New Spain with the establishment of a city council in what today is the district of Intramuros.[1Sony VPCZ13D7E battery
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Sony VPCZ11C5E battery] Miguel López de Legazpi executed the local royalty after the failure of the Tondo Conspiracy; a plot wherein an alliance between Japanese merchants, Luzon’s Rajahs with several Visayan Datus plus the Brunei Sultanate would band together to execute the Spaniards and their allies which came from the Americas and AfricaSony VPCZ13F7E battery
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Sony SVE1712H1EWbatterywhich the empire would control for the next three centuries, from 1565 to 1898. (Still, the Spanish also massacred about 26000 Chinese residents of Manila in 1603) Sony VPCZ12S9R/B battery
Manila then became famous during the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade which lasted for three centuries and brought goods from Europe, Africa and Latin America across the Pacific Islands to Southeast Asia (Which was already Sony VPCZ12S9R/S battery
Sony VPCZ12C5E battery an entrepot for goods coming from India, Indonesia and China) and trade also flowed vice versa. Silver that was mined in Mexico and Peru were exchanged for Chinese silk, Indian gems, and the spices of the Southeast Asia, Sony VPCZ12V9E/X battery
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Sony VPCZ12B7E battery some of which even flowed to Europe. Likewise wines and olives grown from Europe and North Africa were transshipped via Mexico towards Manila.
British Occupation Sony VPCZ12X9E/X battery
The city was occupied by Great Britain for two years from 1762 to 1764 as part of the European Seven Years’ War between Spain and France and Great Britain.[1Sony SVE1512T1ESI battery
Sony SVE1712F1EB battery However, armed resistance to the British persisted, centered in Pampanga, and was led by Oidor Don Simón de Anda y Salazar.[19
Sony VPCZ11X9R/B battery] During the course of the occupation, the captive Hashemite Sultan of Sulu, Azim ud-Din I, was used as a hostage by both the British and Spanish. Also, the Chinese at Binondo rebelled against Spain and afterwards, the British’s Sepoy mercenaries from India, mutinied against them.[2Sony VPCZ12G7E battery
Sony VPCZ11X9R/S battery0] Eventually, the British withdrew as per agreements in the Treaty of Paris (1763). The Sepoys however, elected to stay and they settled in the area around Cainta, Rizal.[1Sony VPCZ12H7E battery
Sony VPCZ12X9R/B battery1] As for the Chinese, thereafter, the Spanish Fortress-city of Intramuros always pointed their cannons against Binondo (The world’s oldest Chinatown) to create a quick response against anymore Chinese uprisings. Sony VPCZ12L7E battery
Direct Spanish Rule
Escolta Street in 1878
After the British Occupation, direct trade and communications with Spain facilitated by the opening of the Suez Canal, supplanted indirect rule via the Viceroyalty. Eventually, Mexican Independence in 1821 necessitated direct rule from Spain.[ Sony VPCZ12J7E battery
Sony VPCZ12L9E/B battery23] Under direct Spanish rule, banking, industry and education flourished more than in the past two centuries. Sony SVE1511Z1E battery
Sony VGN-FW54M Battery all of whom elected a nascent Filipino nationality regardless of ethnicity. The developments also facilitated the rise of an illustrado class which espoused liberal ideas, the ideological foundations of the Philippine Revolution which sought independence from Spain. Sony VGN-NW24S Battery
American Colonial Period
The Burnham Plan of Manila. North is at the left.
After the Battle of Manila (1898), Spain ceded the surrendered city of Manila to the United States. The First Philippine Republic based at nearby Bulacan fought against the Americans for control of the city of Manila.[2Sony VGN-NW26M Battery
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Sony VGN-FW54S Battery 6] The Americans defeated the First Philippine Republic and captured president Emilio Aguinaldo who announced allegiance to the United States on April 1, 1901.
Under American control, Sony VGN-NW20SF Battery
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a new civilian oriented Insular Government headed by then Governor-General William Howard Taft invited city planner Daniel Burnham for the transformation of Manila, to adapt the old city to changed times and modern needs. Sony VGN-FW4ZTJ/H Battery
Sony VGN-FW54J Battery The Burnham Plan included development of the road system, the use of waterways for transportation, and beautification of Manila with the improvement of waterfronts, construction of parks, Sony VGN-FW51 Battery
Sony VGN-FW54E Battery parkways and various building for various activities. The latter included a government center occupying all of Wallace Field, which extends from Luneta to the present Taft Avenue. Sony VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery
Sony VGN-FW46Z Battery The Philippine Capitol was to rise at the Taft Avenue end of the field, facing toward the sea, and would form, with the buildings of different government bureaus and departments, a quadrangle, Sony VGN-FW51MF/H Battery
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lagoon in the center, and a monument to Jose Rizal at its Luneta end. Of Burnham’s proposed government center, only three units — the Legislative Building and the building of the Finance and Agricultural departments — were completed when World War II erupted. Sony VGN-FW41M/H Battery
The destruction brought about by the Battle of Manila
Due to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, American soldiers were ordered to withdraw from the city and all military installations were removed on December 24, Sony VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery
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Sony VGN-NW26EG Battery 1941. General Douglas MacArthur declared Manila an open city to prevent further death and destruction; despite this, the Japanese warplanes continued to bomb the city. Manila was occupied by the Japanese forces on January 2, 1942. Sony VGN-NW24S Battery
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Manila was also the site of the bloodiest battle in the Pacific theater during the Second World War. After falling to the Empire of Japan on January 2, 1942, it was recaptured by joint American and Filipino troops from February 3 to March 3, 1945. Sony VGN-FW56J Battery
Sony VGN-NW24MG BatterySome 100,000 civilians were killed in Manila in February 1945. It was the second most devastated city in the world after Warsaw during the Second World War. Sony SVE1512C6EB battery
Sony SVE151D11M battery At the end of World War II, almost all of the structures in the city, particularly Intramuros, were destroyed but after the war, reconstruction took place. Sony VGN-NW24EG Battery
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In 1948, President Elpidio Quirino moved the seat of government of the Philippines to Quezon City, a new capital city in the suburbs and fields northeast of Manila, created in 1938 by former President Manuel L. Quezon, which was renamed after him.[3Sony VGN-SR49VN/H Battery
Sony VGN-FW11ZU battery1] The move ended any implementation of the Burnham Plan’s intent for the government centre to be at Luneta.
Sony VGN-FW11S battery was revitalized, and once again became the “Pearl of the Orient”, a moniker it earned before the Second World War. After Mayor Lacson’s term in the 1950s, the city was led by Antonio Villegas during most of the 1960s, Sony VGN-SR57V Battery
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Sony VGN-FW11M battery and Ramon Bagatsing for nearly the entire decade of the 1970s until the 1986 People Power Revolution, making him the longest serving Mayor of Manila. Mayors Lacson, Villegas, Sony SVE1512C6EW battery
Sony SVE1713W1EB battery and Bagatsing are often collectively considered as the “Big Three of Manila” less for their rather long tenures as the city’s chief executive (continuously for over three decades, Sony VGN-SR59TH/H Battery
Sony VGN-FW11E battery from 1952–1986), but more for their indelible contribution to the development and progress of the city and their lasting legacy in uplifting the quality of life and welfare of the people of the city of Manila. Sony VGN-SR59VG/H Battery
During the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos, the region of the Greater Manila Area was created as an integrated unit with the enactment of Presidential Decree No. 824 on November 7, 1975. Sony VGN-SR59XG/H Battery
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Sony VGN-FW21M batteryThe area encompassed four cities and thirteen adjoining towns, as a separate regional unit of government. On the 405th anniversary of the city’s foundation on June 24, 1976, Sony VGN-FW56ZR Battery
Sony VGN-FW21J battery Manila was reinstated by Marcos as the capital of the Philippines for its historical significance as the seat of government since the Spanish Period. Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, Sony VGN-FW56SR Battery
Sony VGN-FW21E batterythe premier city of the Philippines being the center of trade, commerce, education and culture.
In 1992, Alfredo Lim became the mayor, and was known for his anti-crime crusades. Lim was succeeded by Atienza, who served as the vice mayor during Lim’s term. Atienza was known for his campaign (and city slogan) Sony VGN-SR49VT/H Battery
Sony VGN-NW31JF battery “Buhayin ang Maynila” (Revive Manila), which saw the establishment of several parks and the repair and rehabilitation of the city’s deteriorating facilities. He was the city’s mayor for 3 terms (9 years) before being termed out of office. Sony VGN-NW21EF/S battery
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Alfredo Lim once again ran for mayor and defeated Atienza’s son Ali in the 2007 city election and immediately reversed all of Atienza’s projects claiming Atienza’s projects made little contribution to the improvements of the city. Sony VGN-NW21MF/W battery
Sony VGN-NW21MF batteryThe relationship of both parties turned bitter, with the two pitting again during the 2010 city elections in which Lim won against Atienza.
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Among the numerous controversies surrounding Lim’s administration were the filing of human rights complaints against him and other city officials by councilor Dennis Alcoreza on 2008, the resignation of 24 city officials because of the maltreatment of Lim’s police forces, and his bloody resolution of the Manila hostage crisis, Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery
Sony VPCF13Z8E Batteryone of the deadliest hostage crisis in the Philippines. Lim was also accused of graft and corruption, believed to be the cause of the city’s bankruptcy. These allegations were later followed by a complaint on 2012 by Vice Mayor Isko Moreno and 28 city councilors Sony VPCF11D4E Battery
Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery which cited that Lim’s statement in a meeting were “life-threatening” to them. On the 2013 elections, former President Joseph Estrada defeated Lim in the mayoral race.
The skyline of the City of Manila as viewed from Harbour Square in the CCP Complex.
Sony SVE1713V1EB batteryLandsat satellite false-color photo of Manila Bay, Metro Manila and surrounding provinces.
Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila bay, which rests on the western shores of Luzon. The city lies 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) from mainland Asia.[4Sony SVE1512H1EB battery
Sony SVE1713S1EW battery0] The Pasig River bisects the city. Almost all of the city sits on top of centuries of prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the Pasig and on some land reclaimed from Manila Bay. Sony VPC-F2 Battery
The city’s land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since the American colonial times. Some of the natural variations in topography have been evened out due to the urbanization of the city. The city occupies an area of 38.55 square kilometres Sony VPCF22L1E Battery
Sony SVE1713L1EB batteryEach barangay has its own chairperson and councilors. For administrative convenience, all the barangays in Manila are grouped into 100 zones. These zones have no form of local government. Sony VPCF22S1E Battery
Manila is composed of 16 former towns and municipalities which was absorbed by the city in the 19th century. These settlements are now known as places within the city. They are further grouped into the six legislative districts of Manila. Sony VPCF23M1E Battery
Under the Köppen climate classification system, Manila features a tropical savanna climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Aw/Am). Sony SVE151E11M battery
Sony SVE1713H1EW batteryTogether with the rest of the Philippines, Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going below 20 °C (68 °F) Sony VPCF231S1E Battery
Sony VPCF13J0E/H Batteryor above 38 °C (100 °F) . However, humidity levels are usually very high all year round. It has a distinct dry season from late December through May, and a relatively lengthy and cooler wet season that covers the remaining period with mild to warm temperatures. Sony VPCF24M1E Battery
In the rainy season it rarely rains all day but the rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons can occur from June to September and can cause flooding in parts of the city. Sony SVE1511J1E battery
Largely due to industrial waste and heavy reliance on automobiles, Manila suffers from air pollution in the form of smog[4Sony VPCF11S1E Battery
Sony VPCF13E8E Battery7] which affects 98% of the residents of the city and results in more than 4,000 deaths per year. Open dump sites and industrial waste contribute to increasing pollution within the city.[5Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery
Sony VPCF13E4E Battery0] Several rivers in Manila have been considered biologically dead. The Pasig River, where 150 tons of domestic waste and 75 tons of industrial waste were dumped daily according to a report in 2003, is now one of the most polluted rivers in the world.
Lack of adequate infrastructure is one of the causes of pollution in the city. The district of Ermita is the most air polluted district in the city. Sony SVE1511X1EB battery
Rehabilitation projects are now seen in several waterways around Manila. The Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission is in charge of cleaning up the Pasig River for transportation, recreation and tourism purposes.[5Sony VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery
3] Because of rehabilitation efforts, several waterways in Manila are now cleaned-up and already lined with trees, plants and flowers instead of slums, which are now relocated in other areas.[55
Manila is the most densely populated city in the world with 43,079 inhabitants per km2. District 6 is listed as being the most dense with 68,266 inhabitants per km2, followed by the first two districts with 64,936 and 64,710, respectively, and district 5 being the least dense with 19,235. ] Sony VPCF12E1E/H Battery
Manila’s population density dwarfs that of Kolkata (27,774 inhabitants per km2), Mumbai (22,937 inhabitants per km2), Paris (20,164 inhabitants per km2), Sony VPCF13Z8E/BI Battery
Dhaka (19,447 inhabitants per km2), Shanghai (16,364 inhabitants per km2, with its most dense district, Nanshi, having a density of 56,785 inhabitants per km2), and Tokyo (10,087 inhabitants per km2). Sony VPCF12S1E/B Battery
The vernacular language is Filipino, based mostly on the Tagalog of surrounding areas, and this Manila form of speaking Tagalog has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and entertainment.
Sony VPCF13Z0E/B Battery Meanwhile, English is the language most widely used in education, business, and heavily in everyday usage throughout the Metro Manila region and the Philippines itself. A number of older residents can still speak basic Spanish, Sony VPCF12Z1E/BI Battery
Sony VPCF13M8E/B Battery which used to be a mandatory subject in the curriculum of Philippine universities and colleges, and many children of Japanese Filipino, Indian Filipino,and other migrants or expatriates also speak their parents’ languages at home, Sony VPCF13M1E/H Battery
aside from English and/or Filipino for everyday use. Minnan Chinese (known as Lannang-oe) is spoken by the city’s Chinese-Filipino community. Sony VPCF24Q1E Battery
A view of Roxas Boulevard, where the business hub of Manila is located.
Manila’s economy is diverse and multifaceted. With its excellent protected harbor, Manila serves as the chief seaport of the country. Diverse manufacturers produce industrial-related products such as chemicals, textiles, Sony VPCF23N1E Battery
Sony VPCF12S1E/B Batteryclothing, and electronic goods. Food and beverages and tobacco products also produced. Local entrepreneurs continue to process primary commodities for export, including rope, plywood, refined sugar, Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery
Sony VPCF12Z1E Battery copra, and coconut oil. The food-processing industry is one of the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city. Manila is also a major publishing center in the Philippines.
Binondo has begun to be revitalized along with Divisoria, several high-rise condominiums and offices are rising in the area. The plan to make the Chinatown area into a business process outsourcing (BPO) Sony VPCF22M0E Battery
Sony VPCF13S1E/B Batteryhub continues to progress and is being pursued by the city government of Manila. 30 buildings are already identified to be converted into BPO offices. These buildings are mostly located along the Escolta Street of Binondo, Sony SVE1511Y1E battery
Sony SVE1713F1EB batterywhich are all unoccupied and can be converted into offices.
The Port of Manila, the chief port of the country
Tourism in Manila attracts over 1 million tourists each year. Major destinations include the walled city of Intramuros, museums such as the National Museum of the Philippines, and other tourist destinations including Ermita,
Sony VGN-FW56E Battery Malate, Santa Cruz, the Manila Zoo, the City Chinatown and events such as the Feast of Black Nazarene, free performances in Rizal Park and events within the Cultural Center of the Philippines.[note 1Sony VGN-FW21L Battery
Sony VGN-FW56M Battery] Rizal Park is a major tourist attraction and one of the most recognizable icons of the Philippines. Ermita and Malate, aside from being known for its nightlife, are well-known shopping destination for the upper class while Divisoria was the shopping destination for local residents. Sony VGN-FW21M Battery
The city’s cash position in 2011 stated that Manila has ₱1.6 billion cash-at-hand while its gross operating expenses was ₱2.97 billion. The financial expenses of the city was P45 million, and has a liability of 3.3 billion.[60Sony VGN-FW31M Battery
Sony VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery] Manila has the highest budget allocation to health and was one of the cities with the highest tax revenue. Manila was also one of the cities with the highest internal revenue.
In 2012, the city was reported as bankrupt by the Commission on Audit (COA), citing: the city’s cash position of ₱1.006 billion is insufficient to pay its deficit of ₱3.553 billion; unclaimed remittances from the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS), Sony VGN-FW11ZU Battery
Sony VGN-FW46M BatteryHome Development Mutual Fund (Pag-IBIG) and the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth); and the bloating expenses for the operation of the city and its services.[6Sony VGN-FW21ZR Battery
Sony VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery3] City officials disputed the claim and stated that the city is not bankrupt. In 2013, it is confirmed by current city officials including Mayor Joseph Estrada that the city is indeed in debt, with only 242 million pesos left in its funds. Sony VGN-FW3ZJ Battery
The Basilica Minore de San Sebastian, the only all-steel church in Asia.
Residents in the city are mainly Christians, though the city welcomes all people of other faiths. Roman Catholics predominate, comprising 93.5% of the population, followed by Philippine Independent Church 2.4%,Sony VGN-FW41E/H Battery
Sony VGN-FW41J/H Battery followed by Iglesia ni Cristo, comprising 1.9% of the population followed by Protestants (1.8%) and Buddhist (1.1%). Other religions comprises the remaining 1.4% of the city’s population. Manila is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila, Sony VGN-FW31E Battery
Sony VGN-NW20EF/W Battery the oldest archdiocese in the country, and the Primate of the Philippines, whose offices were located at the Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Conception. Manila is home to three other basilicas, Sony VGN-FW31J Battery
Sony VGN-NW20EF/S Batterybesides the Manila Cathedral, namely, the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene, Minor Basilica of St. Lorenzo Ruiz and the Basilica Minore de San Sebastian. Being the seat of the Spanish colonial government in past centuries, it has been used as the base of numerous Roman Catholic missions to the Philippines. Sony VGN-FW44MR Battery
The interior of San Agustin Church in Intramuros, one of the most visited places in the city.
Other notable churches in the city include San Agustin Church in Intramuros, the shrine of the canonically crowned image of Nuestra Señora de Consolación y Correa, a UNESCO World Heritage Site,[69Sony VGN-FW11MR Battery
Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery] and a favorite wedding place of notable people and one of two fully air-conditioned churches in the city; the Binondo Church, also known as Basilica Minore de San Lorenzo Ruiz; Malate Church, the shrine of Nuestra Señora de Remedios; Sony VGN-FW11S Battery
Sony VGN-NW31JF Battery Ermita Church, home of the oldest Marian Image in the Philippines, Nuestra Señora de Guia; Tondo Church, home of the century-old ivory image of Sto. Niño (Child Jesus); and Sta. Ana Church, shrine of the canonically crowned image of Nuestra Senora de los Desamparados.
Aside from the Evangelical Christians, Manila is also the home of most of the country’s Mainline Protestants. The Pro-Cathedral of the Saint Stephen, the center of the Episcopal Diocese of Central Philippines of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines is also found in the city. Sony VGN-FW11Z Battery
Sony VGN-NW21ZF Battery The mainly Filipino revolutionary church Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippine Independent Church or Aglipayan Church) is headquartered in the city. Also, the main campus of the Cathedral of Praise is located within the city. Sony VGN-FW11ZU Battery
The city also hosts other faiths. There are many Buddhist and Taoist temples built by the Chinese community in Manila. Quiapo is home to a sizable Muslim population in Manila, where Masjid Al-Dahab is located. There is also a large Hindu temples for the Indian population, and Sikh Temples are also erected. Sony VGN-FW21SR Battery
Nightlife in Manila centres around Ermita and Malate, along with Intramuros. Areas in Binondo, the city’s Chinatown, also attract many people, while other notable areas in the city such as Quiapo and Divisoria are known for being one of the shopping center of bargain goods. Sony VGN-FW46S Battery
Sony VGN-NW21MF Battery Ermita and Malate, being a popular tourist destination, showcase a wide variety of hotels, restaurants, clubs, bars, cafes, art and antique shops. The nightlife offers everything from cultural exhibitions to discothèques, casinos, entertainment lounges, and fashionable cafes.
Annual cultural events
Manila celebrates civic and national holidays. Manila Day, which celebrates the city’s founding, was first proclaimed by Herminio A. Astorga (then Vice Mayor of Manila) on 24 June 1962 and has been annually commemorated, Sony VGN-FW46Z Battery
Sony VGN-FW54S Batteryunder the patronage of John the Baptist. Each of the city’s districts also have their own fiesta (festivals). The city is also the host to the Feast of the Black Nazarene, held every 9 January, which draws millions of Catholic devotees. Sony VGN-FW48E/H Battery
The National Museum of the Philippines
As the cultural center of the Philippines, Manila houses a number of notable museums. Bahay Tsinoy, one of Manila’s most prominent museums, documents the Chinese lives and contributions in the history of the Philippines. Sony VGN-FW56ZR Battery
Sony VGN-FW54J Battery The Intramuros Light and Sound Museum chronicles the Filipinos desire for freedom during the revolution under Rizal’s leadership and other revolutionary leaders. The Metropolitan Museum of Manila exhibits the Filipino arts and culture. The Museum of Manila is the city-owned museum that exhibits the city’s culture and history. Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery
Manila is also home to other notable museums of the country, namely the Museo Pambata, a children’s museum, the Museum of Philippine Political History, which exhibits notable political events in the country, Sony VGN-NW24S Battery
Sony VGN-NS20EF/P Batterythe National Museum of the Philippines (which includes the Museum of the Filipino People) of which exhibits life, culture and history of the country, the Parish of the Our Lady of the Abandoned and the San Agustin Church Museum, which houses religious artifacts, Plaza San Luis, Sony VGN-NW26M Battery
Sony VGN-NS30Z/S Batterya public museum, the UST Museum of Arts and Sciences and the DLS-CSB Museum of Contemporary Art and Design (MCAD), both of which are university museums dedicated to science and technology, and contemporary art respectively. Sony VGN-NW20EF Battery
Other points of interest
Numerous notable landmarks are located in Manila, such as Rizal Park and the historical Intramuros. Rizal park is a crescent-shaped 58 hectares (140 acres) park, it was erected for the country’s national hero, José Rizal. Among the attractions in Rizal Park is the Chinese and Japanese Gardens, the National Museum of the Philippines, Sony VGN-NW24JG Battery
Sony VGN-NS30E/S BatteryThe National Library of the Philippines, the Planetarium, the Orchidarium and Butterfly Pavilion, the park auditorium, a landscaped relief map of the Philippines, the fountain, the children’s lagoon, the chess plaza, the Quirino Grandstand and the Manila Ocean Park, which features a wide variety of marine animals. Sony VGN-NW24MR Battery
Sony VGN-NS20M/S BatteryThe flagpole west of the Rizal Monument is the Kilometer Zero marker for distances to the rest of the country. In the northernmost part of the city lie three cemeteries: the Loyola and Chinese cemeteries, and Manila North Cemetery, the largest public cemetery in the Manila metropolitan area. Sony VGN-NW26JG Battery
Robinsons Place Manila, a major shopping mall in the city
Manila has become a well-known shopping hub of the country and it has been named as one of the best shopping destinations in Asia.[71Sony VGN-NW21MF/P Battery
Sony VGN-NS20E/P Battery] Major shopping malls are located around the city while local and traditional shopping centers such as markets and bazaars are also located around Manila.
Robinsons Place Manila is the largest shopping mall in the city, Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery
Sony VGN-NS11J/S Battery it is located at the heart of Manila. The mall was the second and by-far, the largest Robinson Mall ever built by John Gokongwei, the mall features a wide range of local and international retail shops, dining outlets, Sony VGN-NS10E/S Battery
Sony VGN-NS10L/S Batteryentertainment facilities and service centers, it also features anchor stores such as Robinsons Supermarket, Robinsons Department Store and Robinsons Cinema.
Another shopping mall is the SM City Manila, it is the first SM Supermall in the city, it features major SM brands like the SM Department Store, SM Supermarket, SM Cinemas and SM Foodcourt, it is located right beside the Manila City Hall; Sony PCG-6P2M Battery
the mall underwent major redevelopment in 2008. SM City San Lazaro is the second SM Supermall in Manila, it is located in the district of Santa Cruz, the mall sits on what was the site of the former San Lazaro Hippodrome, a racetrack for horses. Sony PCG-6R1M Battery
Sony PCG-8X1M BatteryThe site of the original SM Department Store located at Quiapo is known today as the SM Clearance Center, which was established in 1972 and is occupying a formerly well-known hotel with a revolving restaurant atop. Other department stores still thrive throughout the city. Sony PCG-6C1M Battery
Aside from the aforementioned malls, the Tutuban Commercial Center, Lucky Chinatown Mall (Cityplace Square), 11/88 Mall, 168 Shopping Mall, and 999 Shopping Mall are some of the popular malls in the city located in Divisoria, a well-known shopping center in the country.
The traditional shopping areas of Divisoria, Binondo, and Quiapo, Sony PCG-6D1M Battery
Sony PCG-7X1M Battery is a place for local and adventurous shoppers, these areas offers bargains and cheap buys and it also offers indigenous Filipino cuisine, crafts and delicacies. Quiapo is referred as the “Old Downtown”, it has also made a name for itself as a place where cheap buys or goods are being sold at rock-bottom prices. Sony PCG-6G2M Battery
Sony PCG-7T2M Battery Binondo is the oldest Chinatown in the world, it is the district center of commerce and trade for all types of businesses run by Filipino-Chinese merchants; it offers Chinese restaurants, Filipino restaurants, and Chinese stores. Tiangge (flea market) stores are common, which are mostly concentrated on these areas to accommodate visitors. Sony PCG-6J1M Battery
Children playing basketball at Intramuros
Sports in Manila have a long and distinguished history. The city’s, and the country’s in general, main sport is basketball, Sony PCG-6L2M Battery
Sony PCG-7N2M Battery and most barangays have a makeshift basketball court, with court markings drawn on the streets. Larger barangays have covered courts; this is where interbarangay leagues are held every summer (April–May). Sony PCG-6J2M Battery
The city has several well-known sports venues, such as the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex and San Andres Gym, the home of the now defunct Manila Metrostars.[7Sony PCG-8V1M Battery
Sony PCG-7N1M Battery] The Rizal Memorial Sports Complex houses the Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium, the Baseball Stadium, Tennis Courts, Memorial Coliseum and the Ninoy Aquino Stadium (the latter two are indoor arenas). Sony PCG-8W1M Battery
The Rizal complex had hosted several multi-sport events, such as the 1954 Asian Games and the 1934 Far Eastern Games. Whenever the country hosts the Southeast Asian Games, most of the events are held at the complex, but on the 2005 Games, Sony PCG-8W2M Battery
Sony PCG-7M1M Battery most events were held elsewhere. The 1960 ABC Championship and the 1973 ABC Championship, forerunners of the FIBA Asia Championship, was hosted by the complex, with the national basketball team winning on both tournaments. The 1978 FIBA World Championship was held at the complex although the latter stages were held in the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City, Southeast Asia’s largest indoor arena. Sony PCG-7D1M Battery
Manila also hosts several well-known sports facilities such as the Enrique M. Razon Sports Center and the University of Santo Tomas Sports Complex, both of which are private venues owned by a university; collegiate sports are also held, Sony PCG-7H1M Battery
Sony PCG-7H2M Battery with the University Athletic Association of the Philippines and the National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball games held at Rizal Memorial Coliseum and Ninoy Aquino Stadium, although basketball events had transferred to San Juan’s Filoil Flying V Arena and the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City. Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery
Other collegiate sports are still held at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex. Professional basketball also used to play at the city, but the Philippine Basketball Association now holds their games at Araneta Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery
Sony VGP-BPS21A battery Coliseum and Cuneta Astrodome at Pasay; the now defunct Philippine Basketball League played some of their games at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex.
Previously a widely-played sport in the city, Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery
Sony VGP-BPS21 battery Manila is now the home of the only sizable baseball stadium in the country, at the Rizal Memorial Baseball Stadium. The stadium hosts games of Baseball Philippines; Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth were the first players to score a home run at the stadium at their tour of the country on December 2, 1934. Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery
Another popular sport in the city are cue sports, and billiard halls are a feature in most barangays. The 2010 World Cup of Pool was held at Robinsons Place Manila. Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery
The Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium hosted the first FIFA World Cup qualifier in decades when the Philippines hosted Sri Lanka in July 2011. The stadium, which was previously unfit for international matches, Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery
had undergone a major renovation program prior to the match. The Football Stadium now regularly hosts matches of the United Football League. The stadium also hosted its first rugby test when it hosted the 2012 Asian Five Nations Division I tournaments. Sony VGP-BPS13A battery
The Rizal Monument at the Luneta Park
Manila is the site of the Rizal Park. The park lies within the heart of Manila’s cultural and business district, as an honor and dedication to the country’s national hero José Rizal, who was executed in the same place
Sony VGP-BPS13B battery where the park was created by the Spaniards on charges of subversion. Manila is also the home to several plazas, such as the Plaza Balagtas and Plaza Miranda, the site of the 1971 politics-related bombings. Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery
Notable parks and green areas include the Cultural Center of the Philippines, the Rajah Sulayman Park, Manila Boardwalk, Liwasang Bonifacio, Mehan Garden, Paco Park, Remedios Circle, the Manila Zoological and Botanical Garden, Pandacan Linear Park, and the Malacañang Garden. Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery
Within the city lies the cemeteries of the Manila Chinese Cemetery, La Loma Cemetery,[note 2] the Manila South Green Park and the Manila North Green Park, notable as being the resting place of several historical figures and being the largest cemetery in the Metropolis. Both the Manila North and South Green Park are city-owned cemeteries. Sony VGP-BPS13 battery
A large number of private and public recreational areas are scattered throughout the city. Also, several playgrounds, sports facilities and gardens were erected within the city — most of these being developed in commercial areas. Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery
Within the city there are numerous shrine plazas wherein numerous historic monuments are found. Plazas also have numerous tiangge stores accommodating visitors. Plazas, unlike parks, consist of less greenery and mostly of bricked pathways. Plazas in the city are usually located in commercial and industrial places while shrines have more greenery than plazas and no tiangge.
Government Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery
The Manila City Hall and its iconic clock tower are among the region’s registered Cultural Properties.
The Mayor of Manila (Filipino: Alkalde ng Maynila) is restricted to three consecutive terms, totaling nine years, although a Mayor can be elected again after an interruption of one term. The Vice-Mayor is the Presiding Officer of the Manila City Council composed of the six elected City Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery
Sony VGP-BPL21 battery Councilors of the legislative districts; the local President of the Association of Barangay Captains; and the Sangguniang Kabataan (youth council) president. The Mayor’s office and Council seat is Manila City Hall. The civic judicial branch is administered by the Supreme Court of the Philippines under the Metro Manila judicial region. Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery
The incumbent Mayor is Joseph Estrada, former President of the Republic of the Philippines, who defeated former mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2013) in the 2013 local election. Isko Moreno is the city’s incumbent Vice-Mayor. Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery
Coat of Arms
The coat of arms of Manila is composed of the city’s modern coat-of-arms, with colours mirroring those of the National Flag. It is a modified form of the city’s colonial arms bestowed in the 16th century. Sony VGP-BPS13AB battery
The arms consist of a pre-Hispanic shield, horizontally divided into red and blue fields. The top, red half depicts the city’s nickname, “Pearl of the Orient”, while the lower, blue half is charged with a sea-lion surmounting the waves of the River Pasig and Manila Bay. Sony VGP-BPS13B battery
Sony VGP-BPS21B battery The sea-lion originally represented the islands’s former colonial status as an ultramar (overseas) possession of Spain, and is ultimately derived from the arms of the León.
The arms are surrounded by a white roundel containing the words Lungsod ng Maynila and Pilipinas (Filipino, “City of Manila”;Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery
Sony VGP-BPS21A battery “Philippines”), and six yellow stars representing the city’s six congressional districts.
Maps of Manila
The city of Manila is divided into sixteen officially-defined administrative districts, and subdivided into 897 barangays that are only known by sequential numbers instead of names.[3Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery
Sony VGP-BPS21 battery] The districts only exist for administrative convenience and do not have their own sets of elected officials. Each geographical district is further divided into officially-defined “zones,” which are clusters of two or Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery
Data presented by the National Statistics Office still do not reflect the 16-district configuration recognized by the city government of Manila. It recognizes neither the western area of Santa Ana that now belongs to the fifth congressional district of Manila as the geographical district of San Andres Bukid, Sony VGP-BPS13S battery
Sony VGP-BPL13 battery nor the area of Sampaloc south of the Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard which now belongs to the sixth congressional district as the geographical district of Santa Mesa.
Manila’s legislative districts
Aside from the division of the sixteen geographical districts, the city is also divided into the six legislative districts that serve as the constituencies for the election of the city’s representatives to the lower house of the Congress of the PhilippinesSony VGP-BPS13S battery
Sony VGP-BPL13 battery and of the regular members to the Sangguniang Panlungsod (SP; City Council). Each district elects one representative to the House of Representatives and six SP members to the council. The city, along with the rest of the nation, elects 12 senators as one at-large district. Sony PCG-81212M battery
The 1st District (2007 population: 407,331) is Manila’s (and the country’s) most densely populated congressional district. It covers the western portion of Tondo that lies along Manila Bay. Within this district, the northern Port Area is located. Sony PCG-81311M battery
The 2nd District (2007 population: 223,273) comprises the eastern inland portion of Tondo, a neighborhood known as Gagalangin.
The 3rd District (2007 population: 197,242) covers the districts of Binondo, Quiapo, San Nicolas and Santa Cruz. These areas were once the commercial and financial centres of the metropolis. The congressional district is home to the city’s Chinatown, Sony PCG-81312M battery
Sony VGN-FE11E battery and to several notable landmarks, including the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene, the Binondo Church, Avenida Rizal, and the city’s three largest burial grounds: the La Loma Cemetery, the Manila Chinese Cemetery and the Manila North Green Park. Some areas of this district is a part of the University Belt. Sony PCG-81313M battery
The 4th District (2007 population: 255,613) comprises solely the geographical district of Sampaloc, a mainly residential area. The University of Santo Tomas, along with several well-known universities is located in this district. Sony VGN-FE31M battery
The 5th District (2007 population: 315,961) consists of the geographical districts of Ermita, Malate, Port Area, Intramuros, San Andres Bukid, and a portion of Paco (zone 90). The congressional district contains some of the most historically and culturally significant landmarks and institutions in the country, Sony VGN-FE31ZR battery
Sony PCG-81411M batterysuch as the old walled city of Manila, Rizal Park, the Manila Zoo, the National Museum and a portion of the Cultural Center of the Philippines complex. The Supreme Court of the Philippines, the Court of Appeals and the World Health Organization are all in Ermita. The districts of Malate and Ermita are known for entertainment and nightlife. The three century-old college, Colegio de San Juan de Letran is located in this district. Sony VGN-FE41E battery
The 6th District (2007 population: 261,294) covers the geographical districts of Paco (except zone 90), Pandacan, San Miguel, Santa Ana and Santa Mesa. This congressional district is host to the Malacañan Palace, the official residence of the President of the Philippines and the main campus of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Sony VGN-FE41MR battery
The façade of Malacañang Palace, the official residence of the President of the Philippines
Manila, being the seat of political power of the Philippines, has several national government offices headquartered at the city. Sony VGN-FE41S battery
Sony PCG-81313M battery Planning for the development for being the center of government started during the early years of American colonization to the country when they envisioned a well-designed city outside the walls of Intramuros. Sony VGN-FE48E battery
Sony PCG-81312M batteryThe strategic location chosen was Bagumbayan, a former town which is now the Rizal Park to become the center of government and a design commission was given to Daniel Burnham to create a master plan for the city patterned after Washington D.C.. These improvements were eventually abandoned under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L. Quezon. Sony VGN-FE48M battery
A new government center was to be built on the hills northeast of Manila, or what is now Quezon City. Several government agencies have set up their headquarters in Quezon City but several key government offices still reside in Manila. However, many of the plans were substantially altered after the devastation of Manila during World War II and by subsequent administrations. Sony VGN-FE49VN battery
Façade of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
The city, as the capital, still hosts the Office of the President, as well as the president’s official residence. Aside from these, important institutions such as the Supreme Court (Kataas-taasang hukuman), the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, Sony VPCSD1S1C battery
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the Departments of Budget and Management (Kagawaran ng Pagbabadyet at Pamamahala), Finance, Health, Justice, Labor and Employment, and Tourism still call the city home. Manila also hosts important national institutions such as the National Library, National Archives, National Museum and the Philippine General Hospital. Sony VPCSA2Z9E battery
Congress previously held office at the Old Congress Building. In 1972, due to declaration of martial law, Congress was dissolved; its successor, the unicameral Batasang Pambansa, held office at the new Batasang Pambansa Complex. Sony SVE14AG18M battery
Sony SVE1711K1EW battery When a new constitution restored the bicameral Congress, the House of Representatives stayed at the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate remained at the Old Congress Building. In May 1997, Sony SVE14AE15M battery
The National Library of the Philippines is located within Rizal Park.
The center of education since the colonial period, Manila — particularly Intramuros — is home to several Philippine universities and colleges as well as its oldest ones. It served as the home of the University of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620), Sony SVE14AA11M battery
Sony SVE151C11M battery and Ateneo de Manila University (1859). Only Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620) remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc in 1927, and Ateneo left Intramuros for Loyola Heights, Quezon City (while still retaining “de Manila” in its name) in 1952.
The University of the City of Manila located at Intramuros, and Universidad De Manila located just outside the walled city, are both owned and operated by the Manila city government. The national government controls the University of the PhilippinesSony SVE171G11M battery
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Manila, the oldest of the University of the Philippines constituent universities and the center of health sciences education in the country. The city is also the site of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, the largest university in the country in terms of student population. Sony SVE171A11M battery
The University Belt refers to the area where there is a high concentration or a cluster of colleges and universities in the city and it is commonly understood as the one where the San Miguel, Quiapo and Sampaloc districts meet. Generally, Sony SVE171E13M battery
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it includes the western end of España Boulevard, Nicanor Reyes St. (formerly Morayta St.), the eastern end of Claro M. Recto Avenue (formerly Azcarraga), Legarda Avenue, Mendiola Street, and the different side streets. Each of the colleges and universities found here are at a short walking distance of each other. Sony SVE151G11M battery
Sony SVE151E11M batteryAnother cluster of colleges lies along the southern bank of the Pasig River, mostly at the Intramuros and Ermita districts, and still a smaller cluster is found at the southernmost part of Malate near the border with Pasay. Sony SVE151G13M battery
Sony SVE171E11M batteryThe high concentration of higher learning institutions makes Manila the country’s educational capital.
The Division of the City Schools of Manila, a branch of the Department of Education, refers to the city’s three-tier public education system. It governs the 71 public elementary schools, 32 public high schools and the two city-owned universities. Sony SVE171B11M battery
The city also contains the Manila Science High School, the pilot science high school of the Philippines; the National Museum, where the Spoliarium of Juan Luna is housed; the Metropolitan Museum of Manila, the premier museum of modern and contemporary visual arts; the Museo Pambata, the Children’s Museum, Sony SVE171C11M battery
a place of hands-on discovery and fun learning; and, the National Library, the repository of the country’s printed and recorded cultural heritage and other literary and information resources.
Manila LRT Purple Line’s V. Mapa Station of the Manila Light Rail Transit System. Sony SVE151D11M battery
One of the more famous modes of transportation in Manila is the jeepney. Patterned after U.S. army jeeps, these have been in use since the years immediately following World War II. Today, the Tamaraw FX, the third generation Toyota Kijang, has begun to compete directly with jeepneys. Along with buses, jeepneys and Tamaraws follow fixed routes for a set price. Sony SVE171A11M battery
On a for-hire basis, the city is served by numerous taxicabs, “tricycles” (motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the auto rickshaw), and “trisikads” or “sikads” (bicycles with a sidecars, the Philippine version of pedicabs). Sony SVE171E13M battery
In some areas, especially in the Divisoria district, motorized pedicabs are popular. Spanish-era horse-drawn calesas are still a popular tourist attraction in the streets of Binondo and Intramuros. All types of public transport are privately owned and operated under government franchise. ,sony VPCF12F4E/H battery
The city is serviced by the Manila Light Rail Transit System, popularly known as LRT, as distinct from the Manila Metro Rail Transit System, or MRT, in other parts of Metro Manila. Development of the railway system began in the 1970s under the Marcos administration, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast Asia. ,sony VPCF12M1E/H battery
,sony VGP-BPS13/B BatteryThe LRT and MRT system has undergone a multi-billion dollar expansion. Two lines provide service to the city: the LRT-1 Line (Yellow Line) that runs along the length of Taft Avenue (R-2) and Rizal Avenue (R-9), and the MRT-2 Line (Purple Line) that runs along Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard (R-6) from Santa Cruz, through Quezon City, up to Santolan in Pasig. ,sony VPCF13E8E battery
The main terminal of the Philippine National Railways lies within the city. Railways extend north to the city of San Fernando in Pampanga and south to Legazpi City in Albay, though only the southern railway is in operation.
The Port of Manila, located in the vicinity of Manila Bay, is the chief seaport of the Philippines and it is the premier international shipping gateway to the country. The city is also served by the Pasig River Ferry Service which runs on the Pasig River.
The city is also served by the Ninoy Aquino International Airport and Clark International Airport.
In 2006, Forbes magazine ranked Manila “the world’s most congested city”. Manila has become notorious for its frequent traffic jams and high densities.[84,sony PCG-7M1M Battery
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,sony PCG-7N2M Battery] Government units have taken efforts to alleviate traffic jams, including a construction of a new flyover at Sampaloc.
The Philippine General Hospital
Manila is headquarters to the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific, the World Health Organization Country Office for the Philippines, main office of the Department of Health, and several private and public hospitals and medical centers. ,sony VPCF13M1E/H battery
One of the many programs of the Department of Tourism is the promotion of medical tourism in the Philippines. Manila hosts a large number of wellness centers and spa facilities.
The Manila Health Department, which is responsible for the planning and implementation of the health programs of the city government, operates 44 health centers and lying-in facilities scattered throughout the city. Hospitals in the city are the Manila Doctors’ Hospital, ,sony VPCF24Q1E battery
,sony VPCF23M1E batteryUniversity of the Philippines – Philippine General Hospital, Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, Dr. José R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, San Lazaro Hospital, the University of Santo Tomas Hospital and the city-owned Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center. ,sony VPCF23P1E battery