The First Persian Gulf War

The First Persian Gulf War

The Iran–Iraq War, also known as the First Persian Gulf War,[26][27][28][29][30] was an armed conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, Sony SVS13AA11L Battery

Sony PCG-41414L Batterymaking it the 20th century’s longest conventional war.[31][32] It was initially referred to in English as the “Gulf War” prior to the Persian Gulf War of the early 1990s.[33] The Iran–Iraq War is considered one of the most violent conflicts since World War II.

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The Iran–Iraq War began when Iraq invaded Iran via air and land on 22 September 1980. It followed a long history of border disputes, and was motivated by fears that the Iranian Revolution Sony SVS131A11L Battery

in 1979 would inspire insurgency among Iraq’s long-suppressed Shia majority as well as Iraq’s desire to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state. Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of Iran’s revolutionary chaos and attacked without formal warning, Sony SVS131B11L Battery
hey made only limited progress into Iran and were quickly repelled; Iran regained virtually all lost territory by June 1982. Sony SVS151A11L Battery

Sony PCG-41412L Batteryt For the next six years, Iran was on the offensive.[34] A number of proxy forces participated in the war, most notably the Iranian MEK siding with Ba’athist Iraq and Iraqi Kurdish militias of KDP and PUK siding with Iran – all suffering a major blow by the end of the conflict. Sony SVS151B11L Battery


Despite calls for a ceasefire by the United Nations Security Council, hostilities continued until 20 August 1988. The war finally ended with Resolution 598, a U.N.-brokered ceasefire which was accepted by both sides. Sony SVS151G1GL Battery

Sony PCG-41411L Battery At the war’s conclusion, it took several weeks for Iranian armed forces to evacuate Iraqi territory to honour pre-war international borders set by the 1975 Algiers Agreement.[35] The last prisoners of war were exchanged in 2003.[34][36]

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The war cost both sides in lives and economic damage: half a million Iraqi and Iranian soldiers, with an equivalent number of civilians, are believed to have died, with many more injured; however, the war brought neither reparations nor changes in borders. The conflict has been compared to World War I[3Sony PCG-4121EL Battery

Sony PCG-41218L Battery7]:171 in terms of the tactics used, including large-scale trench warfare with barbed wire stretched across trenches, manned machine-gun posts, bayonet charges, human wave attacks across a no-man’s land, Sony PCG-4121FL Battery
and extensive use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas by the Iraqi government against Iranian troops, civilians, and Iraqi Kurds. At the time of the conflict, the U.N. Security Council issued statements that “chemical weapons had been used in the war. Sony PCG-4121GL Battery

Sony PCG-41217L Battery” U.N. statements never clarified that only Iraq was using chemical weapons, and according to retrospective authors “the international community remained silent as Iraq used weapons of mass destruction against Iranian[s] as well as Iraqi Kurds.”[38][39][40]
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The Iran–Iraq War was originally referred to as the Gulf War until the Persian Gulf War of 1990 and 1991, after which it was referred to as the First Persian Gulf War. The Iraq-Kuwait conflict, while originally known as the Second Persian Gulf War, Sony PCG-41211L Battery

Sony PCG-41215L Battery eventually became known simply as the Gulf War. The Iraq War from 2003 to 2011 has since been called the Second Persian Gulf War. Sony PCG-41212L Battery
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The Arvand Roud waterway on the Iran–Iraq border

Since the Ottoman–Persian Wars of the 16th and 17th centuries, Iran (known as Persia prior to 1935) and the Ottomans fought over Iraq (then known as Mesopotamia) and full control of the Arvand Roud/Shatt al-Arab waterway until the signing of the Treaty of Zuhab in 1639Sony PCG-41213L Battery
which established the final borders between Iran and Iraq.[42]:4 The Arvand Roud was considered an important channel for both states’ oil exports, and in 1937, Iran and the newly independent Iraq signed a treaty to settle the dispute. In the same year, sony PCG-4R2L battery

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Iran and Iraq both joined the Saadabad Pact, and relations between the two states remained good for decades afterwards.[43]

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The 1937 treaty recognised the Iran–Iraq border to be along the low-water mark on the Shatt’s eastern side, except at Abadan and Khorramshahr, where the frontier ran along the deep water line (thalweg). This gave Iraq control of most of waterway and required Iran to pay tolls whenever its ships used it.[43]

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In 1955, both nations joined the Baghdad Pact.[43] However, the overthrow of the Hashemites in Iraq in 1958 brought a nationalist government to power which promptly abandoned the pact. On 18 December 1959, sony PCG-4Q4L battery

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Iraq’s new leader, General Abdul Karim Qassim, declared: “We do not wish to refer to the history of Arab tribes residing in al-Ahwaz and Mohammareh [Khorramshahr]. The Ottomans handed over Mohammareh, sony PCG-4Q1L battery


sony PCG-6122L battery which was part of Iraqi territory, to Iran.” The Iraqi government’s dissatisfaction with Iran’s possession of the oil-rich Khuzestan province (which the Iraqis called Arabistan) sony PCG-6X1L battery


sony PCG-6121L battery that had a large Arabic-speaking population was not limited to rhetorical statements. Iraq began supporting secessionist movements in Khuzestan, and raised the issue of its territorial claims at an Arab League meeting, though unsuccessfully.[43]

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Iraq showed reluctance in fulfilling existing agreements with Iran—especially after Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser’s death in 1970 and the Iraqi Ba’ath Party’s rise which took power in a 1968 coup, sony PCG-6X6L battery


sony PCG-6Z4L batteryleading Iraq to take on the self-appointed role of “leader of the Arab world”. At the same time, by the late 1960s, the build-up of Iranian power under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who had gone on a military spending spree, led Iran to take a more assertive stance in the region.[43]


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In April 1969, Iran abrogated the 1937 treaty over the Arvand Roud, and as such, ceased paying tolls to Iraq when its ships used the waterway.[4sony PCG-6X7L battery


sony PCG-6Z2L battery3] The Shah justified his move by arguing that almost all river borders around the world ran along the thalweg, and by claiming that because most of the ships that used the waterway were Iranian, sony PCG-6X8L battery


sony PCG-6Z1L battery the 1937 treaty was unfair to Iran.[44]:37 Iraq threatened war over the Iranian move, but when, on 24 April 1969, an Iranian tanker escorted by Iranian warships sailed down the river, Iraq—being the militarily weaker state—did nothing.[43]

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Iran’s abrogation of the treaty marked the beginning of a period of acute Iraqi-Iranian tension that was to last until the Algiers Accords of 1975.[43sony PCG-6XAL battery

] In 1969, Saddam Hussein, Iraq’s deputy prime minister, stated: “Iraq’s dispute with Iran is in connection with Khuzestan, which is part of Iraq’s soil and was annexed to Iran during foreign rule.”[4Sony SVS13AB1GL Battery

] Soon, Iraqi radio stations began exclusively broadcasting into “Arabistan”, encouraging Arabs living in Iran and even Balūchīs to revolt against the Shah’s government.[45] Basra TV stations began showing Iran’s Khuzestan province as part of Iraq’s new province Nasiriyyah, renaming all its cities with Arabic names. Sony SVS131C1DL Battery

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In 1971, Iraq (now under Saddam’s effective rule) broke diplomatic relations with Iran after claiming sovereignty rights over the islands of Abu Musa, Greater Tunb, and Lesser Tunb in the Persian Gulf following the withdrawal of the British.[46Sony SVS131C24L Battery
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Sony PCG-61813L Battery] As retaliation for Iraq’s claims to Khuzestan, Iran became the main patron of Iraq’s Kurdish rebels in the early 1970s, giving the Iraqi Kurds bases in Iran and arming the Kurdish groups. Sony SVS131G1DL Battery

Sony PCG-61714L Battery [43] In addition to Iraq fomenting separatism in Iran’s Khuzestan and Balochistan provinces, both states encouraged separatist activities by Kurdish nationalists in the other state. From March 1974 to March 1975, Iran and Iraq fought border wars over Iran’s support of Iraqi Kurds.[43Sony SVS151C1GL Battery

Sony PCG-71C12L Battery][47] In 1975, the Iraqis launched an offensive into Iran using tanks, though the Iranians defeated them.[ Sony SVS151C2DL Battery

Sony PCG-71C11L Battery35] Several other attacks took place; however, Iran had the world’s fifth most powerful military at the time and easily defeated the Iraqis with their air force. As a result, Iraq decided against continuing the war, choosing instead to make concessions to Tehran to end the Kurdish rebellion.[43][47]
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Iranian Cobra helicopters of the Imperial Iranian Airforce, circa 1970s

In the 1975 Algiers Agreement, Iraq made territorial concessions—including the Shatt al-Arab waterway—in exchange for normalised relations.[4Sony SVS151E1GL Battery
Sony PCG-61A13L Battery3] In return for Iraq recognising that the frontier on the waterway ran along the entire thalweg, Iran ended its support of Iraq’s Kurdish guerrillas.[43] Iraqis viewed the Algiers Agreement as humiliating.[43] Sony PCG-61A11L Battery
[48]:260 However, the agreement meant the end of Iranian and American support for the Peshmerga, who were defeated by Iraq’s government in a short campaign that claimed 20,000 lives.[4Sony PCG-61913L Battery

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8]:298 The British journalist Patrick Brogan wrote that “…the Iraqis celebrated their victory in the usual manner, by executing as many of the rebels as they could lay their hands on.”[48]:298

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The relationship between the governments of Iran and Iraq briefly improved in 1978, when Iranian agents in Iraq discovered plans for a pro-Soviet coup d’état against Iraq’s government. When informed of this plot, Sony PCG-71713L Battery

Saddam ordered the execution of dozens of his army’s officers and in a sign of reconciliation, expelled Ruhollah Khomeini, an exiled leader of clerical opposition to the Shah, from Iraq. Despite that, Sony PCG-71811L Battery
Sony PCG-61713L BatterySaddam merely considered the Algiers Agreement to be a truce, rather than a definite settlement and waited for the opportunity to contest it.[contradiction][35][49]

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Iraqi 25-dinar note, as with the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah depicted in the background

Tensions between Iraq and Iran were fueled by Iran’s Islamic revolution and its appearance of being a Pan-Islamic force, Sony PCG-71912L Battery
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Sony SVE171G112 Battery in contrast to Iraq’s Arab nationalism. Despite Iraq’s goals of regaining the Shatt al-Arab,[note 1] the Iraqi government seemed to initially welcome Iran’s Revolution, which overthrew Iran’s Shah, Sony PCG-71914L Battery

Sony SVE171E12L Batterywho was seen as a common enemy.[43][49] It is difficult to pinpoint when tensions began to build, but there were some cross border skirmishes, including when Iraqi aircraft bombed an Iranian village that anti-Iraqi Kurds allegedly hid in on June 1979.[50]

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After this incident, the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini called on Iraqis to overthrow the Ba’ath government, Sony PCG-91311L Battery

Sony SVE171C11L Battery and it was received with considerable anger in Baghdad.[43] On 17 July 1979, despite Khomeini’s call, Saddam gave a speech praising the Iranian Revolution and called for an Iraqi-Iranian friendship based on non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.[43
Sony SVE151J11L Battery] When Khomeini rejected Saddam’s overture by calling for Islamic revolution [35] in Iraq, Saddam was alarmed.[4Sony SVE141C11L Battery

Sony SVE151G13L Battery] Iran’s new Islamic administration was regarded in Baghdad as an irrational, existential threat to the Ba’ath government, especially because the Ba’ath party, having a secular nature, discriminated and posed a threat to the Shia movement in Iraq, Sony SVE141D11L Battery

Sony SVE151G11L Batterywhose clerics were Iran’s allies within Iraq and whom Khomeini saw as oppressed.[
Sony SVE151E11L Battery] Some scholars have argued that Iranian-backed attacks and cross-border raids on Iraqi territory compelled Iraq to launch a preemptive invasion.[51]

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However, Iraq’s regime was very politically secure, and in little danger of being overthrown by alleged plots of revolution-wracked Iran.[3Sony PCG-91112L Battery
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5] According to some sources, Khomeini’s hostility towards Saddam was actually milder than his Arab neighbors hostility towards Saddam.[5Sony PCG-71311L Battery
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Sony PCG-61317L Battery2] Saddam’s primary interest in war stemmed from his desire to right the supposed “wrong” of the Algiers Agreement, in addition to finally achieving his desire of annexing Khuzestan and becoming the regional superpower.[3Sony PCG-71217L Battery

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5] Saddam’s goal was to replace Egypt as the “leader of the Arab world” and to achieve hegemony over the Persian Gulf.[53] He saw Iran’s increased weakness due to revolution, sanctions, and international isolation.[4Sony PCG-71313L Battery

Sony PCG-61315L Battery5] Saddam had heavily invested in Iraq’s military since his defeat against Iran in 1975, buying large amounts of weaponry from the Soviet Union and France. By 1980, Iraq possessed 200,000 soldiers, Sony PCG-71315L Battery

Sony PCG-61312L Battery 2,000 tanks and 450 aircraft.[49]:1 Watching the powerful Iranian army that frustrated him in 1974–1975 disintegrate, he saw an opportunity to attack, using the threat of Islamic Revolution as a pretext.[49][54]

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A successful invasion of Iran would enlarge Iraq’s petroleum reserves and make Iraq the region’s dominant power. With Iran engulfed in chaos, an opportunity for Iraq to annex the oil-rich Khuzestan Province materialized.[4Sony PCG-71317L Battery

Sony PCG-61215L Battery8]:261 In addition, Khuzestan’s large ethnic Arab population would allow Saddam to pose as a liberator for Arabs from Persian rule.[48]:260 Fellow Gulf states such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait (despite being hostile to Iraq) Sony PCG-71318L Battery

Sony PCG-61211L Battery encouraged Iraq to attack, as they feared that an Islamic revolution would take place within their own borders. Certain Iranian exiles also helped convince Saddam that if he invaded, the fledgling Islamic republic would quickly collapse.[35]
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In 1979–80, Iraq was the beneficiary of an oil boom that saw it take in US$33 billion, which allowed Iraq’s government to go on a spending spree on both civilian and military projects.[43] On several occasions, Sony PCG-71215L BatterySaddam alluded to the Islamic conquest of Iran in promoting his position against Iran. For example, on 2 April 1980, half a year before the war’s outbreak, in a visit to Baghdad’s ‪al-Mustansiriya University, he drew parallels to Persia’s defeat at the 7th century Battle of al-Qādisiyyah:

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In your name, brothers, and on behalf of the Iraqis and Arabs everywhere we tell those Persian cowards and dwarfs who try to avenge al-Qadisiyah that the spirit of al-Qadisiyah as well as the blood and honor of the people of al-Qadisiyah who carried the message on their spearheads are greater than their attempts.[55]

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In 1979–1980, anti-Ba’ath riots arose in the Iraq’s Shia areas by groups who were workings toward an Islamic revolution in their country.[43Sony PCG-3B1L Battery

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] Saddam and his deputies believed that the riots had been inspired by the Iranian Revolution and instigated by Iran’s government.[3Sony PCG-3B2L Battery
Sony PCG-3H3L Battery5] On 10 March 1980, when Iraq declared Iran’s ambassador persona non-grata, and demanded his withdrawal from Iraq by 15 March,[58] Iran replied by downgrading its diplomatic ties to the charge d’affaires level, Sony PCG-3B3L Battery
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and demanded that Iraq withdraw their ambassador from Iran. In April 1980, Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr and his sister Amina Haydar (better known as Bint al-Huda) were hanged as part of a crackdown to restore Saddam’s control. Sony PCG-3C2L Battery

Sony PCG-3H1L Battery The execution of Iraq’s most senior Ayatollah caused outrage throughout the Islamic world, especially among Shias.[43]
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Iraq soon after expropriated the properties of 70,000 civilians believed to be of Iranian origin and expelled them from its territory.[52Sony PCG-3C3L Battery

Sony PCG-3G3L Battery] Many, if not most, of those expelled were in fact Arabic-speaking Iraqi Shias who had little to no family ties with Iran.[59] This caused tensions between the two nations to increase further.[52]
Sony PCG-3B1L BatteryMap of Baathist Iraq’s hegemonic, ideological and territorial ambitions. Saddam Hussein wanted Iraq to be the leader of the Arab World and the Persian Gulf

In April 1980, Shia militants assassinated 20 Ba’ath officials, and Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz was almost assassinated on 1 April;[4Sony PCG-3D3L Battery

Sony PCG-3F4L Battery3] Aziz survived, but 11 students were killed in the attack.[35] Three days later, the funeral procession being held to bury the students was bombed.[60] Iraqi Information Minister Latif Nusseif al-Jasim also barely survived assassination by Shia militants.[ Sony PCG-3D4L Battery

Sony PCG-3F3L Battery43] The Shias’ repeated calls for the overthrow of the Ba’ath party and the support they allegedly received from Iran’s new government led Saddam to increasingly perceive Iran as a threat that, if ignored, Sony PCG-3F2L Batterymight one day overthrow him;[43] he thus used the attacks as pretext for attacking Iran later that September,[60] though skirmishes along the Iran–Iraq border had already become a daily event by May that year.[43]

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Iraq also helped to instigate riots among Iranian Arabs in Khuzestan province,[49] supporting them in their labor disputes,[49Sony PCG-3F1L Battery
] and turning uprisings into armed battles between Iran’s Revolutionary Guards and militants, killing over 100 on both sides.[clarification needed] At times, Iraq also supported armed rebellion by the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran in Kurdistan.[6Sony PCG-9Z1L Battery
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1][62] The most notable of such events was the Iranian Embassy siege in London, in which six armed Khuzestani Arab insurgents took the Iranian Embassy’s staff as hostages,[63][64] resulting in an armed siege that was finally ended by Britain’s Special Air Service.

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According to former Iraqi general Ra’ad al-Hamdani, the Iraqis believed that in addition to the Arab revolts, the Revolutionary Guards would be drawn out of Tehran, leading to a counter-revolution in Iran that would cause Khomeini’s government to collapse and thus ensure Iraqi victory.[6Sony PCG-9Z2L Battery

5] However, rather than turning against the revolutionary government as experts had predicted, Iran’s people (including Iranian Arabs) rallied in support of their country and put up a stiff resistance.[35][49][66]

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Iraqi preparations[edit]

Iraq began planning offensives, confident that they would succeed. Iran lacked both cohesive leadership and spare parts for their American-made equipment. Iraq, on the other hand, possessed a fully equipped and trained modern military, Sony PCG-7142L Battery

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consisting of 190,000 men, 2,200 tanks, and 450 aircraft. The Iraqis could mobilise up to 12 mechanised divisions, and morale was running high. Through the 1970s, Saddam had armed his forces with the most advanced material available from the Soviet Union.[49]

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In addition, the area around the Shatt al-Arab posed no obstacle for the Iraqis, as they were armed with Soviet equipment to cross rivers. Iraq correctly deduced that Iran’s defences at the crossing points around the Kharkeh and Karoun Rivers were undermanned and that the rivers
Sony PCG-51411L Batterycould be easily crossed. Iraqi intelligence was also informed that the Iranian forces in Khuzestan (which consisted of two divisions prior to the revolution) now only consisted of several ill-equipped battalions. Only a handful of company-sized tank units remained operational.[49] Sony PCG-7152L Battery
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The only qualms the Iraqis had were over the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (formerly the Imperial Iranian Air Force). Despite the purge of several key pilots and commanders as well as the lack of spare parts, Sony PCG-7154L Battery
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Sony PCG-51312L Batterythe air force showed its power during local uprisings and rebellions. They were also active after the failed U.S. attempt to rescue its hostages, Operation Eagle Claw. As such, Iraq’s leaders decided to carry out a surprise airstrike against the Iranian air force’s infrastructure prior to the main invasion.[49]
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Iranian preparations[edit]

In Iran, severe officer purges (including numerous executions ordered by Sadegh Khalkhali, the new Revolutionary Court judge), and shortages of spare parts for Iran’s U.S.-made equipment had crippled Iran’s once-mighty military. Sony PCG-7162L Battery

Sony PCG-51211L Battery Between February and September 1979, Iran’s government executed 85 senior generals and forced all major-generals and most brigadier-generals into early retirement.[4Sony PCG-7171L Battery

Sony PCG-51113L Battery3] By September 1980, the government had purged 12,000 army officers.[43] These purges resulted in a drastic decline in the Iranian military’s operational capacities.[43] Their regular army (which, in 1978, Sony PCG-7172L Battery
was considered the world’s fifth most powerful)[67] had been badly weakened by purges and lack of spare parts. The desertion rate had reached 60%, and the officer corps was devastated. The most highly skilled soldiers and aviators were exiled, Sony PCG-7173L Battery
imprisoned, or executed. Throughout the war, Iran never managed to fully recover from this human capital flight.[6Sony PCG-7174L Battery

Sony PCG-51111L Battery8] Continuous sanctions prevented Iran from acquiring many heavy weapons, such as tanks and aircraft. When the invasion occurred, many pilots and officers were released from prison,
Sony PCG-41112L Battery or had their executions commuted to combat the Iraqis. In addition, many junior officers were promoted to generals, resulting in the army being more integrated as a part of the regime by the war’s end, as it is today.[6Sony PCG-7181L Battery
8] Iran still had at least 1,000 operational tanks and several hundred functional aircraft, and could cannibalize equipment to procure spare parts.[69]
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Meanwhile, a new paramilitary organisation gained prominence in Iran, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (often shortened to Revolutionary Guards, and known in Iran as the Sepah-e-Pasdaran),[7
Sony PCG-21313L Battery0] which intended to protect the new regime and counterbalance the decaying army. Despite having been trained as a paramilitary organisation, after the Iraqi invasion, they were forced to act as a regular army. Initially, Sony PCG-7182L Battery
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Sony PCG-8151L Batterythey refused to fight alongside the army, which resulted in many defeats, but, by 1982, the two groups began carrying out combined operations.[69] Another paramilitary militia was founded in response to the invasion, the “Army of 20 Million”, commonly known as the Basij.[7Sony PCG-7184L Battery

Sony PCG-8141L Battery1] The Basij were poorly armed and had members as young as 14 and as old as 70. They often acted in conjunction with the Revolutionary Guard, launching so-called human wave attacks and other campaigns against the Iraqis.[7Sony PCG-7185L Battery
Sony PCG-8131L Battery1] They were subordinate to the Revolutionary Guards, and they made up most of the manpower that was used in the Revolutionary Guard’s attacks.[35]
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Border conflicts leading to war[edit]

By September, skirmishes between Iran and Iraq were increasing in number. Iraq began to grow bolder,
Sony VPCF111FX batteryboth shelling and launching border incursions in disputed territories.[35] Iran responded by shelling several Iraqi border towns and posts, though this did little to alter the situation on the ground. Sony PCG-81111L Battery

Sony VPCF116FX battery By 10 September, Saddam declared that the Iraqi Army had “liberated” all disputed territories within Iran.[35] With the conclusion of the “liberating operations”, on 17 September, in a statement addressed to Iraq’s parliament, Saddam stated:

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The frequent and blatant Iranian violations of Iraqi sovereignty…have rendered the 1975 Algiers Agreement null and void… Sony PCG-81113L Battery

Sony VPCF11KFX battery This river [Shatt al-Arab]…must have its Iraqi-Arab identity restored as it was throughout history in name and in reality with all the disposal rights emanating from full sovereignty over the river…We in no way wish to launch war against Iran.[35]
Sony VPCF112FX batteryAn armed Iranian militia woman in front of a mosque during the Iraqi invasion of Khorramshahr, September–October 1980

Despite Saddam’s claim that Iraq did not want war with Iran, the next day his forces proceeded to attack Iranian border posts in preparation for the planned invasion.[3Sony PCG-81114L Battery
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Sony VPCF117FX battery5] Iraq’s 7th Mechanised and 4th Infantry Divisions attacked the Iranian border posts leading to the cities of Fakkeh and Bostan, opening the route for future armoured thrusts into Iran. Sony PCG-81311L Battery

Sony VPCF11DGX battery Weakened by internal chaos, Iran was unable to repel the attacks; which in turn lead to Iraq becoming more confident in its military edge over Iran and prompting them to believe in a quick victory.[35]

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Geographic analysis[edit]


The mountainous border between Iran and Iraq made a deep ground invasion almost impossible,[7
Sony VPCF11LFX battery2] and air strikes were used instead. The invasion’s first waves were a series of air strikes targeted at Iranian airfields. Iraq also attempted to bomb Tehran, Iran’s capital and command centre, into submission.[43][73]
Sony VPCF113FX batteryLocation of Khūzestān Province in Iran

Main articles: Operation Kaman 99, Operation Scorch Sword, and Operation Sultan 10
Sony VPCF11FGX batteryDestroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain

Iraq launched a full-scale invasion of Iran on 22 September 1980. The Iraqi Air Force launched surprise air strikes on ten Iranian airfields with the objective of destroying the Iranian Air Force.[4Sony PCG-81313L Battery

Sony VPCF11MFX battery3] The attack damaged some of Iran’s airbase infrastructure, but failed to destroy a significant number of aircraft: the Iraqi Air Force was only able to strike in depth with a few MiG-23BN, Tu-22, and Su-20 aircraft. Three MiG-23s managed to attack Tehran, striking its airport but destroyed only a few aircraft.[73]
Sony VPCF11JFX batteryBuildings destroyed by battle in the Iranian city of Abadan

The next day, Iraq launched a ground invasion of Iran along a front measuring 644 km (400 mi) in three simultaneous attacks.[43Sony PCG-81314L Battery
Sony VPCF115FM battery] The invasion’s purpose, according to Saddam, was to blunt the edge of Khomeini’s movement and to thwart his attempts to export his Islamic revolution to Iraq and the Persian Gulf states.[60Sony PCG-81411L Battery
] Saddam hoped that by annexing Khuzestan, he would send such a blow to Iran’s prestige that it would lead to the new government’s downfall, or, at very least, end Iran’s calls for his overthrow.[43]

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Of Iraq’s six divisions that were invading by ground, four were sent to Khuzestan, which was located near the border’s southern end, to cut off the Arvand Roud[note 1] from the rest of Iran and to establish a territorial security zone.[43]: Sony VPCF11NFX battery

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22 The other two divisions invaded across the northern and central part of the border to prevent an Iranian counter-attack.[4Sony VPCF119GX battery

Sony VPCF11PFX battery3] Two of the four Iraqi divisions, one mechanised and one armoured, operated near the southern end and began a siege of the strategically important port cities of Abadan and Khorramshahr.[43]:22
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The other two divisions, both armoured, secured the territory bounded by the cities of Khorramshahr, Ahvaz, Susangerd, and Musian.[4Sony VPCF1190X battery
Sony VPCF11BFX battery3]:22 On the central front, the Iraqis occupied Mehran, advanced towards the foothills of the Zagros Mountains, and were able to block the traditional Tehran–Baghdad invasion route by securing territory forward of Qasr-e Shirin, Iran.[4Sony VPCF11AFX battery
3]:23 On the northern front, the Iraqis attempted to establish a strong defensive position opposite Suleimaniya to protect the Iraqi Kirkuk oil complex.[43sony VPCEB3AFM battery


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]:23 Iraqi hopes of an uprising by the ethnic Arabs of Khuzestan failed to materialise, as most of the ethnic Arabs remained loyal to Iran.[4sony VPCEB42FM battery

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sony VPCEB17FX battery3] The Iraqi troops advancing into Iran in 1980 were described by Patrick Brogan as “badly led and lacking in offensive spirit”.[48]:261 The first known chemical weapons attack by Iraq on Iran probably took place during the fighting around Susangerd.[74]


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Though the Iraqi air invasion surprised the Iranians, the Iranian air force retaliated with an attack against Iraqi military bases and infrastructure in Operation Kaman 99 (Bow 99). Groups of F-4 Phantom and F-5 Tiger fighter jets attacked targets throughout Iraq, sony VPCEA46FM battery

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such as oil facilities, dams, petrochemical plants, and oil refineries, and included Mosul Airbase, Baghdad, and the Kirkuk oil refinery. Iraq was taken by surprise at the strength of the retaliation, as Iran took few losses while the Iraqis took heavy defeats and economic disruptions.


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The Iranian force of AH-1 Cobra helicopter gunships began attacks on the advancing Iraqi divisions, sony VPCEB33FMbattery

along with F-4 Phantoms armed with Maverick missiles;[35] they destroyed numerous armoured vehicles and impeded the Iraqi advance, though not completely halting it.[75sony VPCEB32FMbattery


sony VPCEB12FX battery][76] Iran had discovered that a group of two or three F-4 low-flying Phantoms could hit targets almost anywhere in Iraq.[ sony VPCEB11FM battery


sony VPCEB11GX battery49] Meanwhile, Iraqi air attacks on Iran were repulsed by Iran’s F-14 Tomcat interceptor fighter jets, using Phoenix missiles, which downed a dozen of Iraq’s Soviet-built fighters in the first two days of battle.[75][dubious – discuss]

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The Iranian regular military, police forces, volunteer Basij, and Revolutionary Guards all conducted their operations separately; thus, the Iraqi invading forces did not face coordinated resistance.[43sony VPCEH14FM battery


sony VPCEB14FX battery] However, on 24 September, the Iranian Navy attacked Basra, Iraq, destroying two oil terminals near the Iraqi port Faw, sony VPCEH25FM battery


sony VPCEB11FX batterywhich reduced Iraq’s ability to export oil.[43] The Iranian ground forces (primarily consisting of the Revolutionary Guard) retreated to the cities, where they set up defences against the invaders.[77]

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On 30 September, Iran’s air force launched Operation Scorch Sword, striking and badly damaging the Osirak nuclear reactor near Baghdad.[43]

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The battle began with Iraqi air raids against key points and mechanised divisions advancing on the city in a crescent-like formation. They were slowed by Iranian air attacks and Revolutionary Guard troops with recoilless rifles, sony SVE1513RCXS battery


sony SVE15113FXS batteryrocket-propelled grenades, and Molotov cocktails.[78] The Iranians flooded the marsh areas around the city, forcing the Iraqis to traverse through narrow strips of land.[78] Iraqi tanks launched attacks with no infantry support, and many tanks were lost to Iranian anti-tank teams.[78sony SVE15137CXS battery


sony SVE15112FXS battery] However, by 30 September, the Iraqis had managed to clear the Iranians from the outskirts of the city. The next day, the Iraqis launched infantry and armoured attacks into the city. sony SVE15138CXS battery


sony SVE1511KFXW batteryAfter heavy house-to-house fighting, the Iraqis were repelled. On 14 October, the Iraqis launched a second offensive. The Iranians launched a controlled withdrawal from the city, street by street.[ sony SVE15132CXS battery


sony SVE1511HFXW battery78] By 24 October, most of the city was captured, and the Iranians evacuated across the Karun River. Some partisans remained, and fighting continued until 10 November.


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Iraqi advance stalls[edit]

Main articles: Siege of Abadan and Operation Morvarid

The people of Iran, rather than turning against their still-weak Islamic Republic, rallied around their country to resist invasion. An estimated 200,000 fresh troops had arrived at the front by November, many of them ideologically committed volunteers.[66]


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Though Khorramshahr was finally captured, the battle had delayed the Iraqis enough to allow the large-scale deployment of the Iranian military.[43] sony SVE1512GCXW battery


sony SVE1511CFXS battery In November, Saddam ordered his forces to advance towards Dezful and Ahvaz, and lay sieges to both cities. However, the Iraqi offensive had been badly damaged by Iranian militias and air power. sony SVE15125CXS battery

Iran’s air force had destroyed Iraq’s army supply depots and fuel supplies, and was strangling the country through an aerial siege.[ sony SVE15115MFXS battery

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75] On the other hand, Iran’s supplies had not been exhausted, despite sanctions, and they often cannibalised spare parts from other equipment and began searching for more parts on the black market.


sony SVE1511BGXS batteryOn 28 November, Iran launched Operation Morvarid (Pearl), a combined air and sea attack which destroyed 80% of Iraq’s navy and all of their radar sites in the southern portion of the country.


sony SVE1511AFXS batteryWhen Iraq laid siege to Abadan and dug their troops in around the city, they were unable to blockade the port, which allowed Iran to resupply Abadan by sea.[79]


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Iraq’s strategic reserves had been depleted, and by now they lacked the power to go on any major offensives until nearly the end of the war.[43] On 7 December, Hussein announced that Iraq was going on the defensive.[43]

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For the next eight months, both sides were to be on a defensive footing (with the exception of the Battle of Dezful), as the Iranians needed more time to reorganise their forces and the damage inflicted by the purge of 1979–80.[4sony SVE15126CXS battery

3] During this period, fighting consisted mainly of artillery duels and raids.[43] Iraq had mobilised 21 divisions for the invasion, while Iran countered with only 13 regular army divisions and one brigade. sony SVE15114FXS battery


Of the regular divisions, only seven were deployed to the border. The war bogged down into World War I-style trench warfare with tanks and modern late-20th century weapons. Due to the power of anti-tank weapons such as the RPG-7, sony SVE15115FXS battery


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sony SVE14A390X batteryarmored maneuver by the Iraqis was very costly, and they consequently entrenched their tanks into static positions.[35][69]


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Iraq also began firing Scud missiles into the cities of Dezful and Ahvaz and used terror bombing to bring the war to the Iranian civilian population.[79] Iran launched dozens of human wave assaults.

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1981: Stalemate[edit]

Battle of Dezful[edit]

Main article: Battle of Dezful

On 5 January 1981, Iran had reorganised its forces enough to launch a large-scale offensive, Operation Nasr (Victory).[78][80sony SVE1511NFXS battery


sony SVE1511RFX battery][81] The Iranians launched their major armoured offensive at Susangerd, consisting of the 16th Qazvin and the 77th Khorasan armoured divisions,[81] and broke through Iraqi lines.[43


sony SVE1522CX battery]:32 However, the Iranian tanks had raced through Iraqi lines with their flanks unprotected and with no infantry support;[35] as a result, they were cut off by Iraqi tanks.[43] In the ensuing Battle of Dezful, the Iranian division was nearly wiped out in one of the biggest tank battles of the war.[4sony SVE1512HCXS battery


sony SVE1513KCXS battery3] When the Iranian tanks tried to manoeuvre, they became stuck in the mud of the marshes, and many tanks were abandoned.[78] The Iraqis lost 45 T-62 tanks, while the Iranians lost 100-200 Chieftain and M-60 tanks. sony SVE1512JCXW battery


sony SVE151390X battery Reporters counted roughly 150 destroyed or deserted Iranian tanks, and also 40 Iraqi tanks.[43] 141 Iranians were killed during this battle.[81]


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The battle had been ordered by Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr, who was hoping that a victory might shore up his deteriorating political position; instead, the failure hastened his fall.[4


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3]:71 Many of Iran’s problems took place because of political infighting between President Banisadr, who supported the regular army, and the hardliners who supported the IRGC. Once he was impeached and the competition ended, sony SVE1512KCXS battery


sony SVE1513JCXW battery the performance of the Iranian military improved. Iran was further distracted by internal fighting between the regime and the Islamic Marxist Mujaheddin e-Khalq(MEK) on the streets of Iran’s major cities in June 1981 and again in September.[48


sony SVE1513HCXS battery]:250–251 After the end of these battles, the MEK gradually leaned towards Saddam Hussein, completely taking his side by the mid-1980s.[clarification needed] The Battle of Dezful became a critical battle in Iranian military thinking. sony SVE1513APXS battery

sony SVE1513BCXS batteryLess emphasis was placed on the Army with its conventional tactics, and more emphasis was placed on the Revolutionary Guard with its unconventional tactics.[78][82]

Attack formation of six Iranian F-4 Phantoms during the airstrike on Iraqi Kirkuk Refinery

Attack on H3[edit] sony SVE1511RFX battery


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Main article: Attack on H3

The Iraqi Air Force, badly damaged by the Iranians, was moved to the H-3 Airbase in Western Iraq, near the Jordanian border and away from Iran. sony SVE14A35CXH battery


sony SVE1411JFX battery However, on 3 April 1981, the Iranian air force used eight F-4 Phantom fighter bombers, four F-14 Tomcats, three Boeing 707 refuelling tankers, and one Boeing 747 command plane to launch a surprise attack on H3, destroying 27–50 Iraqi fighter jets.[83]

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Despite the successful H-3 airbase attack (in addition to other air attacks), in April, the Iranian Air Force was forced to cancel its successful 180-day air offensive against Iraq. In addition, they gave up trying to hold total control of Iranian airspace. sony SVE14A190X battery


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Due to the heavy toll of sanctions and pre-war purges, the Iranian air force could not suffer further heavy attrition, and made the decision in order to limit their losses. They were also damaged by a fresh purge, after the impeachment crisis of President Banisadr.[8sony SVE14A390X battery


sony SVE14138CX battery4] The Iranian air force would fight heavily on the defensive, trying to hold back the Iraqis rather than engaging them. While throughout 1981–1982 the Iraqi air force would remain weak, within the next few years they would rearm and expand again, and begin to regain the strategic initiative.[85] sony SVE1411CFXW battery


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Iran introduces the human wave attack[edit]



Iranian woman ties headband around combatant’s head before he leaves for the front

Since the Iranians suffered from a shortage of heavy weapons[69]:225 but had a large number of devoted volunteer troops, sony SVE1412BCXB battery


sony SVE14A13TCX batterythey began using human wave attacks against the Iraqis. Typically, an Iranian assault would consist of the following: First, the poorly trained Basij would launch the primary human wave assaults to swamp the weakest portions of the Iraqi lines en masse (on some occasions even bodily clearing minefields).[69] sony SVE14117FXB battery


sony SVE14A13CCX battery [86] They would be followed up by the more experienced Revolutionary Guard infantry, who would breach the weakened Iraqi lines.[69][7sony SVE1437CXB battery


sony SVE14A11EGX battery7] Afterwards, the regular army using mechanized forces would maneuver through the breach and encircle and defeat the enemy.[69][78] sony SVE14132PXB battery


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According to historian Stephen C. Pelletiére, the idea of Iranian “human wave attacks” were a misconception. Instead, the Iranian tactics consisted of using groups of 22 man infantry squads which moved forward to attack specific objectives. sony SVE141190X battery


sony SVE14A11BFX batteryAs the squads surged forward to execute their missions, that gave the impression of a “human wave attack”. Nevertheless, the idea of “human wave attacks” remained virtually synonymous with any large-scale infantry frontal assault Iran carried out.[ sony SVE141290X battery


sony SVE14A15FX battery87] Large amounts of troops would be used, aimed at overwhelming the Iraqi lines (usually the weakest portion manned by the Iraqi Popular Army) regardless of losses.[69]


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According to the former Iraqi general Ra’ad al-Hamdani, the Iranian human waves charges consisted of armed “civilians” who carried most of their necessary equipment themselves into battle and often lacked command and control and logistics.[6sony SVE141930X battery

sony SVE14A25CX battery5] However, Iranian tactics also were sophisticated as well.[69][77] Operations were often carried out during the night, and deception operations, infiltrations, and manoeuvres became more common.[79]

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The Iranians attempted to add the element of surprise to most of their attacks, differing them from those in World War I.[ sony SVE14126CX battery

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sony SVE17137CXB battery35] During 1982, Iran used the same marshes that proved fatal to their tank forces during the Battle of Dezful to infiltrate to the rear of the Iraqi lines.[ sony SVE14135CX battery


sony SVE171290X battery77] The Iranians would reinforce the infiltrating forces with new units to keep up their momentum. Once a weak point was found, the Iranians would concentrate all of their forces into that area in an attempt to break through with human waves attacks.[65]

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The human wave attacks, while extremely bloody (tens of thousands of troops died in the process),[86sony SVE14112FX battery


sony SVE17135CXB battery] when used in combination with infiltration and surprise caused major Iraqi defeats. As the Iraqis would dig in their tanks and infantry into static, entrenched positions, the Iranians would manage to break through the lines and encircle entire divisions.[6sony SVE1713ACXB battery

9] Merely the fact that the Iranian forces used maneuver warfare using their light infantry against static Iraqi defenses was often the decisive factor in the battle.[7sony SVE1713BCXB battery

7] However, lack of coordination between the Army and IRGC and shortages of heavy weaponry did play a detrimental role, with most of the infantry not supported by artillery and armor.[69][77]


sony SVE17132CXB batteryTriumphant Iranian soldiers atop destroyed Iraqi vehicle

Operation Eighth Imam[edit]

Main article: Operation Eighth Imam

For about a year after the Iraqi offensive stalled in March 1981, there was little change in the front other than Iran retaking the high ground above Susangerd in May. sony SVE1713CCXB battery

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sony SVE17127CXB battery However, by late 1981, Iran returned to the offensive and the Iraqi military was forced to retreat. Iran launched a new operation, Operation Samen-ol-A’emeh (The Eighth Imam),[88


sony SVE17125CXB battery] ending the Iraqi Siege of Abadan on 27–29 September 1981.[43]:9 The Iranians used a combined force of regular army artillery with small groups of armor, supported by Pasdaran and Basij infantry.[84]


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Operation Jerusalem Way[edit]

Main article: Operation Jerusalem Way

By the fall of 1981, serious problems with morale had developed in the Iraqi Army, with many soldiers seeing no point to the invasion.[43]


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On 29 November 1981, Iran began Operation Tariq al-Qods (Jerusalem Way) with three army brigades and seven Revolutionary Guard brigades. The Iraqis failed to properly patrol their occupied areas, and the Iranians constructed a 14 km sony SVE1713ECXB battery

sony SVE1712ACXB battery (14,000 m) road through the unguarded sand dunes, infiltrating in and launching their attack from the Iraqi rear.[78] The battle saw the town of Bostan being retaken from Iraqi divisions by 7 December.[43Sony VAIO VPCSB490S battery

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]:10 Operation Jerusalem Way also saw the first use of the Iranian “human wave” tactics, where the Revolutionary Guard light infantry charged at Iraqi positions repeatedly, oftentimes without the support of armour or air power.[ Sony VAIO VPCSE25FD battery


Sony VAIO SVS151190S battery43] The fall of Bostan exacerbated the Iraqis’ logistical problems, forcing them to use a roundabout route from Ahvaz far to the south to resupply its troops.[43] 6,000 Iranians and over 2,000 Iraqis were killed in the operation.[43]


Sony VAIO SVS131290S batteryIraqi prisoners of war at Khorramshahr

The Iraqis, realising that the Iranians were planning to attack, decided to preempt them with Operation al-Fawz al-’Azim (Supreme Success)[89] on 19 March. Using a large number of tanks, helicopters, and fighter jets, Sony VAIO VPCSE290S battery


Sony VAIO SVS131190S battery they attacked the Iranian buildup around the Roghabiyeh pass. Though Saddam and his generals assumed they had succeeded, in reality the Iranian forces remained fully intact.[35Sony VAIO SVS13A15GDB battery

The Iranians had concentrated much of their forces by bringing them directly from the cities and towns throughout Iran via trains, buses, and private cars. Sony VAIO SVS13115FDB battery

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The concentration of forces did not resemble a traditional military buildup, and although the Iraqis detected a population buildup near the front, they failed to realise that this was an attacking force.[65] Sony VAIO SVS13115FDB battery


Sony VAIO SVS15127CDB battery As a result, Saddam’s army was unprepared for the Iranian offensives to come.[35]


Operation Undeniable Victory[edit]

Main article: Operation Undeniable Victory

Iran’s next major offensive, Sony VAIO SVS13115FDS battery


Sony VAIO SVS15117FDB battery led by General Ali Sayad Shirazi, was Operation Fath-ol-Mobeen (Undeniable Victory). On 22 March 1982, Iran launched an attack which took the Iraqi forces by surprise: using Chinook helicopters, they landed behind Iraqi lines, silenced their artillery, and captured an Iraqi headquarter.[35Sony VAIO SVS13125CDB battery


Sony VAIO SVS15115FDB battery] The Iranian Basij then launched human wave attacks, consisting of 1,000 fighters per wave. Though they took heavy losses, they eventually broke through Iraqi lines.

Sony VAIO SVS13135CDB batteryIraqi T-62 tank destroyed in Khuzestan province, Iran

The Revolutionary Guard and regular army followed up by surrounding the Iraqi ninth and 10th Armoured and 1st Mechanised divisions in the Iranian town of Shush. Sony VAIO SVS13125CDR battery

The Iraqis launched a counter-attack using their 12th Armoured division to break the encirclement and rescue the surrounded divisions. Iraqi tanks came under attack by 95 Iranian F-4 Phantom and F-5 Tiger fighter jets, effectively destroying the entire division.[90]

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Operation Undeniable Victory ended decisively in Iran’s favour, and Iraqi forces were driven away from Dezful and Ahvaz. The Iranian armed forces destroyed almost 320-400 Iraqi tanks and armored vehicles in combat. Sony VAIO VPCSA41GD battery

But the price they paid for it was high. In just the first day of the battle the Iranians lost 196 tanks.[35] By this time, most of the Khuzestan province had returned to Iran’s hands.[43]


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Operation Jerusalem[edit]

Main article: Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas

In preparation for Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas (Jerusalem), the Iranians had launched numerous air raids against Iraq air bases, Sony VAIO VPCSA490S battery

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Sony VAIO SVE15113FD battery destroying 47 jets (including Iraq’s brand new Mirage F-1 fighter jets from France); this gave the Iranians air superiority over the battlefield while allowing them to monitor Iraqi troop movements.[35]


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On 29 April, Iran launched the offensive. 70,000 Revolutionary Guard and Basij members struck on several axes – Bostan, Susangerd, the west bank of the Karun River, and Ahvaz. The Basij launched human wave attacks, Sony VAIO SVE14A15FDH battery

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Sony VAIO SVE14A390S battery which were followed up by the regular army and Revolutionary Guard support along with tanks and helicopters.[3Sony VAIO SVE14A15FDS battery


Sony VAIO SVE14A290S battery5] Under heavy Iranian pressure, the Iraqi forces retreated. By 12 May, Iran had driven out all Iraqi forces from the Susangerd area.[43]:36 The Iranians captured several thousand Iraqi troops and a large number of tanks.[ Sony VAIO SVE14A15FDW battery


Sony VAIO SVE14A190 battery35] Nevertheless, the Iranians took many losses as well, especially among the Basij.


The Iraqis retreated to the Karun River, with only Khorramshahr and a few outlying areas remaining in their possession.[6Sony VAIO SVE14A23CDH battery

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Sony VAIO SVE14A37CDH battery9] Saddam ordered 70,000 troops to be placed around the city of Khorramshahr. The Iraqis created a hastily constructed defence line around the city and outlying areas.[35] Sony VAIO SVE14A25CDB battery

To discourage airborne commando landings, the Iraqis also placed metal spikes and destroyed cars in areas likely to be used as troop landing zones. Saddam Hussein even visited Khorramshahr in a dramatic gesture,


Sony VAIO SVE14A27CDS batteryswearing that the city would never be relinquished.[35] However, Khorramshahr’s only resupply point was across the Arvand Roud,[note 1] and the Iranian air force began bombing the supply bridges to the city, while their artillery zeroed in on the besieged garrison. Sony VAIO SVE14A25CDW battery

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Liberation of Khorramshahr (Second Battle of Khorramshahr)[edit]

Main article: Liberation of Khorramshahr

In the early morning hours of 23 May 1982 the Iranians began the drive towards Khorramshahr across the Karun River.[43Sony VAIO SVE15117FD battery

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Sony VAIO VPCCA36FA battery] This part of Operation Jerusalem was spearheaded by the 77th Khorasan division with tanks along with the Revolutionary Guard and Basij. The Iranians hit the Iraqis with destructive air strikes and massive artillery barrages, Sony VAIO SVE15127CDS battery


Sony VAIO SVE14115FDW batterycrossed the Karun River, captured bridgeheads, and launched human waves attacks towards the city. Saddam’s defensive barricade collapsed;[3Sony VAIO SVE17115FDB battery


Sony VAIO VPCEH35FD battery5] in less than 48 hours of fighting, the city fell and 23,000 Iraqis surrendered to the Iranians. A total of 7,000 Iraqis were killed or wounded in Khorramshahr, while the Iranians suffered 10,000 casualties.[ Sony VAIO SVE17125CDB battery


Sony VAIO SVPCEH33FD battery91] During the whole of Operation Jerusalem, 33,000–35,000 Iraqi soldiers were taken prisoner by the Iranians.[35]

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Sony VAIO VPCEH31FD batteryIraqi Mirage F1-EQ pilots prior to a mission

The fighting had battered the Iraqi military: its strength fell from 210,000 to 150,000 troops; over 20,000 Iraqi soldiers were killed and over 30,000 captured; Sony VAIO SVE14115FDB battery


Sony VAIO VPCEG35FD batterytwo out of four active armoured divisions and at least three mechanised divisions fell to less than a brigade’s strength; and the Iranians had captured over 450 tanks and armoured personnel carriers.[92]


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The Iraqi Air Force was also left in poor shape: after losing up to 55 aircraft since early December 1981, they had only 100 intact fighter-bombers and interceptors. A defector who flew his MiG-21 to Syria in June 1982 revealed that the Iraqi Air Force had only threeSony VAIO SVE15123CDW battery

Sony VAIO SVE14115FDP battery squadrons of fighter-bombers left that were capable of mounting offensive operations into Iran. The Iraqi Army Air Corps was in slightly better shape, and could still operate more than 70 helicopters.[92Sony VAIO SVE14115FDB battery

] Despite that, the Iraqis still held 3,000 tanks, while Iran held 1,000.[35]


At this point, Saddam believed that his army was too demoralised and damaged to hold onto Khuzestan and major swaths of territory in Iran, and withdrew his remaining armed forces from those areas. Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery


Sony VGP-BPS21B battery He redeployed them along the border between Iraq and Iran as a means of defence.[43] However, his troops continued to occupy some key border areas of Iran, and continued to hold onto the disputed territories that prompted his invasion, including the Shatt al-Arab waterway which was the primary cause of the war.[35Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A battery][52] In response to their failures against the Iranians in Khorramshahr, Saddam ordered the executions of General Juwad Shitnah, General Salah al-Qadhi, and Colonel Masa abd al-Jalil.[ Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPS21 battery65] At least a dozen high-ranking officers were also executed during this time.[84] This became increasingly common punishment for those who failed him in battle.[65]


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Khorramshahr was completely destroyed,[93] and numerous other cities including Ahvaz and Abadan were severely damaged.[94]

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International response in 1982[edit]

In April 1982, the rival Baathist regime in Syria, one of the few nations that supported Iran, closed the Kirkuk–Banias pipeline that had allowed Iraqi oil to reach tankers on the Mediterranean, reducing the Iraqi budget by US$5 billion per month.[4Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

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3] Journalist Patrick Brogan wrote, “It appeared for a while that Iraq would be strangled economically before it was defeated militarily.”[48Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery


Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery]:263 Syria’s closure of the Kirkuk-Banis pipeline left Iraq with the pipeline to Turkey as the only mean of exporting oil. However, that pipeline had a capacity of only 500,000 barrels per day (79,000 m3/d), which was insufficient to pay for the war.[4Sony VGP-BPS13A battery


Sony VGP-BPS13B battery4]:160 However, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the other Gulf states saved Iraq from bankruptcy[43] by providing it with an average of $60 billion in subsidies per year.[48] Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery


Sony VGP-BPS13AB battery:263[clarification needed] Though Iraq had previously been hostile towards other Gulf states, “the threat of Persian fundamentalism was far more feared.”[44]:162–163[48Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery

]:263 They were especially inclined to fear Iranian victory after Ayatollah Khomeini declared monarchies to be illegitimate and an un-Islamic form of government.[43] Khomeini’s statement was widely received as a call to overthrow the Gulf monarchies.[4Sony VGP-BPS13S battery

Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery3] Journalists John Bulloch and Harvey Morris wrote:


The virulent Iranian campaign, which at its peak seemed to be making the overthrow of the Saudi regime a war aim on a par with the defeat of Iraq, did have an effect on the Kingdom [of Saudi Arabia], but not the one the Iranians wanted: Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery

instead of becoming more conciliatory, the Saudis became tougher, more self-confident, and less prone to seek compromise.[44]:163

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Saudi Arabia was said to provide Iraq with $1 billion per month starting mid-1982.[44]:160


Iraq began receiving support from the United States and west European countries as well. Saddam Hussein was given diplomatic, monetary, and military support by the U.S., including massive loans, political clout, Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery


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and intelligence on Iranian deployments gathered using American spy satellites, which allowed them to coordinate attacks against the Iranians.[4Sony VGP-BPL14 Battery


Sony VGP-BPS26 Battery0] The Iraqis relied heavily on American satellite footage and radar planes to detect Iranian troop movements, and they enabled Iraq to move troops to the site before the battle.[95]

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With Iranian success on the battlefield, the U.S. made its backing of Iraq more pronounced, supplying intelligence, economic aid, and dual-use equipment and vehicles, as well as normalizing their intergovernmental relations Sony VGP-BPL14B Battery

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(which had been broken during the 1967 Six-Day War).[40] President Ronald Reagan decided that the United States “could not afford to allow Iraq to lose the war to Iran”, and that the United States Sony VGP-BPL21 Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery“would do whatever was necessary to prevent Iraq from losing the war with Iran”.[96] President Reagan formalised this policy by issuing a National Security Decision Directive to this effect in June 1982.

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In 1982, Reagan removed Iraq from the list of countries “supporting terrorism” and sold weapons such as howitzers to Iraq via Jordan and Israel.[4Sony VGP-BPS10 Battery

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0] France sold Iraq millions of dollars worth of weapons, including Gazelle helicopters, Mirage F-1 fighters, and Exocet missiles. Both the United States and West Germany sold Iraq dual-use pesticides and poisons that would be used to create chemical[40] and other weapons, such as Roland missiles.

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At the same time, the Soviet Union, angered with Iran for purging and destroying the Tudeh Party (Iran’s national communist party), Sony VGP-BPS11 Battery

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sent large shipments of weapons to Iraq. The Iraqi Air Force was rearmed with Soviet and French fighter jets and helicopters. Iraq also bought weapons such as AK-47s and rocket-propelled grenades from the Chinese. Sony VGP-BPS12/Q Battery


Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery The depleted tank forces were replenished with Soviet tanks, and the Iraqis were rearmed in the face of renewed Iranian attacks. Iran was portrayed as the aggressor, and would be seen as such until the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War, when Iraq would be condemned.

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Iran was unable to get very many new weapons, though they did gain some from China, North Korea, and Libya.[citation needed] There were also clandestine purchases from certain elements within Israel and the United States, who also bought small arms from China, via North Korea.[citation needed]


Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16-17, but a few even younger than that.[97][98]

On 20 June 1982 Saddam announced that he wanted to sue for peace and proposed an immediate ceasefire. Sony VGP-BPS13A Battery


Sony VGP-BPS21 BatteryKhomeini rejected the Iraqi peace offer because an immediate ceasefire would mean that Iraqi troops would remain on Iran’s borders in the disputed territory.[52] He proclaimed that Iran would invade Iraq and would not stop until the Ba’ath regime was replaced by an Islamic republic (or at least until Iraq withdrew from the disputed territories).[4Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery


Sony VGP-BPS15/S Battery3][52] Iran supported a government in exile for Iraq, the Supreme Council of the Islamic Revolution in Iraq, led by exiled Iraqi cleric Mohammad Baqer al-Hakim, was dedicated to overthrowing the Ba’ath party. Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery They recruited dissidents, exiles, and Shias to join the Badr Brigade, the military wing of the organisation.[35]


The decision to invade Iraq was taken after much debate within the Iranian government.[43] One faction, comprising Prime Minister Mir-Hossein Mousavi, Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery


Sony VGP-BPS15 BatteryForeign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati, President Ali Khamenei, and Army Chief of Staff General Ali Sayad Shirazi, wanted to accept the ceasefire, as most of Iranian soil had been recaptured.[43


Sony VGP-BPS14/S Battery] In particular, General Shirazi was opposed to the invasion of Iraq on logistical grounds, and stated he would consider resigning if “unqualified people continued to meddle with the conduct of the war.”[43] Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Battery


Sony VGP-BPS14B Battery:38 Of the opposing view was a hardline faction led by the clerics on the Supreme Defence Council, whose leader was the politically powerful speaker of the Majlis, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.[43]


Sony VGP-BPS14/B Battery

The most important factor for continuing the war (as Rafsanjani argued) was that despite Iran having foiled Iraq’s major territorial ambitions, they still held nearly 3,000 square miles of Iranian territory, areas such as Shalamcheh, Mehran, the Naft Shahr oil fields, and many of the pre-war disputed areas (ex. Shatt al-Arab).[35Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery


Sony VGP-BPS14 Battery][52] In the event of an immediate ceasefire, the Iraqis would remain in those territories and the fear was they wouldn’t relinquish those areas, but instead reinforce them for a future invasion.[

Sony VGP-BSP13/S Battery] Iran understood that it was internationally isolated and unlikely to receive foreign support to pressure Iraq to withdraw, nor receive compensation, nor get an international condemnation of Iraq, making it unlikely that they could gain an advantageous peace unless they scored a major military victory.[552Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery2] While western sources often believe that because Saddam’s ceasefire plea of 1982 served as a basis for the 1988 ceasefire, they blame Khomeini’s decision for extending the war for the next six years;[4Sony VGP-BPL14 battery

Sony VGP-BPL14/B battery

4]:11,147 Iranian sources point out that Saddam’s ceasefire plea would have Iraqi troops occupying Iran’s border areas and Iran would receive no compensation, nor would Iraq be found guilty for starting the war, Sony VGP-BPL14/S battery

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while the 1988 UN ceasefire ordered a return to the pre-war borders, and allowed a commission to determine war guilt and compensation, meaning that continuing the war was advantageous for Iran after all (although very bloody and costly).[52]

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While many officials wanted to fight the war until total victory, according to a 2003 interview with Rafsanjani (the architect of Iran’s strategy against Iraq), Iran’s main strategy was to occupy key portions of Iraqi territory to use as bargaining chips to force a diplomatic and political solution to the war (possibly in an international court), Sony VGP-BPS14/S battery

Sony VGP-BPL12 battery


Sony VGP-BPS22A batteryprimarily getting Iraq to withdraw from the remaining areas of Iranian territory and to accept Iranian rights, have Iraq recognized as the aggressor, and pay compensation.[5Sony VGP-BPS12 battery


Sony VGP-BPL22 battery2] The areas Rafsanjani had in mind were the Al-Faw Peninsula and the major port of Umm Qasr (cutting Iraq off from the sea), isolating and capturing Basra (the second largest city of Iraq), Sony VGP-BPS12/Q battery

Sony vgp-bps24 battery


Sony VGP-BPS22 batteryand capturing part of the Tigris River and Highway 8 (Baghdad-Basra Highway), which would effectively split Iraq in two and sever the Iraqi government from their main oil fields in the south. Sony vgp-bpsc24 battery

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Sony VGP-BPS26A battery They also wanted to capture Darbandikhan Dam in northern Iraq, which supplied most of Iraq’s water.[52] They also hoped that their attacks would ignite a revolt against Saddam’s rule by the Shia and Kurdish population of Iraq, Sony VGP-BPS12 battery


Sony VGP-BPL26 batterypossibly resulting in his downfall (or at least forcing him to the negotiation table). They were successful in doing so with the Kurdish population, but not the Shia.[35Sony VGP-BPS12/Q battery

Sony VGP-BPS26 battery] Iran had captured large quantities of Iraqi equipment (enough to create several tank battalions, Iran once again had 1,000 tanks) and also managed to clandestinely procure spare parts as well.[69]

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At a cabinet meeting in Baghdad, Minister of Health Riyadh Ibrahim Hussein suggested that Saddam could step down temporarily as a way of easing Iran towards a ceasefire, and then afterwards would come back to power.[4Sony VGP-BPS20 battery

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4]:147 Saddam, annoyed, asked if anyone else in the Cabinet agreed with the Health Minister’s idea. When no one raised their hand in support, he escorted Riyadh Hussein to the next room, closed the door and shot him with his pistol.[4Sony VGP-BPS20/B battery

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]:147 Saddam returned to the room and continued with his meeting.


Iran invades Iraq[edit]

Iraqi tactics against Iranian invasion[edit]

For most part, Iraq remained on the defensive for the next six years of war, unable and unwilling to launch any major offensives, while Iran launched over 60 offensives against the Iraqis. Iraq’s strategy changed from holding territory in Iran to denying Iran any major gains in Iraq (as well as holding onto disputed territories and Iran’s border areas).[4Sony VGP-BPS20/S battery

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9] Saddam commenced a policy of total war, gearing most of his country towards defending against Iran. By 1988, Iraq was spending 40–75% of their GDP on military equipment.[99] Saddam had also more than doubled the size of the Iraqi army, Sony VGP-BPL14/B battery

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from 200,000 soldiers (12 divisions and 3 independent brigades) to 500,000 (23 divisions and nine brigades).[4Sony VGP-BPL14/S battery

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3] They also began launching air raids against Iranian border cities, greatly increasing the practice by 1984. By the end of 1982, Iraq had been resupplied with new Soviet material, and the ground war entered a new phase. Sony VGP-BPS14 battery

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Iraq used newly acquired T-55 tanks and T-62 tanks, BM-21 truck-mounted rocket launchers, and Mi-24 helicopter gunships to prepare a Soviet-type three-line defence, replete with obstacles, minefields, Sony VGP-BPS14/B battery

and fortified positions. The Combat Engineer Corps built bridges across water obstacles, laid minefields, and prepared new defence lines and fortifications.[49]:2

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Iraq began to focus on using defense in depth to defeat the Iranians.[69] Iraq created multiple static defense lines to bleed the Iranians through sheer size.[6Sony PCG-41212M battery



9] When faced against large Iranian attack, where human waves would overrun Iraq’s entrenched infantry defences, the Iraqis would often retreat, but their static defences would bleed the Iranians and channel them into certain directions, Sony PCG-41215M battery


Sony VPCZ23K9E batterydrawing them into a trap. Afterwards, Iraqi air and artillery attacks would pin the Iranians down, while tanks and mechanised infantry attacks using mobile warfare would push them back.[9


Sony VPCZ21Q9E battery5] Sometimes, the Iraqis would launch “probing attacks” into the Iranian lines to provoke them into launching their attacks sooner. Chemical weapons were used as well,[


Sony VPCZ13Z9E/X battery92][not in citation given] and were a major source of Iranian infantry casualties. While Iranian human wave attacks were successful against the dug in Iraqi forces in Khuzestan,

Sony VPCZ13V9E batterythey had trouble breaking through Iraq’s defense in depth lines.[35] Iraq had a logistical advantage in their defence: the front was located near the main Iraqi bases and arms depots, allowing their army to be efficiently supplied.[48Sony PCG-41216M battery


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]:260,265 By contrast, the front in Iran was a considerable distance away from the main Iranian bases and arms depots, and as such, Iranian troops and supplies had to travel through roads across mountain ranges before arriving at the front.[48]:260


Sony VPCZ13 batteryColumn of Iranian T-55 tanks

In addition, Iran’s military power was weakened once again by large purges in 1982, resulting from another supposedly attempted coup.[100]


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Operation Ramadan (First Battle of Basra)[edit]

Main article: Operation Ramadan

The Iranian generals wanted to launch an all-out attack on Baghdad and seize it before the weapon shortages continued to manifest further. Instead, that was rejected as being unfeasable,[52Sony PCG-41217M battery


Sony PCG-6123M battery] and the decision was made to capture one area of Iraq after the other in the hopes that a series of blows delivered foremost by the Revolutionary Guards Corps would force a political solution to the war (including Iraq withdrawing completely from disputed territories of Iran).[52]


Sony PCG-6122M battery

The Iranians planned their attack in southern Iraq, near Basra, the second most important city in Iraq,[43


Sony PCG-6121M battery] and the al-Faw peninsula. Called Operation Ramadan, it involved over 180,000 troops from both sides, and was one of the largest land battles since World War II.[ Sony PCG-41218M battery


Sony PCG-6112M battery49]:3 Iranian strategy dictated that they launch their primary attack on the weakest point of the Iraqi lines; however, the Iraqis were informed of Iran’s battle plans and moved all of their forces to the area the Iranians planned to attack.[9Sony PCG-41311M battery

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Sony PCG-6Z4M battery2] The Iraqis were also were equipped with tear gas to use against the enemy, which would be first major use of chemical warfare during the conflict, throwing an entire attacking division into chaos.[100]


Sony PCG-4U2M batteryIranian paratroopers prepare to board a Lockheed C-130H for a training exercise

Over 100,000 Revolutionary Guards and Basij volunteer forces charged towards the Iraqi lines.[43] The Iraqi troops had entrenched themselves in formidable defences, and had set up a network of bunkers and artillery positions.[4Sony PCG-41314M battery


Sony PCG-4R2M battery3] The Basij used human waves, and were even used to bodily clear the Iraqi minefields and allow the Revolutionary Guards to advance.[4Sony PCG-41315M battery

Sony PCG-4R2M battery3] Combatants came so close to one another that Iranians were able to board Iraqi tanks and throw grenades inside the hulls. By the eighth day, the Iranians had gained 16 km (9.9 mi) inside Iraq and had taken several bridges. Sony VPCZ11 battery


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Iran’s Revolutionary Guards also used the T-55 tanks they had captured in earlier battles.[69]

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However, the attacks came to a halt and the Iranians turned to defensive measures. Seeing this, Iraq used their Mi-25 helicopters, along with French-built Gazelle helicopters armed with Euromissile HOT,


Sony VPCZ12Z9E/B battery against columns of Iranian mechanised infantry and tanks. These “hunter-killer” teams of helicopters, which had been formed with the help of East German advisors, proved to be very costly for Iranians. Aerial dogfights occurred between Iraqi Migs and Iranian F-4 Phantoms.[100] Sony VPCZ11X9E/B battery

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On 16 July, Iran tried again further north and managed to push the Iraqis back. However, only 13 km (8.1 mi) from Basra, Sony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12V9E/B batterythe poorly equipped Iranian forces were surrounded on three sides by Iraqis with heavy weaponry. Some were captured, while many were killed. Only a last-minute attack by Iranian AH-1 Cobra helicopters stopped the Iraqis from routing the Iranians.[92


Sony VPCZ12V9E battery] Three more similar attacks occurred around the Khorramshar-Baghdad road area towards the end of the month, but none were significantly successful.[69] Iraq had concentrated three armoured divisions, the 3rd, 9th, Sony VPCZ12C7E/B battery

Sony VPCZ12M9E battery

Sony VPCZ12M9E/B batteryand 10th, as a counter-attack force to attack any penetrations. They were successful in defeating the Iranian breakthroughs, but suffered heavy losses. The 9th Armoured Division in particular had to be disbanded, and was never reformed. 80,000 soldiers from both sides were killed.

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Fighting during the rest of 1982[edit]

After Iran’s defeat in Operation Ramadan, they carried out only a few smaller attacks. Iran launched two limited offensives aimed at liberating the Sumar Hills and isolating the Iraqi pocket at Naft Shahr near the Iraqi border, Sony VGN-Z11WN/B battery


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both of which were Iranian territory still under Iraq occupation. They then aimed to capture the Iraqi border city of Mandali.[92Sony VGN-Z11XN/X battery

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] They planned to take the Iraqis by surprise using Basij militiamen, army helicopters, and some armoured forces, then stretch their defences and possibly break through them to open a road to Baghdad for future exploitation.[ Sony VGN-Z21MN/B battery


Sony VGN-Z51WG/B battery92] During Operation Muslim ibn Aqil (1–7 October),[note 2] Iran recovered 150 km2 (58 sq mi) of its own territory and reached the outskirts of Mandali before being stopped by Iraqi helicopter and armoured attacks.[79][92] During Operation Muharram (1–21 November), Sony VGN-Z21WN/B battery

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[note 3] the Iranians captured part of the Bayat oilfield with their fighter jets and helicopters, destroying 105 Iraqi tanks, 70 APCs, and 7 planes with few losses. They nearly breached the Iraqi lines but failed to capture Mandali after the Iraqis sent reinforcements, including brand new T-72 Sony VGN-Z21ZN/X battery


Sony VGN-Z51MG/B batterytanks, which possessed armour that could not be pierced from the front by Iranian TOW missiles.[92] The Iranian advance was also impeded by heavy rains. 3,500 Iraqis and an unknown number of Iranians died, with only minor gains for Iran.[92]

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1983–84: Strategic stalemate and war of attrition[edit]



Furthest ground gains



Ali Khamenei, with Iranian soldiers on the front-line. Khamenei initially opposed Khomeini’s decision to extend the war into Iraq.[43] Sony VGN-Z31MN/B battery

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After the failure of the 1982 summer offensives, Iran believed that a major effort along the entire breadth of the front would yield the victory. During the course of 1983, the Iranians launched five major assaults along the front, though none achieved substantial success, as the Iranians staged more massive “human wave” attacks.[4Sony VGN-Z31WN/B battery


Sony VGN-Z41WD/B battery3] By this time, it was estimated that more than 70 Iranian fighter aircraft were still operational at any given time; Iran had their own helicopter repair facilities, left over from before the revolution, Sony VGN-Z31ZN/B battery


Sony VGN-Z battery and thus often used helicopters for close air support.[92][102] While Iranian fighter pilots had superior training compared to their Iraqi counterparts[citation needed], and would continue to dominate in combat[citation needed], Sony VGN-Z51 battery

Sony VGN-Z51XG battery due to shortages of aircraft, the size of defended territory and American intelligence supplied to Iraq, the Iraqis could exploit gaps in Iranian airspace. Nevertheless, the Iraqis never were able to gain total air superiority during the war either[citation needed].[35][85]

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Operation Before the Dawn[edit]

Main article: Operation Before the Dawn

Operation Fajr al-Nasr (Before the Dawn/Dawn of Victory), launched 6 February 1983, saw the Iranians shift focus from the southern to the central and northern sectors. Iran, using 200,000 “last reserve” Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

Sony VGP-BPS21A/B batteryRevolutionary Guard troops, attacked along a 40 km (25 mi) stretch near al-Amarah, Iraq about 200 km (120 mi) southeast of Baghdad, in an attempt to reach the highways connecting northern and southern Iraq. Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery

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The attack was stalled by 60 km (37 mi) of hilly escarpments, forests, and river torrents blanketing the way to al-Amarah, but the Iraqis could not force the Iranians back. Iran directed artillery on Basra and Al Amarah, and Mandali.[102]

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The Iranians suffered a large number of casualties clearing minefields and breaching Iraqi anti-tank mines, which Iraqi engineers were unable to replace. After this battle, Iran reduced its use of human wave attacks, though they still remained a key tactic as the war went on.[102]

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The Mandali–Baghdad northcentral sector also witnessed fighting in April 1983, as Iranian attacks were stopped by Iraqi mechanised and infantry divisions. Casualties were high, and by the end of 1983, an estimated 120,000 Iranians and 60,000 Iraqis had been killed. Iran, however, held the advantage in the war of attrition.[49]:2

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Dawn Operations[edit]

Main articles: Operation Dawn 1, Operation Dawn 2, Operation Dawn 3, Operation Dawn 4, Operation Dawn 5, and Operation Dawn 6

From early 1983–1984, Iran launched a series of four Valfajr (Dawn) Operations (that eventually numbered to 10). During Operation Dawn-1, Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery

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Sony VGP-BPL13 battery

in early February 1983, 50,000 Iranian forces attacked westward from Dezful and were confronted by 55,000 Iraqi forces. The Iranian objective was to cut off the road from Basra to Baghdad in the central sector. Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

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Sony VGP-BPS13S batteryThe Iraqis carried out 150 air sorties against the Iranians, and even bombed Dezful, Ahvaz, and Khorramshahr in retribution. The Iraqi counterattack was broken up by Iran’s 92nd Armoured Division.[102]

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During Operation Dawn-2, the Iranian’s directed insurgency operations by proxy in April 1983 by supporting the Kurds in the north. With Kurdish support, the Iranians attacked on 23 July 1983, capturing the Iraqi town of Haj Omran and maintaining it against an Iraqi poison gas counteroffensive.[10Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery

Sony VGP-BPS13AB battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A /B Battery3] This operation incited Iraq to later conduct indiscriminate chemical attacks against the Kurds.[102] The Iranians attempted to further exploit activities in the north on 30 July 1983, during Operation Dawn-3. Sony VGP-BPS13B battery


Sony VGP-BPS21B battery Iran saw an opportunity to sweep away Iraqi forces controlling the roads between the Iranian mountain border towns of Mehran, Dehloran and Elam. Iraq launched airstrikes, Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A battery and equipped attack helicopters with chemical warheads; while ineffective, it demonstrated both the Iraqi general staff’s and Saddam’s increasing interest in using chemical weapons. In the end, 17,000 had been killed on both sides,[clarification needed] with no gain for either country.[102]


Sony VGP-BPS21 batteryIranian soldier killed in action

The focus of Operation Dawn-4 in September 1983 was the northern sector in Iranian Kurdistan. Three Iranian regular divisions, the Revolutionary Guard, and Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) elements amassed in Marivan and Sardasht in a move to threaten the major Iraqi city Suleimaniyah. Sony VGP-BPL21 battery

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Sony VGP-BPL21 battery Iran’s strategy was to press Kurdish tribes to occupy the Banjuin Valley, which was within 45 km (28 mi) of Suleimaniyah and 140 km (87 mi) from the oilfields of Kirkuk. To stem the tide,


Sony VGP-BPL13 battery Iraq deployed Mi-8 attack helicopters equipped with chemical weapons and executed 120 sorties against the Iranian force, which stopped them 15 km (9.3 mi) into Iraqi territory. 5,000 Iranians and 2,500 Iraqis died.[1Sony VGP-BPS21A battery


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Sony VGP-BPS13S battery02] Iran gained 110 km2 (42 sq mi) of its territory back in the north, gained 15 km2 (5.8 sq mi) of Iraqi land, and captured 1,800 Iraqi prisoners while Iraq abandoned large quantities of valuable weapons and war materiel in the field. Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery


Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery Iraq responded to these losses by firing a series of SCUD-B missiles into the cities of Dezful, Masjid Soleiman, and Behbehan. Iran’s use of artillery against Basra while the battles in the north raged created multiple fronts, which effectively confused and wore down Iraq.[102] Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery


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Iran’s change in tactics[edit]



Iranian troops boarding a Sea King helicopter, many helicopters were used during Operation Kheibar

Previously, the Iranians had outnumbered the Iraqis on the battlefield, but Iraq expanded their military draft (pursuing a policy of total war), and by 1984, Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

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Sony VGP-BPS13B/B batterythe armies were equal in size. By 1986, Iraq had twice as many soldiers as Iran. By 1988, Iraq would have 1 million soldiers, giving it the fourth largest army in the world. Some of their equipment, such as tanks, outnumbered the Iranians’ by almost five to one. Iranian commanders, however, remained more tactically skilled.[69]


Sony VGP-BPS13B batteryIranian child soldier

After the Dawn Operations, Iran attempted to change tactics. In the face of increasing Iraqi defense in depth, as well as increased armaments and manpower, Iran could no longer rely on simple human wave attacks.[78Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery

] Iranian offensives became more complex and involved extensive maneuver warfare using primarily light infantry. Iran launched frequent, and sometimes smaller offensives to slowly gain ground and deplete the Iraqis through attrition.[7Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery7] They wanted to drive Iraq into economic failure by wasting money on weapons and war mobilization, and to deplete their smaller population by bleeding them dry, in addition to creating an anti-government insurgency (they were successful in Kurdistan, but not southern Iraq).[35][7Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery

7][100] Iran also kept its goal of capturing important territory to force Iraq to negotiate.[52] Iran also supported their attacks with heavy weaponry when possible and with better planning (although the brunt of the battles still fell to the infantry). Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

Sony VGP-BPS13AB batteryThe Army and Revolutionary Guards worked together better as their tactics improved.[35] Human wave attacks became less frequent (although still used).[65] To defeat Iraqi defense in depth, static positions, Sony VGN-FE31B battery

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and heavy firepower, Iran began to focus on fighting in areas that the Iraqis could not use their heavy weaponry, such as marshes, valleys, and mountains, and frequently using infiltration tactics.[65]

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Iran began training troops in infiltration, patrolling, night-fighting, marsh warfare, and mountain warfare.[78] They also began training thousands of Revolutionary Guard commandos in amphibious warfare,[104] Sony VGN-FE31Z battery

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as southern Iraq is marshy and filled with wetlands. Iran used speedboats to cross the marshes and rivers in southern Iraq and landed troops on the opposing banks, where they would dig and set up pontoon bridges across the rivers and wetlands to allow heavy troops and supplies to cross. Sony VGN-FE41E battery


Sony PCG-81412M batteryIran also learned to integrate foreign guerrilla units as part of their military operations.[78] On the northern front, Iran began working heavily with the Peshmerga, Kurdish guerrillas.[7


Sony PCG-81411M battery8] Iranian military advisors organised the Kurds into raiding parties of 12 guerrillas, which would attack Iraqi command posts, troop formations, infrastructure (including roads and supply lines), Sony VGN-FE41M battery


Sony PCG-81313M batteryand government buildings.[78] The oil refineries of Kirkuk became a favourite target, and were often hit by homemade Peshmerga rockets.[78]


Battle of the Marshes[edit]

Main articles: Battle of the Marshes, Operation Dawn 5, Operation Dawn 6, and Operation Kheibar Sony VGN-FE41MR battery


By 1984, the Iranian ground forces were reorganised well enough for the Revolutionary Guard to start Operation Kheibar (named after Kheibar, Saudi Arabia),[102][105] which lasted from 24 February to 19 March.[4Sony VGN-FE41S battery


Sony PCG-81312M battery4]:171 On 15 February 1984, the Iranians began launching attacks against the central section of the front, where the Second Iraqi Army Corps was deployed: 250,000 Iraqis faced 250,000 Iranians.[43] Sony VGN-FE41Z battery


Sony PCG-81311M battery The goal of this new major offensive was the capture of Basra-Baghdad Highway, cutting off of Basra from Baghdad and setting the stage for an eventual attack upon the city [35] (one of Iran’s major goals to force Iraq to negotiate).[5Sony VGN-FE48E battery


Sony PCG-81213M battery2] The Iraqi high command had assumed the marshlands above Basra were natural barriers to attack, and had not reinforced them. The marshes negated Iraqi advantage in armor, and absorbed artillery and bombs.[35]


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Prior to the attack, Iranian commandos on helicopters had landed behind Iraqi lines and destroyed Iraqi artillery. Iran launched two preliminary attacks prior to the main offensive, Operation Dawn 5 and Dawn 6.[10Sony VGN-FE48M battery


Sony PCG-81113M battery2] They saw the Iranians attempting to capture Kut al-Imara, Iraq and sever the highway connecting Baghdad to Basra, which would impede Iraqi coordination of supplies and defences. Iranian troops crossed the river on motorboats in a surprise attack, though only came within 24 km (15 mi) of the highway.

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Operation Kheibar began on 24 February with Iranian infantrymen crossing the Hawizeh Marshes using motorboats and transport helicopters in an amphibious assault.[35Sony VGN-FE49VN battery

] The Iranians attacked the vital oil-producing Majnoon Island by landing troops via helicopters onto the islands and severing the communication lines between Amareh and Basra.[105] They then continued the attack towards Qurna.[3Sony VGN-FE31H battery

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Sony PCG-81412M battery5] By 27 February, they had captured the island, though they lost 50 troop transport helicopters in one day.[35] At times, fighting took place in waters over 2 m (6.6 ft) deep. Iraq ran live electrical cables through the water, electrocuting numerous Iranian troops and then displaying their corpses on state television.[102]

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By 29 February, the Iranians had reached the outskirts of Qurna and were closing in on the Baghdad–Basra highway.[3Sony VGN-FE31Z battery


Sony PCG-81411M battery5] They had broken out of the marshes and returned to open terrain, where they were confronted by conventional Iraqi weapons, including artillery, tanks, air power, and mustard gas. Sony VGN-FE31ZR battery


Sony PCG-81313M battery1,200 Iranian soldiers were killed in the counter-attack. The Iranians retreated back to the marshes, though they still held onto them along with Majnoon Island.[35][43]:44


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The Battle of the Marshes saw an Iraqi defence that had been under continuous strain since 15 February; they were relieved by their use of chemical weapons and defence-in-depth, where they layered defensive lines: Sony VGN-FE41E battery

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Sony PCG-81311M batteryeven if the Iranians broke through the first line, they were usually unable to break through the second due to exhaustion and heavy losses.[44]:171 They also largely relied on Mi-25 Hind to “hunt” the Iranian troops in the marshes,[35] and at least 20,000 Iranians were killed in the marsh battles.[10Sony VGN-FE41MR battery


Sony PCG-81213M battery2] Iran used the marshes as a springboard for future attacks/infiltrations.[35]

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Sony PCG-81212M batteryOperation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under U.S. Navy escort (October 21, 1987)

Unable to launch successful ground attacks against Iran, Iraq used their now expanded air force to carry out strategic bombing against Iranian shipping, economic targets, and cities in order to damage Iran’s economy and morale.[35Sony VGN-FE41Z battery


Sony PCG-81113M battery][107] Iraq also wanted to provoke Iran into doing something that would cause the superpowers to be directly involved in the conflict on the Iraqi side.[49]


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Attacks on shipping[edit]

Further information: Operation Earnest Will and Operation Prime Chance

The so-called “Tanker War” started when Iraq attacked the oil terminal and oil tankers at Kharg Island in early 1984.[4


Sony VGN-FE49VN battery3] Saddam’s aim in attacking Iranian shipping was to provoke the Iranians to retaliate with extreme measures, such as closing the Strait of Hormuz to all maritime traffic, thereby bringing American intervention: Sony VGN-FE48E battery

Sony VGN-FE48M battery the United States had threatened several times to intervene if the Strait of Hormuz were closed.[43] As such, the Iranians limited their retaliatory attacks to Iraqi shipping, leaving the strait open to general passage.[43]

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Iraq declared that all ships going to or from Iranian ports in the northern zone of the Persian Gulf were subject to attack.[4Sony PCG-6X4M battery

Sony PCG-6X2M battery,


Sony PCG-71316M battery3] They used air power, primarily helicopters, F-1 Mirage, and MiG-23 fighters armed with Exocet anti-ship missiles, to enforce their threats. Iraq began to repeatedly bomb Iran’s main oil export facility on Khark Island, Sony PCG-4Q2M battery,

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Sony PCG-71315M battery causing increasingly heavy damage. After these attacks, Iran attacked a Kuwaiti tanker carrying Iraqi oil near Bahrain on 13 May 1984, as well as a Saudi tanker in Saudi waters on 16 May. Sony PCG-4Q1M battery

Because Iraq had become landlocked during the invasion, they had to rely on their Arab allies, primarily Kuwait, to transport their oil. Iran attacked tankers carrying Iraqi oil from Kuwait, later attacking tankers from any Persian Gulf state supporting Iraq. Sony PCG-71C11M battery

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Sony PCG-91311M battery Attacks on ships of noncombatant nations in the Persian Gulf sharply increased thereafter, with both nations attacking oil tankers and merchant ships of neutral nations in an effort to deprive their opponent of trade.[4Sony PCG-61511M battery


Sony PCG-91112M battery3] The Iranian attacks against Saudi shipping led to Saudi F-15s shooting down an Iranian aircraft on 5 June 1984.[43]


The air and small-boat attacks, however, did little damage to Persian Gulf state economies, and Iran moved its shipping port to Larak Island in the Strait of Hormuz.[108]


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The Iranian Navy imposed a naval blockade of Iraq, using its British-built frigates to stop and inspect any ships thought to be trading with Iraq. They operated with virtual impunity, as Iraqi pilots had little training in hitting naval targets. Sony PCG-61611M battery


Sony PCG-71411M battery Some Iranian warships attacked tankers with ship-to-ship missiles, while others used their radars to guide land-based anti-ship missiles to their targets.[109] Iran began to rely on its new Revolutionary Guard’s navy, which used Boghammar speedboats: fitted with rocket launchers,

Sony PCG-61813M battery RPGs, an

d heavy machine guns, these speedboats would launch surprise attacks against tankers and cause substantial damage. Iran also used aircraft and helicopters to launch Maverick missiles and unguided rockets at tankers.[35] Sony PCG-61712M battery


A U.S. Navy ship, the Stark, was struck on 17 May 1987 by two Exocet anti-ship missiles fired from an Iraqi F-1 Mirage plane.[110][111] The missiles had been at about the time the plane was given a routine radio warning by the Stark.[11Sony PCG-6Z2M battery,


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2] The frigate did not detect the missiles with radar, and warning was given by the lookout only moments before they struck.[113] Both missiles hit the ship, and one exploded in crew quarters, killing 37 sailors and wounding 21.[113]

Sony PCG-6X4M battery,


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Lloyd’s of London, a British insurance market, estimated that the Tanker War damaged 546 commercial vessels and killed about 430 civilian sailors. The largest portion of the attacks was directed by Iraq against vessels in Iranian waters, with the Iraqis launching three times as many attacks as the Iranians.[49Sony PCG-6X2M battery,


Sony PCG-91311M battery]:3 But Iranian speedboat attacks on Kuwaiti shipping led Kuwait to formally petition foreign powers on 1 November 1986 to protect its shipping. The Soviet Union agreed to charter tankers starting in 1987, Sony PCG-4Q2M battery

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Sony PCG-91112M batteryand the United States Navy offered to provide protection for foreign tankers reflagged and flying the U.S. flag starting 7 March 1987 in Operation Earnest Will.[43][11Sony PCG-4Q1M battery


Sony PCG-71511M battery2] Neutral tankers shipping to Iran were unsurprisingly not protected by Earnest Will, resulting in reduced foreign tanker traffic to Iran, since they risked Iraqi air attack. Iran accused the US of helping Iraq.[35][40][49]


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During the course of the war, Iran attacked two Soviet Navy ships which were protecting Kuwaiti tankers.[114] Notably, the Seawise Giant, the largest ship ever built, was struck and damaged by Iraqi Exocet missiles as it was carrying Iranian crude oil out of the Gulf.[115]


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Attacks on cities[edit]

Meanwhile, Iraq’s air force also began carrying out strategic bombing raids against Iranian cities. While Iraq had launched numerous attacks with aircraft and missiles against border cities from the beginning of the war and sporadic raids on Iran’s main cities, Sony PCG-71C11M battery


Sony PCG-61712M battery this was the first systematic strategic bombing that Iraq carried out during the war. This would become known as the “War of the Cities”. Iraq’s air force had been largely defeated by the Iranian air force during 1980-1981[citation needed], but with the help of the USSR and the west,


Sony PCG-61611M battery Iraq’s air force had been rebuilt and expanded.[85] Meanwhile Iran, due to sanctions and lack of spare parts, had heavily curtailed their air force operations. While the Iranian aircrews were better trained and superior in combat[citation needed], Sony PCG-71D14M battery

Sony PCG-61511M batterythe Iraqis were facing fewer fighters and supported by American[citation needed]reconnaissance and were able to exploit gaps in Iranian airspace to launch their attacks[citation needed]. Sony SVE1513A1ESI battery


Sony SVE151G13M battery Iraq used Tu-22 Blinders and Tu-16 Badger strategic bombers to carry out long-range high-speed raids on Iranian cities (using both Iraqi and Soviet pilots)[citation needed], including Tehran. Fighter-bombers such as the Mig-25 Foxbat and Su-22 Fitter were used against


Sony SVE171E13M battery smaller or shorter range targets, as well as escorting the strategic bombers.[85] Civilian and industrial targets were hit by the raids[citation needed], and each successful raid was designed to sap Iranian morale and will to fight via terror bombing[citation needed], as well as inflicting economic damage from regular strategic bombing.[85]

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Sony SVE1512I1ES batteryA map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the “War of the cities”.

In response, the Iranians deployed their F-4 Phantoms to combat the Iraqis, and eventually they deployed F-14s as well. Most of the Iraqi air raids were intercepted by the Iranian fighter jets and air defense[citation needed], Sony SVE1513C1EB battery


Sony SVE1512H6EW battery but some also successfully hit their targets, becoming a major headache for Iran. By 1986, Iran also expanded their air defense network heavily to take the load of the fighting off the air force. Sony SVE151C11M battery

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Sony SVE1512H6EB batteryThe Iraqis continuously took heavy losses as well[citation needed], and failed to inflict major damage[citation needed]. The Iraqi/Soviet pilots were advised to abort their attacks as soon as Iranian F-4s and F-14s appeared in order to prevent almost certain losses[citation needed], Sony SVE1513C1EW battery

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thus many successful Iranian interceptions were carried out without any dogfighting[citation needed]. By later in the war, Iraqi raids primarily consisted of indiscriminate missile attacks[citation needed]while air attacks were used only on fewer, more important targets.[116]


Sony SVE1513Z1EB battery Starting in 1987, Saddam also ordered several chemical attacks on civilian targets in Iran, such as the town of Sardasht.[117]

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Iran also launched several retaliatory air raids on Iraq, while primarily shelling border cities such as Basra. Iran also bought some Scud missiles from Libya, and launched them against Baghdad. These too inflicted damage upon Iraq.[35]


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On 7 February 1984, (during the first war of the cities) Saddam ordered his air force to attack eleven Iranian cities;[43] Sony SVE1513J1EB battery


Sony SVE1513U1ESI batterybombardments ceased on 22 February 1984. Though Saddam had aimed for the attacks to demoralise Iran and force them to negotiate, they had little effect, and Iran quickly repaired the damage[citation needed]. Sony SVE1513J1EW battery

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Iraq’s air force took heavy losses[citation needed], however, and Iran struck back, hitting Baghdad and other Iraqi cities. Nevertheless, the attacks resulted in tens of thousands of civilian casualties on both sides, and became known as the first “war of the cities”.Sony SVE1513P1EW battery


Sony SVE1513U1ES battery It was estimated that 1,200 Iranian civilians were killed during the raids in February alone.[citation needed][ Sony SVE1513Q1ES battery

Sony SVE1513Q1ESI battery35] There would be five such major exchanges throughout the course of the war, and multiple minor ones. While interior cities such as Tehran did receive numerous raids, it was the cities of western Iran that suffered the most death and destruction.


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Strategic situation in 1984[edit]

By 1984, Iran’s losses were estimated to be 300,000 soldiers, while Iraq’s losses were estimated to be 250,000.[4Sony SVE171B11M battery


Sony SVE1511J1E battery9]:2 Foreign analysts agreed that both Iran and Iraq failed to use their modern equipment properly, and both sides failed to carry out modern military assaults that could win the war. Sony SVE1512W1EB battery


Sony SVE151E11M battery Both sides also abandoned equipment in the battlefield because their technicians were unable to carry out repairs. Iran and Iraq showed little internal coordination on the battlefield, and in many cases units were left to fight on their own. As a result, by the end of 1984, the war was a stalemate.[49]:2


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[118] One limited offensive Iran launched (Dawn 7) took place from 18–25 October 1984, when they recaptured the Iranian city of Mehran, which had been occupied by the Iraqis from the beginning of the war.[43][100]

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Sony SVE1511B1EB battery

1985–86: Offensives and retreats[edit]

By 1985, Iraqi armed forces were receiving financial support from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other Persian Gulf states, and were making substantial arms purchases from the Soviet Union, China, and France. For the first time since early 1980, Saddam launched new offensives.

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On 6 January 1986, the Iraqis launched an offensive attempting to retake Majnoon Island. However, they were quickly bogged down into a stalemate against 200,000 Iranian infantrymen, reinforced by amphibious divisions.[10Sony SVE1512I1ESI battery


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2] However, they managed to gain a foothold in the southern part of the island.[73]


Iraq also carried out another “war of the cities” between 12–14 March, hitting up to 158 targets in over 30 towns and cities, including Tehran. Iran responded by launching 14 Scud missiles for the first time, purchased from Libya. Sony SVE1512N1EB battery


Sony SVE1512E6EW batteryMore Iraqi air attacks were carried out in August, resulting in hundreds of additional civilian casualties. Iraqi attacks against both Iranian and neutral oil tankers in Iranian waters continued, with Iraq carrying out 150 airstrikes using French bought Super Etendard jets using Exocet missiles.[107]

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Operation Badr[edit]

Main article: Operation Badr (1985)

The Iraqis attacked again on 28 January 1985; they were defeated, and the Iranians retaliated on 11 March 1985 with a major offensive directed against the Baghdad-Basra highway (one of the few major offensives conducted in 1985), Sony SVE1512N1ESI battery


Sony SVE171E11M batterycodenamed Operation Badr (after the Battle of Badr, Muhammad’s first military victory in Mecca).[43][119] Ayatollah Khomeini urged Iranians on, declaring:


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It is our belief that Saddam wishes to return Islam to blasphemy and polytheism…if America becomes victorious…and grants victory to Saddam, Islam will receive such a blow that it will not be able to raise its head for a long time…The issue is one of Islam versus blasphemy, and not of Iran versus Iraq.[120]


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This operation was similar to Operation Kheibar, though it invoked more planning. Iran used 100,000 troops, with 60,000 more in reserve. They assessed the marshy terrain, plotted points where they could land tanks, Sony SVE1512Q1EW battery

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Sony SVE1512C4EB batteryand constructed pontoon bridges across the marshes. The Basij forces were also equipped with anti-tank weapons.[102]


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The ferocity of the Iranian offensive broke through the Iraqi lines. The Revolutionary Guard, with the support of tanks and artillery, broke through the north of Qurna on 14 March. That same night


Sony SVE1512Y1ESI battery3,000 Iranian troops reached and crossed the Tigris River using pontoon bridges and captured part of the Baghdad–Basra Highway 8, which they had failed to achieve in Operations Dawn 5 and 6 .[35]


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Saddam responded by launching chemical attacks against the Iranian positions along the highway and by initiating the aforementioned second “war of the cities”, with an air and missile campaign against twenty to thirty Iranian population centres, Sony SVE1512T1ESI battery

Sony SVE171G11M battery including Tehran.[43] Under General Sultan Hashim Ahmad al-Tai and General Jamal Zanoun (both considered to be among Iraq’s the most skilled commanders), the Iraqis launched air attacks against the Iranian positions and pinned them down. They then launched a pincer attack using mobile infantry and heavy artillery. Sony SVE1511X1EB battery

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35] Chemical weapons were used, and the Iraqis also flooded Iranian trenches with specially-constructed pipes delivering water from the Tigris River.

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Sony SVE1712Z1EB batteryWounded Iranian soldiers evacuated by motorboat

The Iranians retreated back to the Hoveyzeh marshes while being attacked by helicopters,[35] and the highway was recaptured by the Iraqis. Operation Badr resulted in 10,000–12,000 Iraqi casualties and 15,000 Iranian ones.[43]

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Strategic situation at the beginning of 1986[edit]

The failure of the human wave attacks in earlier years had prompted Iran to develop a better working relationship between the Army and the Revolutionary Guard[43] Sony SVE1713H1EB battery


Sony SVE1712W1EB battery and to mould the Revolutionary Guard units into a more conventional fighting force. To combat Iraq’s use of chemical weapons, Iran began producing an antidote.[102] They also created and fielded their own homemade drones, Sony SVE1713H1EW battery

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Sony SVE1712V1EB battery the Mohajer 1′s, fitted with six RPG-7′s to launch attacks. They were primarily used in observation, being used for up to 700 sorties.[121]


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For the rest of 1986, and until the spring of 1988, the Iranian Air Force’s efficiency in air defence increased, with weapons being repaired or replaced and new tactical methods being used. For example,


Sony SVE171C11M batterythe Iranians would loosely integrate their SAM sites and interceptors to create “killing fields” in which dozens of Iraqi planes were lost (which was reported in the West as the Iranian Air Force using F-14s as “mini-AWACs”). Sony SVE1713S1EW battery

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Sony SVE1712Q1EW batteryThe Iraqi Air Force reacted by increasing the sophistication of its equipment, incorporating modern electronic countermeasure pods, chaff, and anti-radiation missiles.[105Sony SVE1713W1EB battery


Sony SVE1712M1EB battery] Due to the heavy losses in the last war of the cities, Iraq reduced their use of aerial attacks on Iranian cities. Instead, they would launch Scud missiles, which the Iranians could not stop. Since the range of the Scud missile was too short to reach Tehran, Sony SVE1713X1EB battery


Sony SVE1712L1EW battery they converted them to al-Hussein missiles with the help of East German engineers, cutting up their Scuds into three chunks and attaching them together. Iran responded to these attacks by using their own Scud missiles.[12Sony SVE151D11M battery


Sony SVE1712L1EB battery1] Iranian attacks were fewer, and meant primarily to deter the Iraqis from launching their air/missile strikes.


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Aside from extensive foreign help to Iraq, Iranian attacks were severely hampered by their shortages of weaponry, including heavy weaponry. Large portions of them had been lost during the last several years. Sony SVE1713Z1EB battery

Iran still managed to maintain 1,000 tanks (often by capturing Iraqi ones) and additional artillery, but many needed repairs to be operational. But by this time Iran managed to procure spare parts from various sources,


Sony SVE1712H1EB batteryhelping them to restore some weapons. They secretly imported some weapons, such as RBS-70 anti-aircraft MANPADS.[3Sony SVE1712F1EB battery

Sony SVE1712F1EW battery5] In an exception to the US’s support for Iraq, in exchange for Iran using its influence to help free western hostages in Lebanon, the US secretly sold Iran some limited supplies (in the Ayatollah Rafsanjani’s postwar interview, Sony SVE1713D1EW battery

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he stated that during the period when Iran was succeeding, for a short time the US supported Iran, then shortly after began helping Iraq again).[52Sony SVE1712C1EW battery


] Iran managed to get some light weapons, such as anti-tank TOW missiles, which worked better than rocket-propelled grenades. Iran later reverse-engineered and produced those weapons on their own as well.[35] Sony SVE1711F1EW battery

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[107] All of these almost certainly helped increase the effectiveness of Iran, although it did not reduce the human cost of their attacks.[35][107]


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Entrenched Iranian troops near destroyed Iraqi T-55 tanks in the mud

On 9 February 1986, the Iranians launched Operation Dawn 8, in which 30,000 troops comprising five Army divisions and men from the Revolutionary Guard and the Basij advanced in a two-pronged offensive to capture the al-Faw peninsula in southern Iraq, the only area touching the Persian Gulf.[43Sony SVE1711G1EW battery

] The capture of Al Faw and Umm Qasr was a major goal for Iran to force Iraq to negotiate a favorable settlement.[ Sony SVE1711L1E battery


Sony SVE17A1M6E battery52] Iran began with a feint attack against Basra, which was stopped by the Iraqis;[43][104] Meanwhile, an amphibious strike force landed at the foot of the peninsula. The resistance, consisting of several thousand poorly trained soldiers of the Iraqi Popular Army, Sony SVE1711P1E battery


Sony SVE1712C1EB batteryfled or were defeated, and the Iranian forces set up pontoon bridges crossing the Shatt al-Arab,[note 1] allowing 30,000 soldiers to cross in a short period of time.[104] They drove north along the peninsula almost unopposed, capturing it after only 24 hours of fighting.[43][44]:240[69] Afterwards they dug in and set up defenses.[69]


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The sudden capture of al-Faw took the Iraqis by shock, since they had thought it impossible for the Iranians to cross the Shatt al-Arab. On 12 February 1986, the Iraqis began a counter-offensive to retake al-Faw, which failed after a week of heavy fighting.[43][6Sony SVE1711P1EW battery

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Sony SVE1711W1E battery9] On 24 February 1986, Saddam sent one of his best commanders, General Maher Abd al-Rashid, and the Republican Guard to begin a new offensive to recapture al-Faw.[43] A new round of heavy fighting took place, Sony SVE1711R1EB battery

Sony SVE1711V1EB battery However, their attempts again ended in failure, costing them many tanks and aircraft:[43] their 15th mechanised division was almost completely wiped out.[35] The capture of al-Faw and the failure of the Iraqi counter-offensives were blows to the Ba’ath regime’s prestige, Sony SVE1711V1E battery

and led the Gulf countries to fear that Iran might win the war.[43] Kuwait in particular felt menaced with Iranian troops only 16 km (9.9 mi) away, and increased its support of Iraq accordingly.[44]:241

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In March 1986, the Iranians tried to follow up their success by attempting to take Umm Qasr, which would have completely severed Iraq from the Gulf and placed Iranian troops on the border with Kuwait, which was a major Iranian goal in forcing Iraq into negotiations.[43] Sony SVS13AA11L Battery


Sony PCG-41414L Battery

[52] However, the offensive failed due to Iranian shortages of armor.[43] By this time, 10,000 Iraqis and 30,000 Iranians were casualties.[4

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Sony PCG-41413L Battery3] The First Battle of al-Faw ended in March, but heavy combat operations lasted on the peninsula into 1988, with neither side being able to displace the other. The battle bogged down into a World War I-style stalemate in the marshes of the peninsula. Sony SVS131B11L Battery


Sony PCG-41412L Battery [65] 53,000 Iraq troops and an unknown number of Iranian troops were killed.[65]


Battle of Mehran[edit]

Main article: Battle of Mehran

Immediately after the Iranian capture of al-Faw, Saddam declared a new offensive against Iran, designed to drive deep into the state.[35] Sony SVS151A11L Battery


Sony PCG-41411L BatteryThe Iranian border city of Mehran, on the foot of the Zagros Mountains, was selected as the first target. On 15–19 May, Iraqi Army’s Second Corps, supported by helicopter gunships, attacked and captured the city. Saddam then offered the Iranians to exchange Mehran for al-Faw.[


Sony PCG-41218L Battery35] The Iranians rejected the offer. Iraq then continued the attack, attempting to push deeper into Iran. However, Iraq’s attack was quickly warded off by Iranian AH-1 Cobra helicopters with TOW missiles, which destroyed numerous Iraqi tanks and vehicles.[35] Sony SVS151B11L Battery


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The Iranians built up their forces on the heights surrounding Mehran. On 30 June, using mountain warfare tactics they launched their attack, recapturing the city by 3 July.[ Sony SVS151G1GL Battery

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Sony PCG-41216L Battery35] Saddam ordered the Republican Guard to retake the city on 4 July, but their attack was ineffective. Iraqi losses were heavy enough to allow the Iranians to also capture territory inside Iraq,[35Sony PCG-4121EL Battery

] and depeleted the Iraqi military enough to prevent them from launching a major offensive for the next two years.[ Sony PCG-4121FL Battery

35] Iraq’s defeats at al-Faw and at Mehran were severe blows to the prestige of the Iraqi regime, and western powers, including the U.S., became more determined to prevent an Iraqi loss.[35]


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Strategic situation at the end of 1986[edit]

Through the eyes of international observers, Iran was prevailing in the war by the end of 1986.[104] In the northern front, the Iranians began launching attacks toward the city of Suleimaniya with the help of Kurdish fighters, Sony PCG-4121GL Battery


Sony PCG-41215L Battery taking the Iraqis by surprise. They came within 16 km (9.9 mi) of the city before being stopped by chemical and army attacks. Iran’s army had also reached the Meimak Hills, only 113 km (70 mi) from Baghdad.[104Sony PCG-41211L Battery

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] Iraq managed to contain Iran’s offensives in the south, but was under serious pressure, as the Iranians were slowly overwhelming them.

Sony PCG-41214L BatteryInjured Iranians being evacuated by Chinook helicopter

Iraq responded by launching another “war of the cities”. In one attack, Tehran’s main oil refinery was hit, and in another instance, Iraq damaged Iran’s Assadabad satellite dish, Sony PCG-41213L Battery

disrupting Iranian overseas telephone and telex service for almost two weeks.[104] Civilian areas were also hit, resulting in many casualties. Iraq continued to attack oil tankers via air.[35] Iran responded by launching Scud missiles and air attacks at Iraqi targets.

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Iraq continued to attack Kharg Island and the oil tankers and facilties as well. Iran created a tanker shuttle service of 20 tankers to move oil from Kharg to Larak Island, escorted by Iranian fighter jets. Once moved to Larak, sony PCG-4R1L battery

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sony PCG-6Z4L batterythe oil would be moved to ocean going tankers (usually neutral).[122] They also rebuilt the oil terminals damaged by Iraqi air raids and moved shipping to Larak Island, sony PCG-4Q3L battery

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sony PCG-6Z3L battery while attacking foreign tankers that carried Iraqi oil (as Iran had blocked Iraq’s access to the open sea with the capture of al-Faw). By now they almost always used the armed speedboats of the IRGC navy, and attacked many tankers.[35] Sony SVE171G11M battery


Sony SVE14AJ15M battery The tanker war escalated drastically, with attacks nearly doubling in 1986 (the majority carried out by Iraq). Iraq got permission from the Saudi government to use its airspace to attack Larak Island, sony PCG-6X1L battery

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although due to the distance attacks were less frequent there. The escalating tanker war in the Gulf became an ever increasing concern to foreign powers, especially the United States.[122]


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In April 1986, Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa declaring that the war must be won by March 1987. The Iranians increased recruitment efforts, obtaining 650,000 volunteers.[102] The animosity between the Army and the Revolutionary Guard arose again, sony PCG-6X6L battery


sony PCG-6Z1L batterywith the Army wanting to use more refined, limited military attacks while the Revolutionary Guard wanted to carry out major offensives.[102sony PCG-6X7L battery


sony PCG-6XBL battery] Iran, confident in its successes, began planning their largest offensives of the war, which they called their “final offensives.”[102]

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Iraq’s Dynamic Defense Strategy[edit]

Faced with their recent defeats in al-Faw and Mehran, Iraq appeared to be losing the war. Iraq’s generals, angered by Saddam’s interference, sony PCG-6X8L battery

threatened a full-scale mutiny against the Ba’ath Party unless they were allowed to conduct operations freely. In one of the few times during his career, Saddam gave in to the demands of his generals.[69] Sony SVS13AB1GL Battery


Up to this point, Iraqi strategy was to ride out Iranian attacks. However, the defeat at al-Faw led Saddam to declare the war to be Al-Defa al Mutahharakkha (The Dynamic Defense),[35] and announcing that all civilians had to take part in the war effort. Sony SVS131C1DL Battery


Sony PCG-71614L BatteryThe universities were closed and all of the male students were drafted into the military. Civilians were instructed to clear marshlands to prevent Iranian amphibious infiltrations and to help build fixed defenses.


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The government tried to integrate the Shias into the war effort by recruiting many as part of the Ba’ath Party.[69] In an attempt to counterbalance the religious fervor of the Iranians and gain support from the devout masses, Sony SVS131C24L Battery

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Sony PCG-61913L Battery the regime also began to promote religion and, on the surface, Islamization, despite the fact that Iraq was run by a socialist regime. Sony SVS131G1DL Battery


Sony PCG-61911L BatteryScenes of Saddam praying and making pilgrimages to shrines became common on state-run television. While Iraqi morale had been low throughout the war, the attack on al-Faw raised patriotic fervor, Sony SVS151C1GL Battery


Sony PCG-61813L Battery as the Iraqis feared invasion.[69] Saddam also recruited volunteers from other Arab countries into the Republican Guard, and received much technical support from foreign nations as well.[35Sony SVS151C2DL Battery


Sony PCG-61714L Battery] While Iraqi military power had been depleted in recent battles, through heavy foreign purchases and support, they were able to expand their military even to much larger proportions by 1988.[35]


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At the same time, Saddam ordered the genocidal al-Anfal Campaign in an attempt to crush the Kurdish resistance, who were now allied with the Iranians. The result was the deaths of several hundred thousand Iraqi Kurds, and the destruction of villages, towns, and cities.[123]


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Iraq began to try to perfect their maneuver tactics.[69] The Iraqis began to prioritize the professionalization of their military. Sony SVS151E1GL Battery


Sony PCG-61A14L BatteryPrior to 1986, the conscription-based Iraqi regular army and the volunteer-based Iraqi Popular Army conducted to bulk of the operations in the war, to little effect. The Republican Guard, formerly an elite praetorian guard, was expanded as a volunteer army and filled with Iraq’s best generals.[6Sony SVE171A11M battery


Sony SVE14AG18M battery9] Loyalty to the state was no longer a primary requisite for joining. However, due to Saddam’s paranoia, the former duties of the Republican Guard were transferred to a new unit, the Special Republican Guard.[ Sony PCG-61A11L Battery

Sony PCG-61A13L Battery69] Full-scale war games against hypothetical Iranian positions were carried out in the western Iraqi desert against mock targets, and they were repeated over the course of a full year until the forces involved fully memorized their attacks.[69] Sony PCG-71713L Battery

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Iraq built its military massively, eventually possessing the 5th largest in the world, in order to overwhelm the Iranians through sheer size.[69]

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The People’s Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000. Sony PCG-71912L Battery


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Meanwhile, as the Iraqis were planning their strike, the Iranians continued to attack. 1987 saw a renewed series of major Iranian human wave offensives in both northern and southern Iraq. The Iraqis had constructed heavy static fortifications around the city. Sony PCG-71913L Battery

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Sony PCG-71217L Battery They built 5 defensive rings, supported by natural waterways such as the Shatt-al-Arab, and manmade ones, such as Fish Lake and the Jasim River, along with manmade earth barriers. Sony SVE171E13M battery


Sony SVE14AG15M batteryFish Lake was a massive lake filled with mines, underwater barbed wire, electrodes and various sensors. In addition, behind each waterway and defensive line was radar-guided artillery, ground attack aircraft, Sony PCG-91211L Battery


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Sony PCG-71218L Batteryand combat helicopters; all capable of firing poison gas in addition to conventional munitions.[35]

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Iran’s strategy was to penetrate through these massive defensive lines, and encircle Basra, cutting off the city as well as the Al-Faw peninsula from the rest of Iraq. Sony SVE141C11L Battery

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Sony PCG-71312L Battery The Iranians hoped that the capture of Basra would be such a major blow to Iraq that they would be forced to negotiate a settlement favorable to Iran.[52][104] Iran’s plan was for three assaults: Sony SVE141L11L Battery

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Sony PCG-91112L Battery a diversionary attack near Basra, the main offensive, and another diversionary attack using Iranian armor in the north to have Iraqi heavy armor diverted away from Basra.[3


Sony PCG-91111L Battery5] For these battles, Iran had re-expanded their military by recruiting many new Basij and Pasdaran volunteers.[104] Iran brought 150,000–200,000 total troops into the battles.[69] Sony SVE151G11L Battery


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Karbala Operations[edit]

Operation Karbala-4[edit]

Main article: Operation Karbala-4

On 25 December 1986, Iran launched Operation Karbala-4 (Karbala referring to Hussein ibn Ali’s Battle of Karbala).[1Sony SVE151G13L Battery


Sony SVE171G112 Battery24] According to General Ra’ad al-Hamdani, this was a diversionary attack.[65] The Iranians launched an amphibious assault against Umm al-Rassas island in the marshes towards Basra; Sony SVE151J11L Battery


Sony SVE171E12L Batterythey then set up a pontoon bridge and continued the attack, eventually capturing it after taking many casualties and failing to advance further; they had taken 60,000 casualties, while the Iraqis took 9,500. Sony SVE151C11M battery


Sony SVE151E11M battery [102] The Iraqi commanders exaggerated Iran’s losses to Saddam, and it was assumed that the main Iranian attack on Basra had been fully defeated and that the Iranians were depleted for six months. Sony SVE171C11L Battery

Sony SVE171E11L Battery Therefore, when the main Iranian attack, Operation Karbala 5 began, many Iraqi troops had gone on leave.[65]


Sony PCG-61317L BatteryIranian soldiers with a ZPU-2 heavy machine-gun on a Toyota Land Cruiser

Operation Karbala-5 (Second Battle of Basra)[edit]

Main article: Operation Karbala-5

Operation Karbala-5 began midnight 8 January 1987, when a strike force of 35,000 Pasdaran crossed Fish Lake, while 4 Iranian divisions attacked Sony PCG-71316L Battery


Sony PCG-61316L Battery at the southern end shore of the lake, overrunning the Iraqi forces and capturing the town of Duaiji. They used their bridgehead at Duaiji as a springboard to recapture the Iranian town of Shalamcheh. Sony PCG-71317L Battery


Sony PCG-61315L Battery Between 9–10 January, the Iranians broke through the first and second defense lines of Basra at the north of Fish Lake with tanks.[35][69] The Iranians rapidly reinforced their forces with 60,000 troops and began to clear the remaining Iraqis in the area.[35]

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As early as 9 January, the Iraqis began their counterattack, supported by newer Su-25 and Mig-29 aircraft, by the 10th the Iraqis were throwing every available heavy weapon in a bid to eject the Iranians. Despite being outnumbered 10–1 in the air, Sony PCG-71211L Battery

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Sony PCG-61311L BatteryIran’s air defense system downed many Iraqi aircraft (50–60 jets total; 10% of Iraq’s air force), allowing Iran to provide close air support with their smaller air force, which also proved superior in dog-fighting, causing the Iraqis to temporarily stop providing their troops air support.[35Sony SVE151G11M battery


Sony SVE171E11M battery] Iraqi tanks floundered in the marshland and were defeated by Cobra helicopters and TOW missile-equipped anti-tank commandos. Sony PCG-71215L Battery


Sony PCG-61215L BatteryLater in the battle, after their ground forces taking heavy losses due to the lack of air support, the Iraqi aircraft came back to the battlefield once again, facing their Iranian counterparts.[35] Sony PCG-71216L Battery


However, despite superior Iranian infantry tactics, it was the sheer size of the Iraqi defensive lines that prevented the Iranians from achieving a victory.[35Sony PCG-61211L Battery

] On 19–24 January, Iran launched another major infantry offensive, breaking the third line and driving the Iraqis across the Jasim river.[1Sony PCG-3B1L Battery

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04] The battle became a contest of which side could bring more reinforcements.[35][69][104] By 29 January, the Iranians launched a new attack from the west of the Jasim river, breaking through the fourth line.[3Sony PCG-3B3L Battery

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Sony PCG-3H3L Battery5] They were within 12 km (7.5 mi) of the city. At this point, the battle became a stalemate. Iranian TV broadcast footage of the outskirts of Basra, but the Iranians pushed no further.[35Sony PCG-3C2L Battery

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Sony PCG-3H2L Battery] Iranian losses were so severe that Iraq took the offensive and pushed them back to their original positions.[104] Despite that, the fighting continued, and 30,000 Iranians still held positions around Fish Lake. Sony PCG-3D3L Battery


Sony PCG-3H1L Battery The battle bogged down into a trench war, where neither side could displace the other. Iran launched several more unsuccessful attacks. Karbala-5 officially ended by the end of February, but heavy combat operations continued, and Iran continued to besiege the city.[1Sony PCG-3D4L Battery


Sony PCG-3G5L Battery04]


Sony SVE171C11M batteryIranian soldier aiming a DShK heavy machine gun from a sangar during Operation Karbala-5.

Among those killed was Iranian commander Hossein Kharrazi. Possibly 65,000 Iranians and 40,000 Iraqis were casualties because of Operation Karbala-5. Basra was largely destroyed, and Iraq’s army had taken many material losses.[104] Sony PCG-3E3L Battery

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[125][125] The fighting during this operation was the heaviest and bloodiest during the war, with the area around Shalamcheh becoming known as the “Somme of the Iran-Iraq War”.[65Sony PCG-3F2L Battery


Sony PCG-3G3L Battery] At one point, the situation had declined to the point that Saddam ordered several of his officers to be executed.[10Sony PCG-3F3L Battery

Sony PCG-3B1L Battery4] With Iranian aircraft fighting at Basra, the Iraqis bombed Iranian supply routes with chemical weapons, as well as Iranian cities with conventional bombs, including Tehran, Isfahan, and Qom. Sony PCG-3F4L Battery

It is believed that around 3,000 Iranian civilians were killed in these attacks. Iran retaliated by firing eleven long-range missiles further into Iraqi territory, inflicting heavy casualties among civilians and killing at least 300.

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Operation Karbala-6[edit]

Main article: Operation Karbala-6

At the same time as Operation Karbala 5, Iran also launched Operation Karbala-6 against the Iraqis in Qasr-e Shirin in central Iran to prevent the Iraqis from rapidly transferring units down to defend against the Karbala-5 attack. Sony SVE151G13M battery

The attack was carried out by Basij infantry and the Revolutionary Guard’s 31st Ashura and the Army’s 77th Khorasan armored divisions. Sony PCG-7142L Battery

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Sony PCG-61412L BatteryThe Basij attacked the Iraqi lines, forcing the Iraqi infantry to retreat. An Iraqi armored counter-attack surrounded the Basij in a pincer movement, but the Iranian tank divisions attacked, breaking the encirclement. The Iranian attack was finally stopped by mass Iraqi chemical weapons attacks.[125]

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Iran’s increasing war-weariness[edit]



Iranian troops fire 152mm D-20 howitzer

Operation Karbala-5 was a severe blow to Iran’s military and morale.[100] To foreign observers, it appeared that Iran continuing to strengthen. By 1988, Iran had become self-sufficient in many areas, such as anti-tank TOW missiles, Scud ballistic missiles (Shahab-1), Sony PCG-7153L Battery

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Sony PCG-51511L BatterySilkworm anti-ship missiles, Oghab tactical rockets, and producing spare parts for their weaponry. Iran had also beefed up their air defenses with smuggled surface to air missiles.[3


Sony PCG-51412L Battery5] Iran even was producing UAV’s and the Pilatus PC-7 propellor aircraft for observation.[35] Iran also doubled their stocks of artillery, and was self-sufficient in manufacture of ammunition and small arms.[1Sony PCG-7161L Battery

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Sony PCG-51411L Battery26] Had those weapons been available during Operation Karbala-5, it is likely that the Iranians would have broken through the last defense line.[35][126]


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But, while it was not obvious to foreign observers, the Iranian public had become increasingly war-weary and disillusioned with the fighting, and relatively few volunteers joined the fight in 1987–88. Because the Iranian war effort relied on popular mobilization, Sony PCG-7171L Battery

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Sony PCG-51311L Battery their military strength actually declined, and Iran was unable to launch any major offensives after Karbala-5. As a result, for the first time since 1982, the momentum of the fighting shifted towards the regular army. Since the regular army was conscription based, it made the war even less popular. Sony PCG-7173L Battery


Sony PCG-51211L Battery Many Iranians began to try to escape the conflict. As early as May 1985, anti-war demonstrations took place in 74 cities throughout Iran; however, they were crushed by the regime, resulting in some protesters being shot and killed.[12Sony PCG-7174L Battery

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Sony PCG-51113L Battery7] By 1987, draft-dodging had become a serious problem, and the Revolutionary Guards and police set up roadblocks throughout cities to capture those who tried to evade conscription. Sony PCG-7182L Battery

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Sony PCG-51111L Battery However, other people (including the more nationalistic and religious) as well as the clergy, the Revolutionary Guards, and the regular army wanted to continue the war to achieve their goals. The issue of Iranian border territory in Iraqi hands still was a major motivating factor.[52]


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The leadership acknowledged that the war was a stalemate, and began to plan accordingly.[69] There were no more “final offensives” planned.[35Sony PCG-7184L Battery


Sony PCG-31311L Battery] The head of the Supreme Defense Council Hashemi Rafsanjani announced during a news conference to finally end the use of human wave attacks.[128] Mohsen Rezaee, head of the IRGC, Sony PCG-7185L Battery


Sony PCG-21313L Battery announced that Iran would focus exclusively on limited attacks/infiltrations, while arming and supporting opposition groups inside of Iraq (such as the Kurds and Badr Brigade).[104]


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On the Iranian home front, the combination of sanctions, declining oil prices, and Iraqi attacks on Iranian oil facilities and shipping took a heavy toll on the economy. While the attacks themselves were not as destructive as some analysts believed, Sony PCG-8131 Battery

Sony PCG-8141L Batterythe US-led Operation Earnest Will (which protected Iraqi and allied oil tankers, but not Iranian ones) led many neutral countries to stop trading with Iran because of rising insurance and fear of air attack.[35][ Sony PCG-71111L Battery
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40][49] Iranian oil and non-oil exports fell by 55%, inflation reached 50% by 1987, and the unemployment rate skyrocketed.[35] At the same time, Iraq was experiencing crushing debt and shortages of workers, encouraging its leadership to try to end the war quicker.[100]
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Strategic Situation in late 1987[edit]

Main articles: Operation Nimble Archer, Operation Nasr 4, and Operation Karbala 10

By the end of 1987, Sony PCG-81111L Battery
Sony VPCF113FX battery Iraq possessed 5,550 tanks (outnumbering the Iranians five to one) and 900 fighter aircraft (outnumbering the Iranians ten to one).[35] However, after Operation Karbala-5, Iraq only had 100 qualified fighter pilots remaining; therefore, Iraq began to invest in recruiting foreign pilots from countries such as Belgium, Sony PCG-81112L Battery
Sony VPCF11FGX batteryAustralia, South Africa, both East and West Germany, and the Soviet Union. They replenished their manpower by integrating volunteers from other Arab countries into their army (for example, Iran eventually captured 3,000 Egyptian soldiers). Sony PCG-81113L Battery

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Sony VPCF11MFX battery [35] Iraq also became self-sufficient in chemical weapons and some conventional ones and received much equipment from abroad.[ Sony PCG-81214L Battery

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Sony VPCF11JFX battery35] Foreign support helped Iraq bypass its economic troubles and massive debt to continue the war and increase the size of its military.[35][ sony SVE1713DCXB battery

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sony SVE17135CXB battery35] The United States drew up a contingency plan to attack if the Iranians managed to break through the Iraqi lines.[35]


Sony VPCF115FM batteryIranian F-14 Tomcats armed with both Phoenix and modified Hawk missiles, circa 1986-87; usually tasked with defending Kharg Island oil facilities

While the southern and central fronts were at a stalemate, Iran began to focus on carrying out offensives in northern Iraq with the help of the PeshmergaSony PCG-81312L Battery


Sony PCG-81411L Battery  (Kurdish insurgents). The capture of Iraq northern oil fields, and dams remained an important goal for Iran to force Iraq to negotiate, and with the help of the Peshmerga, there was a good chance it could succeed.[5Sony PCG-81313L Battery

Sony PCG-81314L Battery2] The Iranians used a combination of semi-guerrilla and infiltration tactics in the Kurdish mountains with the Peshmerga. During Operation Karbala-9 in early April, Iran captured territory near Suleimaniya, Sony VPCF117FX battery
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provoking a severe poison gas counterattack. During Operation Karbala-10, Iran attacked near the same area, capturing more territory. sony SVE1712ACXB battery


sony SVE17127CXB batteryDuring Operation Nasr-4, the Iranians surrounded the city of Suleimaniya, Sony VPCF11KFX battery

Sony VPCF114FX battery and with the help of the Peshmerga infiltrated over 140 kilometers into Iraq and raided and threatened to capture the oil-rich city of Kirkuk and other northern oilfields.[1sony SVE1712BCXB battery

sony SVE17125CXB battery00] Nasr-4 was considered to be Iran’s most successful individual operation of the war. However, Sony VPCF11CGX battery

Sony VPCF11PFX batteryIranian forces were unable to consolidate their gains and continue their advance, and while these offensives coupled with the Kurdish uprising sapped Iraqi strength, losses in the north would not mean a catastrophic failure for Iraq.
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On 20 July, the UN Security Council passed the US-sponsored Resolution 598, which called for an end to the fighting and a return to pre-war boundaries.[6Sony VPCF116FX battery
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6] This resolution was noted by Iran for being the first resolution to call for a return to the pre-war borders, sony SVE17122CXB battery

and setting up a commission to determine the aggressor and compensation. This was in contrast to previous settlements that only allowed aSony VPCF11GGX battery
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Sony VPCF11BFX battery  ceasefire (leaving Iraq in possession of disputed Iranian territories). The head of the IRGC, Mohsen Rezaee believed that it was a direct result of the capture of Al-Faw and Iran began to consider the ceasefire. Sony VPCF119GX battery
Sony VPCF11AFX battery While Iraq accepted the resolution, according to Iran’s then foreign minister Ali Akbar Velayati, Iraq refused to set a timetable for withdrawing their troops from Iran, and thus Iran did not adopt the ceasefire yet, Sony VPCF1190X battery
although they seriously considered it. The resolution was very ambiguous as well. Velayati stated that as a result, the western nations claimed that it was Iran that refused to accept peace.[52]
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Air and Tanker War in 1987[edit]

With the stalemate on land, the air/tanker war began to play an increasingly major role in the conflict.[122]

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The Iranian air force had become very small, containing only 20 F-4 Phantoms, 20 F-5 Tigers, and 15 F-14 Tomcats in operation. Despite that, Iran managed to restore some damaged planes into service. The Iranian Air force, Sony VPCSA2Z9E battery
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despite its once sophisticated equipment, lacked enough equipment and personnel to sustain the war of attrition that had arisen, and was unable to lead an outright onslaught against Iraq.[105] The Iraqi Air Force, however, Sony SVE14AG15M battery
Sony SVE151C11M battery had originally lacked modern equipment and experienced pilots, but after pleas from Iraqi military leaders, Saddam decreased political influence on everyday operations and left the fighting to his combatants. In addition, the Soviets began delivering more advanced aircraft and weapons to Iraq, Sony SVE14AG18M battery
Sony SVE171A11M battery while the French improved training for flying crews and technical personnel and continually introduced new methods for countering Iranian weapons and tactics.[105] However, at the same time, Iran’s ground air defense downed many Iraqi aircraft.[35][105]

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The main Iraqi air effort had shifted to the destruction of Iranian war-fighting capability (primarily Persian Gulf oil fields, tankers, and Kharg Island), Sony VPCZ11 battery


Sony VPCZ12Z9E/X batteryand starting late 1986 the Iraqi Air Force moved on a comprehensive campaign against the Iranian economic infrastructure.[10Sony VPCZ11X9E battery

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Sony VPCZ12Z9E/B battery5] By late 1987, the Iraqi Air Force could count on direct American support for conducting long-range operations against Iranian infrastructural targets and oil installations deep in the Persian Gulf. U.S. Sony VPCZ11Z9E battery


Sony VPCZ12X9E/B batteryNavy ships actively tracked and reported movements of Iranian shipping and defences. They supplied targeting information on several occasions in February and March 1988; when they failed to warn Iraqi aircraft of Iranian interceptors’ presence, the Iraqis suffered considerable losses.


Sony VPCZ12V9E/B battery The massive Iraqi air strike against Kharg Island, flown on 18 March 1988, was one such occasion: the Iraqis destroyed two supertankers but lost five aircraft to Iranian F-14 Tomcats, including two Tupolev Tu-22Bs and one Mikoyan MiG-25RB.[10Sony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12V9E battery5] The U.S. Navy was now becoming more involved in the fight in the Persian Gulf, launching Operations Earnest Will and Prime Chance against the Iranians.


Sony VPCZ12M9E/B batteryIRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics

The attacks on oil tankers continued. Both Iran and Iraq carried frequent attacks during the first four months of the year. Iran was effectively waging a naval guerrilla war with its IRGC navy speedboats, while Iraq attacked with its aircraft. In 1987, Kuwait asked to reflag its tankers to the US flag. They did so in March, Sony VPCZ12C7E/B battery

Sony VPCZ12M9E batteryand the US navy began Operation Earnest Will to escort the tankers.[122] The result of Earnest Will would be that while oil tankers shipping Iraqi/Kuwaiti oil were protected, Iranian tankers, and neutral tankers shipping to Iran would be unprotected, resulting in both losses for Iran and the undermining of its trade with foreign countries, damaging Iran’s economy further. Iran also deployed Silkworm missiles to attack some ships, but only a few were actually fired. Both the US and Iran jockeyed for influence in the Gulf. To discourage the US from escorting tankers, Iran secretly mined some areas in the Gulf. The US began to escort the reflagged tankers, but one of them was destroyed by a mine while under escort. While being a public-relations victory for Iran, the US increased its reflagging efforts. While Iran mined the Persian Gulf, their speedboat attacks were reduced, primarily attacking unflagged tankers shipping in the area.[122]

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On 24 September, US Navy SEALS captured the Iranian mine-laying ship Iran Ajr, a diplomatic disaster for the already isolated Iranians. On 8 October, the US Navy destroyed four Iranian speedboats, and in response to Iranian Silkworm missile attacks on Kuwaiti oil tankers launched Operation Nimble Archer, destroying two Iranian oil rigs in the Persian Gulf.[35] During November and December, the Iraqi air force launched a bid to destroy all Iranian airbases in Khuzestan and all remaining Iranian air force. However, Iran managed to shoot down 30 Iraqi fighters with their jets, anti-aircraft guns, and missiles, allowing the Iranian air force to survive to the end of the war.[35]
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Bodies of Iranian students killed in an Iraqi Bomber Attack on a school in Borujerd, 10 January 1987.

On 28 June, Iraqi fighter bombers attacked the Iranian town of Sardasht near the border, using chemical mustard gas bombs. While many towns and cities had been bombed before, and troops attacked with gas, this was the first time that the Iraqis had attacked a civilian area with poison gas.[129] One quarter of the town’s then population of 20,000 was burned and stricken, and 113 were killed immediately, with many more dying and suffering health effects over the next decades.[117] Saddam ordered the attack in order to test the effects of the newly developed “dusty mustard” gas, which was designed to be even more crippling than traditional mustard gas, in addition to the area for suspected Kurdish rebels. While little known outside of Iran (unlike the later Halabja poison gas attack), the Sardasht bombing (and future similar attacks) had a tremendous effect on the Iranian people’s psyche. Sony SVE14AJ15M battery
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1988: Iraqi offensives and the UN ceasefire[edit]

Main articles: Operation Praying Mantis and Iran Air Flight 655

By 1988, with massive equipment imports and reduced Iranian volunteers, Iraq was ready to launch major offensives against Iran.[69] On February 1988, Saddam began the fifth and most deadly “war of the cities”.[43] Over the next two months, Iraq launched over 200 al-Hussein missiles at 37 Iranian cities.[43][126] Saddam also threatened to use chemical weapons in his missiles, which caused 30% of Tehran’s population to leave the city.[43] Iran retaliated, launching at least 104 missiles against Iraq in 1988 and shelling Basra.[102][12Sony SVE14AA11M battery


6] This event was nicknamed the “Scud Duel” in the foreign media.[35] In all, Iraq launched 520 Scuds and al-Husseins against Iran and Iran fired 177 at them.[45] However, the Iranian attacks were too few in number to deter Iraq from launching their attacks.[126] Iraq also increased their airstrikes against Kharg Island and Iranian oil tankers. With their allies tankers protected by US warships, they could operate with virtual impunity.[35][ Sony SVE151D11M battery

Sony SVE171B11M battery122] To make matters worse, the West supplied Iraq’s air force with laser-guided smart bombs, allowing them to attack economic targets while evading anti-aircraft defenses. These attacks began to have a major toll on the Iranian economy, morale, and caused many casualties as well.[35][52][122]


Iran’s Kurdistan Operations[edit]

In March 1988, the Iranians carried out Operation Dawn 10, Operation Beit-ol-Moqaddas 2 (Jerusalem 2), and Operation Zafar 7 (Victory 7) in Iraqi Kurdistan with the aim of capturing the Darbandikhan Dam and the power plant at Dukan, which supplied Iraq with much of its electricity and water, as well as the city of Suleimaniya.[48]:264 Iran hoped that the capture of these areas would bring more favorable terms to the ceasefire agreement.[52] This infiltration offensive was carried out in conjunction with the Peshmerga. Iranian airborne commandos landed behind the Iraqi lines and Iranian helicopters hit Iraqi tanks with TOW missiles. The Iraqis were taken by surprise, and Iranian F-5E Tiger fighter jets even damaged the Kirkuk oil refinery.[35] Iraq carried out executions of multiple officers for these failures in March–April 1988, including Colonel Jafar Sadeq.[65] The Iranians used infiltration tactics in the Kurdish mountains, captured the town of Halabja and began to fan out across the province.[65]

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Though the Iranians advanced to within sight of Dukan, and captured around 1,040 km2 (400 sq mi) and 4,000 Iraqi troops, the offensive failed due to the Iraqi use of chemical warfare.[48]:264 The Iraqis launched the deadliest chemical weapons attacks of the war. The Republican Guard launched 700 chemical shells, while the other artillery divisions launched 200–300 chemical shells each, unleashing a chemical cloud over the Iranians, killing or wounding 60% of them, and completely destroying the Iranian 84th division.[65] The Iraqi special forces then stopped the remains of the Iranian force.[65] Sony SVE151G11M battery In retaliation for Kurdish collaboration with the Iranians, Iraq launched a massive poison gas attack against Halabja, recently taken by the Iranians, killing thousands of civilians.[130] Iran airlifted foreign journalists to the ruined city, and the images of the dead were shown throughout the world. However, Western mistrust of Iran and collaboration with Iraq led them to also blame Iran for the attack. At one point, the United States claimed that Iran had launched the attack and then tried to blame Iraq for it (though Iran never used poison gas during the war).[130]
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Victims of Halabja poison gas attack. Chemical weapons used by Iraq killed and injured numerous Iranians and Kurds.

Second Battle of al-Faw[edit]

Main article: Second Battle of al-Faw

On 17 April 1988, Iraq launched Operation Ramadan Mubarak (Blessed Ramadan), a surprise attack against the 15,000 Basij troops on the peninsula.[69] The attack on al-Faw was preceded by Iraqi diversionary attacks in northern Iraq, with a massive artillery and air barrage of Iranian front lines. Key areas, such as supply lines, command posts, and ammunition depots, were hit by a storm of mustard gas and nerve gas, Sony SVE171A11M battery
Sony SVE171E13M battery as well as by conventional explosives. Helicopters landed Iraqi commandos behind Iranian lines while the main Iraqi force attacked in a frontal assault. Within 48 hours, all of the Iranian forces had been killed or cleared from the al-Faw Peninsula.[6Sony SVE1511G1ESI battery
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9] The day was celebrated in Iraq as Faw Liberation Day throughout Saddam’s rule. The Iraqis had planned the offensive well. Prior to the attack the Iraqi soldiers gave themselves poison gas antidotes to shield themselves from the effect of the saturation of gas. Sony SVE1511S1EW battery
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The heavy and well executed use of chemical weapons was the decisive factor in the Iraqi victory.[131] Iraqi losses were heavy as well, over 1,000 troops were lost.[65] The Iranians eventually managed to halt the Iraqi drive as they pushed towards Khuzestan.[35]

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To the shock of the Iranians, rather than breaking off the offensive, the Iraqis kept up their drive, and a new force attacked the Iranian positions around Basra.[43] Following this, the Iraqis launched a sustained drive to clear the Iranians out of all of southern Iraq.[48]:264

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One of the most successful Iraqi tactics was the “one-two punch” attack using chemical weapons. Using artillery, they would saturate the Iranian front line with rapidly dispersing cyanide and nerve gas, while longer-lasting mustard gas was launched via fighter-bombers and rockets against the Iranian rear, creating a “chemical wall” that blocked reinforcement.[35]

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Operation Praying Mantis[edit]



The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by twenty US air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew. April 1988 [132]

The same day as Iraq’s attack on al-Faw peninsula, the United States Navy launched Operation Praying Mantis in retaliation against Iran for damaging a warship with a mine. Iran lost oil platforms, destroyers, Sony SVE1511H1EW battery

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and frigates in this battle, which ended only when President Reagan decided that the Iranian navy had been put down enough. However, the Revolutionary Guard’s navy continued their speedboat attacks against oil tankers.[ Sony SVE1511H1ESI battery
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Sony PCG-41213M battery69] However, the combined defeats at al-Faw and in the Persian Gulf nudged Iranian leadership towards quitting the war, especially when faced with the prospect of fighting the Americans.[69]

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Iranian counteroffensive[edit]

Faced with such losses, Khomeini appointed the cleric Hashemi Rafsanjani as the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, though he had in actuality occupied that position for months.[126Sony VPCCB3M1E battery

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] Rasanjani ordered a surprise counter-attack into Iraq, which was launched 13 June 1988. The Iranians infiltrated through the Iraqi trenches and moved 10 km (6.2 mi) into Iraq, and managed to strike Saddam’s presidential palace in Baghdad using fighter aircraft.[35] Sony VPCCA3S1E battery

Sony PCG-4121DM battery After 10 hours of fighting, the Iranians were driven back to their original positions again as the Iraqis launched 600 helicopter and 300 aircraft sorties with poison gas.[126]

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Operation Forty Stars[edit]

On 18 June, Iraq launched Operation Forty Stars (چل چراغ chehel cheragh) in conjunction to the Mujahideen-e-Khalq (MEK) around Mehran. With 530 aircraft sorties and heavy use of nerve gas, they crushed the Iranian forces in the area, Sony VPCCA2S1E battery

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killing 3,500, and nearly destroying a Revolutionary Guard division.[126] Mehran was captured once again and occupied by the MEK.[126] Iraq also launched air raids on Iranian population centers and economic targets, setting 10 oil installations on fire.[126]
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Tawakalna ala Allah Operations[edit]

Main article: Tawakalna ala Allah Operations

On 25 May 1988, Iraq launched the first of four Tawakalna ala Allah (Trust in God) Operations,[65] consisting of one of the largest artillery barrages in history, coupled with chemical weapons. The marshes had been dried by drought, Sony SVS13A1U9ES battery
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allowing the Iraqis to use tanks to bypass Iranian field fortifications, expelling the Iranians from the border town of Shalamcheh after less than 10 hours of combat.[43]:11[48]:265[126]
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On 25 June, Iraq launched the second Tawakalna ala Allah operation against the Iranians on Majnoon Island. Iraqi commandos used hovercraft to block the Iranian rear,[35] then used hundreds of tanks with heavy conventional and chemical artillery barrages to recapture the island after 8 hours of combat.[65][1Sony SVS131B12M battery

Sony SVS1511W9EB battery26] Saddam appeared live on Iraqi television to “lead” the charge against the Iranians.[126] The majority of the Iranian defenders were killed during the quick assault.[65] The final two Tawakalna ala Allah operations took place in al-Marah and Khaneqan.[6
Sony SVS1511V9ES battery5] By 12 July, the Iraqis had captured the city of Dehloran, 40 km (25 mi) inside Iran, along with 2,500 troops and much armour and material,[126] which took days to transport to Iraq. The Iraqis withdrew from Dehloran soon after, claiming that they had “no desire to conquer Iranian territory.”[3Sony SVS151A11M battery

Sony SVS1511V9EB battery5] Historian Kaveh Farrokh considered this to be the Iran’s greatest military disaster during the war.[35]




Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq’s 1988 offensives

During the 1988 battles, the Iranians put up little resistance to the Iraqi offensives, having been worn out by nearly eight years of war.[4Sony SVS151A12M battery

Sony SVS1511T9ES battery8]:253 They lost large amounts of equipment; however, they managed to rescue most of their troops from being captured by the Iraqis, leaving Iraq with relatively few prisoners.[35Sony SVS1311E3EW battery

Sony SVS1511N3ES battery] On 2 July, Iran belatedly set up a joint central command which unified the Revolutionary Guard, Army, and Kurdish rebels, and dispelled the rivalry between the Army and the Revolutionary Guard. However this came too late, Sony SVS1311P9EB battery
Sony SVS1511M3EW battery and Iran was believed to have fewer than 200 remaining tanks on the southern front, faced against thousands of Iraqi ones.[126] The only area where the Iranians were not suffering major defeats was in Kurdistan.[100]

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Iran accepts the ceasefire[edit]

Saddam sent a warning to Khomeini in mid-1988, threatening to launch a full-scale invasion and attack Iranian cities with weapons of mass destruction. Shortly afterwards, Iraqi aircraft bombed the Iranian town of Oshnavieh with poison gas, Sony PCG-41212M battery


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immediately killing and wounding over 2,000 civilians. The fear of an all out chemical attack against Iran’s largely unprotected civilian population weighed heavily on the Iranian leadership, and they realized that the international community had no intention of restraining Iraq.[ Sony PCG-41215M battery

Sony VPCZ21Q9E battery133] The lives of the civilian population of Iran were becoming very disrupted, with a third of the urban population evacuating major cities in fear of the seemingly imminent chemical war. Sony PCG-41216M battery


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Meanwhile, Iraqi conventional bombs and missiles continued to strike continuously, as the death toll among the population increased. Iran did reply with missile and air attacks as well, but not enough to deter the Iraqis from attacking.[126]


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Under the threat of invasion, Commander-in-Chief Akbar Rafsanjani ordered the Iranians to retreat from Haj Omran, Kurdistan on 14 July.[126][1Sony PCG-41217M battery

Sony VPCZ13M9E/B battery34] The Iranians did not publicly describe this as a retreat, instead called it a “temporary withdrawal”.[13Sony PCG-41218M battery


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4] By July, Iran’s army inside Iraq (except Kurdistan) had largely disintegrated.[35] Iraq put up a massive display of captured Iranian weapons in Baghdad, claiming they “captured” 1,298 tanks, 5,550 recoil-less rifles, and thousands of other weapons.[126] However, Iraq had taken heavy losses as well, and the battles were very costly.[65]


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On July 1988, Iraqi aeroplanes dropped cyanide bombs on the Iranian Kurdish village of Zardan (as they had done four months earlier on their own Kurdish village of Halabja). Dozens of villages, and some larger towns, such as Marivan, were attacked with poison gas, resulting in even heavier civilian casualties.[135


Sony PCG-6123M battery] About the same time, the USS Vincennes shot down Iran Air Flight 655, killing 290 passengers. The lack of international sympathy disturbed the Iranian leadership, Sony PCG-31111M battery


Sony PCG-6122M battery and they came to the conclusion that the United States was on the verge of waging a full-scale war against them, and that Iraq was on the verge of unleashing its entire chemical arsenal upon their major cities.[133]


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At this point, elements of the Iranian leadership, led by Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (who had pushed for the war initially), persuaded Khomeini to accept the UN ceasefire.[43] They stated that in order to win the war, Sony PCG-31112M battery

Sony PCG-6112M batteryIran’s military budget would have to be increased by 700% and the war would last until 1993.[126] Many officials also pointed out to Khomeini that while Resolution 598 would not give all of the gains that Iran wanted, Sony PCG-31113M battery

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it was better than anything else that had been proposed before, and likely would be proposed afterward, considering that it provided a return to the pre-war status quo, rather than having Iraq occupy Iranian border areas like previous agreements. While many parts were ambiguous, it could be negotiated with Iraq.[52]

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On 20 July 1988, Iran accepted Resolution 598, showing its willingness to accept a ceasefire.[43]:11 A statement from Khomeini was read out in a radio address, and he expressed deep displeasure and reluctance about accepting the ceasefire:

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Happy are those who have departed through martyrdom. Happy are those who have lost their lives in this convoy of light. Unhappy am I that I still survive and have drunk the poisoned chalice…[43][44]:1

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The news of the end of the war was greeted with celebration in Baghdad, with people dancing in the streets; in Tehran, however, the end of the war was greeted with a somber mood.[44]:1

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Kurdish civilians fleeing the Al-Anfal Campaign are airlifted to Iran

Operation Mersad and end of the war[edit]

Main article: Operation Mersad

Operation Mersad (مرساد “ambush”) was the last major military operation of the war, ending in a decisive victory for Iran.

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Both Iran and Iraq had accepted Resolution 598. But despite the ceasefire, after seeing Iraqi victories in the previous months, Iraq decided to launch a new attack and wished to permanently occupy Khuzestan and western Iran,

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as well as to reach its goals from the beginning of the war.[35] Saddam and the Iraqi high command decided on a three-pronged offensive across the border: in Khuzestan, central Iran, and Iranian Kurdistan.[ Sony PCG-31114M battery

35] Shortly after Iran accepted the ceasefire the Iraqi army began their offensive, attacking Khuzestan province beginning with chemical weapons and air strikes.

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Shortly after, Iraq’s main offensive began. Iraqi mechanized forces, supported by aircraft, artillery and chemical weapons entered Khuzestan capturing territory for the first time since 1982, advancing towards Ahvaz, Sony PCG-8X1M Battery

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sony VPCF11Z1E/BI batteryAbadan and Khorramshahr. However, the Iranians carried out a mass mobilization of their reserve forces, and Iranian morale which was low, suddenly increased. New volunteers also poured in as well. sony VPCF11C5E battery


sony VPCF11C4E/B batteryThe Iraqi advance was bogged down into hand-to-hand combat at the “Hamid Military Camp” outside of Ahvaz.[35][ sony VPCF11D4E battery


sony VPCF11S1E battery65] Iraqi air power was blunted by Iran’s air force in conjunction with air defenses. In the north, Iraq also launched an attack into Iraqi Kurdistan, which was blunted by the Iranians.[35]

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On 26 July 1988, the Mujahadeen-e-Khalq (MEK), with the support of the Iraqi army, started their campaign, Operation Forough Javidan (Eternal Light) in central Iran. While Iraqi forces were attacking Khuzestan, sony VPCF11S1E/B battery

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sony VPCF23S1E battery the MEK supported by Iraq attacked western Iran, advancing towards Kermanshah. The Iranians had withdrawn their remaining soldiers to Khuzestan, and as a result the Mujahedeen advanced rapidly, sony VPC-F21Z1E battery

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seizing Qasr-e Shirin, Sarpol-e Zahab, and Islamabad-e-Gharb, and towards Kermanshah. The MEK expected the Iranian population to rise up and support their advance; however, the uprising never materialised, sony VPCF22L1E battery


sony VPCF231S1E battery but they reached 145 km (90 mi) deep into Iran. In response, the Iranian military launched its counter-attack, Operation Mersad, under Lieutenant General Ali Sayyad Shirazi. Iranian paratroopers landed behind the MEK lines while the Iranian Air Force and helicopters launched an air attack, destroying much of the enemy armour.[3sony VPCF22M1E battery


sony VPCF23Q1E battery5] The Iranians defeated the MEK in the city of Kerend-e Gharb on 29 July 1988.[126] On 31 July, Iran drove the Iraqis out of Qasr-e-Shirin and Sarpol Zahab, though Iraq claimed to have “voluntarily withdrawn” from the towns.[35] sony VPCF22S1E battery

sony VPCF23M1E battery [126] Iran estimated that 4,500 MEK and Iraqis were killed, while 400 Iranian soldiers died.[136]




People’s Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988

The last notable combat actions of the war took place on 3 August 1988, in the Persian Gulf when the Iranian navy fired on a freighter and Iraq launched chemical attacks on Iranian civilians, killing an unknown number of them and wounding 2,300.[126] sony VPCF22S8E battery



Iraq came under heavy international pressure to end the war. Resolution 598 became effective on 8 August 1988, ending all combat operations between the two countries.[134] By 20 August 1988, peace with Iran was restored.[1sony VPCF12E1E/H battery

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sony VPCF13M0E/B battery34] UN peacekeepers belonging to the UNIIMOG mission took the field, remaining on the Iran–Iraq border until 1991. While the war was now over, Iraq spent the rest of August and early September clearing the Kurdish resistance. Using 60,000 troops along with helicopter gunships, sony VPCF12M1E/H battery

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sony VPCF13Z0E/B batterychemical weapons (poison gas), and mass executions, Iraq hit 15 villages, killing rebels and civilians, and forced tens of thousands of Kurds to relocate to settlements.[126] Many Kurdish civilians immigrated to Iran. sony VPCF13E8E battery

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sony VPCF13M8E/B batteryBy 3 September 1988, the anti-Kurd campaign ended, and all resistance had been crushed.[126] 400 Iraqi soldiers and 50,000 Kurdish civilians and soldiers had been killed.[126][137]

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An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa’dabad Palace in Iran

The Iran–Iraq War was the deadliest conventional war ever fought between regular armies of developing countries.[54] Iraqi casualties are estimated at 105,000–200,000 killed,[8][18][18][21]


sony VPCF12M0E/B battery [22] while about 400,000 had been wounded and some 70,000 taken prisoner.[11][21] Thousands of civilians on both sides died in air raids and ballistic missile attacks.[45] Prisoners taken by both countries began to be released in 1990, though some were not released until more than 10 years after the end of the conflict.[ sony VPCF13M1E/B battery

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sony VPCF12S1E/B battery34] Cities on both sides had also been considerably damaged. While revolutionary Iran had been bloodied, Iraq was left with a large military and was a regional power, albeit with severe debt, financial problems, and labor shortages.[100]


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According to Iranian government sources, war cost Iran an estimated 200,000–220,000 killed,[8][9][11][18] or up to 262,000 according to the conservative Western estimates.[8][10] This includes 123,220 combatants,[8][9] sony VPCF13Z8E battery


sony VPCF13S0E/B battery 60,711 MIA[8] and 11,000-16,000 civilians.[8][9] Combatants include 79,664 members of the Revolutionary Guard Corps and additional 35,170 soldiers from regular military.[9] In addition, prisoners of war comprise 42,875 Iranian casualties, sony VPCF13Z8E/BI battery

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sony VPCF13S1E/B battery they were captured and kept in Iraqi detention centers from 2.5 to more than 15 years after the war was over.[19] According to the Janbazan Affairs Organization, 398,587 Iranians sustained injuries that required prolonged medical and health care following primary treatment, including 52,195 sony VPCF12Z1E/BI battery

(13%) injured due to the exposure to chemical warfare agents.[19] From 1980 to 2012, 218,867 Iranians died due to war injuries and mean age of combatants was 23 years old.[19] This includes 33,430 civilians, mostly women and children.[19sony VPCF13M1E/H battery

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sony VPCF22M0E battery] More than 144,000 Iranian children were orphaned as a consequence of these deaths.[19] Other estimates put Iranian casualties up to 600,000.[ sony VPCF24Q1E battery


sony VPCY21S1E/G batteryBoth Iraq and Iran manipulated loss figures to suit their purposes. At the same time, Western analysts accepted improbable estimates.[141] By April 1988, such casualties were estimated at between 150,000 to 340,000 Iraqis dead, sony VPCF23P1E battery

sony VPCY21S1E/L battery and 450,000 to 730,000 Iranians.[141] Shortly after the end of the war, it was thought that Iran suffered even more than a million dead.[9sony VPCF23N1E battery

] Considering the style of fighting on the ground and the fact that neither side penetrated deeply into the other’s territory, Sony VPCZ21L9E/B battery

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USMC analysts believe events do not substantiate the high casualties claimed.[141] Iraqi government has claimed 800,000 Iranians were killed in conflict, four times more than Iranian official figures[8] Iraqi losses were also revised downwards over time.[22]
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Peace Talks and Postwar Situation[edit]

With the ceasefire in place, and UN peacekeepers monitoring the border, Iran and Iraq sent their representatives to Geneva, Sony VPCZ21M9E/B battery

Sony VPCZ11D7E batterySwitzerland, to negotiate a peace agreement on the terms of the ceasefire. However, peace talks stalled. Iraq, in violation of the UN ceasefire, refused to withdraw its troops from 3,000 square miles Iranian territory unless the Iranians accepted Iraq’s full sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab waterway (as Iran had feared in 1982). Sony VPCZ21S9E/B battery

Sony VPCZ11C7E batteryForeign powers continued to support Iraq, which wanted to gain at the negotiating table what they failed to achieve on the battlefield, and Iran was portrayed as the one who was not wanting peace.[ Sony VPCZ21V9E/B battery

Sony VPCZ11C5E battery142] Iran, in response, refused to release 70,000 Iraqi prisoners of war (twice as many compared to Iranian prisoners of war in Iraq). They also continued to carry out a naval blockade of Iraq, although its effects were mitigated by Iraqi trade with its Arab neighbors. Sony VPCZ21X9E/B battery
Sony VPCZ11A7R battery Iran also began to improve relations with many of the states that opposed it during the war. Because of Iranian actions, by 1990, Saddam had become more conciliatory, and in a letter to the now President Rafsanjani, Sony VPCZ13A7E battery
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he became more open to the idea of a peace agreement, although he still insisted on full sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab.[142]
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By 1990, Iran was undergoing military rearmament and reorganization, purchasing from the USSR and China $10 billion worth of heavy weaponry (including aircraft, tanks, and missiles. Rafsanjani reversed Iran’s self-imposed ban on chemical weapons, and ordered the manufacture and stockpile of them (in 1993, Sony VPCZ13C7E battery

Sony VPCZ12B7E battery Iran ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention, and subsequently destroyed them.[143] Saddam realized that if Iran attempted to expel the Iraqis from their territory, it was likely they would succeed.[35Sony VPCZ13D7E battery

Sony VPCZ12A7E battery] As war with the western powers loomed, Iraq became concerned about Iran mending their relations with the west in order to attack Iraq. Iraq had lost their support from the West, and their position in Iran was increasingly untenable.[14Sony VPCZ13E7E battery

Sony VPCZ11Z9R/B battery2] Shortly after his invasion of Kuwait, Saddam wrote a letter to Rafsanjani stating that Iraq recognised Iranian rights over the eastern half of the Shatt al-Arab, a reversion to the status quo ante bellum that he had repudiated a decade earlier,[144Sony VPCZ13F7E battery
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Sony VPCZ11X9R/B battery] and that he would accept Iran’s demands and withdraw Iraq’s military from Iran. A peace agreement was signed finalizing the terms of the UN resolution, diplomatic relations was restored, Sony VPCZ12S9R/B battery

Sony VPCZ11X9R/S batteryand by late 1990-early 1991, the Iraqi military withdrew from Iranian territory. The UN peacekeepers withdrew from the border shortly afterward. Most of the prisoners of war were released in 1990, Sony VPCZ12S9R/S battery

Sony VPCZ12X9R/B battery although some remained as late as 2003.[142] Iranian politicians declared it to be the “greatest victory in the history of the Islamic Republic of Iran”.[142]
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Most historians and analysts consider the war to be a stalemate. Certain analysts believe that Iraq won, on the basis of the success of their 1988 offensives which persuaded Iran to accept the ceasefire.[35]
Sony VPCZ12J7E battery Iranian analysts believe that they won the war because although they did not succeed in defeating Iraq militarily, they did manage to gain their political goals of driving Iraq entirely from their territory Sony VPCZ12V9E/X battery

Sony VPCZ12L7E battery  (which was an important purpose of the post 1982 invasion of Iraq, to force the Iraqis to negotiate a withdrawal from Iran’s border areas).[5Sony VPCZ12V9R/X battery

Sony VPCZ12H7E battery2] They also cite the fact that Iran achieved its goals against Iraq’s superior military, they thwarted Iraq’s major territorial ambitions in Iran, and that Iraq permanently gave up its claims to the Shatt al-Arab as well.[35]
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On 9 December 1991, Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, UN Secretary General at the time, reported that Iraq’s initiation of the war was unjustified, as was its occupation of Iranian territory and use of chemical weapons against civilians:
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That [Iraq's] explanations do not appear sufficient or acceptable to the international community is a fact…[the attack] cannot be justified under the charter of the United Nations, any recognized rules and principles of international law, Sony VPCZ12X9E/X battery
Sony VPCZ12E7E batteryor any principles of international morality, and entails the responsibility for conflict. Even if before the outbreak of the conflict there had been some encroachment by Iran on Iraqi territory, Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery
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Sony VGN-FW54S Batterysuch encroachment did not justify Iraq’s aggression against Iran—which was followed by Iraq’s continuous occupation of Iranian territory during the conflict—in violation of the prohibition of the use of force, which is regarded as one of the rules of jus cogens.
Sony VGN-FW54J Battery..On one occasion I had to note with deep regret the experts’ conclusion that “chemical weapons ha[d] been used against Iranian civilians in an area adjacent to an urban center lacking any protection against that kind of attack.[145]

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He also stated that had the UN accepted this fact earlier, the war would have almost certainly not lasted as long as it did. Iran, encouraged by the announcement, sought reparations from Iraq, but never received any.[142]

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Sony VGN-FW46Z BatteryUnited Nations observers on the Iran–Iraq border, inspecting Iraqi chemical shells

Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, Iran and Iraq relations remained at a limbo between a cold war and a cold peace. Despite renewed and somewhat thawed relations, both sides continued to have low level conflicts with each other. Iraq continued to host and support the Mujahedeen-e-Khalq, Sony VGN-NW20EF Battery
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Sony VGN-FW46S Batterywhich carried out multiple attacks throughout Iran up until the 2003 US led invasion (including the assassination of Iranian general Ali Sayyad Shirazi in 1998, cross border raids, and mortar attacks). Sony VGN-FW46M Battery
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Sony VGN-NW26EG BatteryIran carried out several airstrikes and missile attacks against Mujahedeen targets inside of Iraq (the largest taking place in 2001, when Iran fired 56 Scud missiles at Mujahedeen targets).[1Sony VGN-FW51 Battery

Sony VGN-NW24MR Battery46] In addition, according to General Hamdani, Iran continued to carry out low-level infiltrations of Iraqi territory, using Iraqi dissidents and anti-government activists rather than Iranian troops, Sony VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery
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Sony VGN-NW24MG Battery in order to incite revolts. After the fall of Saddam in 2003, Hamdani claimed that Iranian agents infiltrated and created numerous militias in Iraq and built an intelligence system operating within the country.[65]

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In 2005, the new government of Iraq apologised to Iran for starting the war.[147] The Iraqi government also commemorated the war with various monuments, including the Hands of Victory and the al-Shaheed Monument, Sony VGN-FW41M/H Battery

Sony VGN-NW24EG Batteryboth in Baghdad. The war also helped to create a forerunner for the Coalition of the Gulf War, when the Gulf Arab states banded together early in the war to form the Gulf Cooperation Council to help Iraq fight Iran.[100]
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With the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, and Iran’s involvement in Iraq’s new government and backing of proxy militias, many observers believe that Iran has effectively gained influence over Iraq.[148] Thus many of Iran’s objectives and goals have been achieved (including the fall of Saddam Hussein). Sony VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery

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Financial situation[edit]

The financial loss at the time was believed to exceed US$500 billion for each country ($1.2 trillion total).[149] In addition, Sony VGN-FW56M Battery
Sony VGN-NW24S Batteryeconomic development stalled and oil exports were disrupted. Iran, having used bloodier but economically cheaper tactics during the war, only incurred a small debt, in contrast to the large ones incurred by Iraq. Iraq had accrued more than $130 billion of international debt, Sony VGN-FW56 Battery

Sony VGN-FW11ZU batteryexcluding interest, and was also weighed down by a slowed GDP growth. Iraq’s debt to Paris Club amounted to $21 billion, 85% of which had originated from the combined inputs of Japan, the USSR, France, Germany, the United States, Italy and the United Kingdom. Sony VGN-FW54M Battery

Sony VGN-FW11S batteryThe largest portion of Iraq’s debt, amounting to $130 billion, was to its former Arab backers, with $67 billion loaned by Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, UAE, and Jordan.[150Sony VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

Sony VGN-FW11M battery] Ironically, at some points during the war, Iran’s strategy was to drive the Iraqis into economic difficulties through contant attrition, forcing them to waste more money on armaments, and in that sense they were successful.[100]
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After the war, Iraq accused Kuwait of slant drilling and stealing oil, inciting its invasion of Kuwait, which in turn worsened Iraq’s financial situation: the United Nations Compensation Commission mandated Iraq to pay reparations of more than $200 billion to victims of the invasion, Sony VGN-FW56Z Battery

Sony VGN-FW21Z battery including Kuwait and the United States. To enforce payment Iraq was put under a complete international embargo, which put further strain on the Iraqi economy and pushed its external debt and international liabilities to private and public sectors to more than $500 billion by the end of Saddam’s rule. Sony VGN-SR57S Battery

Sony VGN-FW21M battery Combined with Iraq’s negative economic growth after prolonged international sanctions, this produced a debt-to-GDP ratio of more than 1,000%, making Iraq the most indebted developing country in the world. Sony VGN-SR57V Battery

Sony VGN-FW21L batteryThe unsustainable economic situation compelled the new Iraqi government to request that a considerable portion of debt incurred during the Iran–Iraq war be written off.[151][152][153] Sony VGN-SR57X Battery
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Sony VGN-FW21J battery [154] Consequently the effects of the Iran–Iraq War led to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent Persian Gulf War two years later.[100]

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Much of the oil industry in both countries was damaged in air raids. 10 million shells had landed in Iraq’s oil fields at Basra, seriously damaging their oil production. Iran’s production capacity has yet[timeframe?] to fully recover from the damages of the war.[43]

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Science and technology[edit]

The war had a marked effect on the scientific and technological advancement of the involved countries: Sony VGN-FW56ZR Battery

Sony VGN-NW31EF/W batteryIraq’s productivity in the field collapsed and has not yet recovered,[timeframe?] and Kuwait’s scientific output was initially slowed and later became stagnant. Iran, on the other hand, experienced a scientific revival, and as of 2010 has the fastest scientific growth rate in the world.[155]
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The war had its impact on medical science: a surgical intervention for comatose patients with penetrating brain injuries was created by Iranian physicians treating wounded soldiers, later establishing neurosurgery guidelines to treat civilians who had suffered blunt or penetrating skull
Sony VGN-NW21MF battery injuries. The previous surgical technique had been developed by the U.S. army during World War II; the newer procedures reportedly helped U.S. congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords recover after the 2011 Tucson shooting.[156]
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In addition to helping trigger the Persian Gulf War, the Iran–Iraq War also paved the way for an American victory in 1991. Sony VGN-FW56SR Battery

Sony VGN-NW21JF battery Iraq’s military was accustomed to fighting the slow moving Iranian infantry formations with artillery and static defenses, while using mostly unsophisticated tanks to gun down and shell the infantry and overwhelm the smaller Iranian tank force; Sony VGN-SR49VT/H Battery
Sony VGN-NW21EF/S battery in addition to being dependent on weapons of mass destruction to help secure victories. Therefore, they were rapidly overwhelmed by the high-tech, quick-maneuvering US forces using modern doctrines such as AirLand Battle.[1Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery


Sony VPCF13J0E/H Battery00] Meanwhile, the Iranians proved that it was possible to fight, and in numerous cases, even defeat a large, mechanized military, using primarily light infantry tactics.[7


Sony VPCF13E8E Battery7] Armored maneuver during the war was costly, because of anti-tank weapons. Consequently, the war became a static trench war, and Iraqis frequently dug in tanks into static defenses.[69]

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The Iran–Iraq War was the first war that featured the use of unmanned drones in combat (rather than observation only), by Iran.[157]


Home front[edit]



At first, Saddam attempted to ensure that the Iraqi population suffered from the war as little as possible. There was rationing, but civilian projects began before the war continued.[4Sony VGN-FW21E Battery


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3] At the same time, the already extensive personality cult around Saddam reached new heights of adulation while the regime tightened its control over the military.[43] Sony VPCF11D4E Battery

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After the Iranian victories of the spring of 1982 and the Syrian closure of Iraq’s main pipeline, Saddam did a volte-face on his policy towards the home front: a policy of austerity and total war was introduced, with the entire population being mobilised for the war effort.[ Sony VPC-F2 Battery


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43] All Iraqis were ordered to donate blood and around 100,000 Iraqi civilians were ordered to clear the reeds in the southern marshes. Mass demonstrations of loyalty towards Saddam became more common.[43Sony VPC-F21Z1E Battery


Sony VPCF12F4E/H Battery] Saddam also began implementing a policy of discrimination against Iraqis of Iranian origin.[35]


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In the summer of 1982, Saddam began a campaign of terror. More than 300 Iraqi Army officers were executed for their failures on the battlefield.[4Sony VPCF22J1E Battery


Sony VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery3] In 1983, a major crackdown was launched on the leadership of the Shia community. Ninety members of the al-Hakim family, an influential family of Shia clerics whose leading members were the émigrés Mohammad Baqir al-Hakim and Abdul Aziz al-Hakim, were arrested, and 6 were hanged.[ Sony VPCF22L1E Battery


Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery43] The crackdown on Kurds saw 8,000 members of the Barzani clan, whose leader (Massoud Barzani) also led the Kurdistan Democratic Party, summarily executed.[43] From 1983 onwards, Sony VPCF22M1E Battery

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Sony VPCF11S1E Battery a campaign of increasingly brutal repression was started against the Iraqi Kurds, characterised by Israeli historian Efraim Karsh as having “assumed genocidal proportions” by 1988.[43] The al-Anfal Campaign was intended to “pacify” Iraqi Kurdistan permanently.[43]


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Gaining civilian support[edit]

To secure the loyalty of the Shia population, Saddam allowed more Shias into the Ba’ath Party and the government, and improved Shia living standards, which had been lower than those of the Iraqi Sunnis.[43] Saddam had the state pay for restoring Imam Ali’s tomb with white marble imported from Italy.[43Sony VPCF22S8E Battery

] The Baathists also increased their policies of repression against the Shia. The most infamous event was the massacre of 148 civilians of the Shia town of Dujail.[158]


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Despite the costs of the war, the Iraqi regime made generous contributions to Shia waqf (religious endowments) as part of the price of buying Iraqi Shia support.[4Sony VGN-FW21L Battery

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Sony VGN-FW11MR Battery4]:75–76 The importance of winning Shia support was such that welfare services in Shia areas were expanded during a time in which the Iraqi regime was pursuing austerity in all other non-military fields.[44Sony VPCF23M1E Battery

]:76 During the first years of the war in the early 1980s, the Iraqi government tried to accommodate the Kurds in order to focus on the war against Iran. In 1983, Sony VGN-FW21M Battery


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the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan agreed to cooperate with Baghdad, but the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP) remained opposed.[15

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Sony VPCF231S1E Battery9] In 1983, Saddam signed an autonomy agreement with Jalal Talabani of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), though Saddam later reneged on the agreement.[43] By 1985, the PUK and KDP had joined forces, and Iraqi Kurdistan saw widespread guerrilla warfare up to the end of the war.[43] Sony VPCF1318E/H Battery


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Iranian children support Iranian Forces via their money pots.

The Iranian government saw the outbreak of war as chance to strengthen its position and consolidate the Islamic revolution: the war was presented to the Iranian people as a glorious jihad and a test of Iranian national character.[43] Sony VPCF13M1E/B Battery


Sony VPCF13Z0E/B BatteryThe Iranian regime followed a policy of total war from the beginning, and attempted to mobilise the nation as a whole.[4Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery


Sony VPCF13M8E/B Battery3] They established a group known as the Reconstruction Campaign, whose members were exempted from conscription and were instead sent into the countryside to work on farms to replace the men serving at the front.[43]

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Iranian workers had a day’s pay deducted from their pay cheques every month to help finance the war, and mass campaigns were launched to encourage the public to donate food, money, and blood for the soldiers.[4Sony VPCF13Z8E/BI Battery

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3] To further help finance the war, the Iranian government banned the import of all non-essential items, and launched a major effort to rebuild the damaged oil plants.[43]


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Civil unrest[edit]

In June 1981, street battles broke out between the Revolutionary Guard and the left-wing Mujaheddin e-Khalq (MEK), continuing for several days and killing hundreds on both sides.[44


Sony VPCF12Z1E Battery]:250 In September, more unrest broke out on the streets of Iran as the MEK attempted to seize power.[ Sony VPCF12Z1E/BI Battery


Sony VPCF13S0E/B Battery43] Thousands of left-wing Iranians (many of whom were not associated with the MEK) were shot and hanged by the government in the aftermath.[48]:251 The MEK began an assassination campaign that killed hundreds of regime officials by the fall of 1981.[44


Sony VPCF13S1E/B Battery]:251 On 28 June 1981, they assassinated the secretary-general of the Islamic Republican Party, Mohammad Beheshti and on 30 August, killed Iran’s president, Mohammad-Ali Rajai.[44Sony VPCF13M1E/H Battery


Sony VPCF22M0E Battery]:251 The government responded with mass executions of suspected MEK members, a practice that lasted until 1985.[43]


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In addition to the open civil conflict with the MEK, the Iranian government was faced with Iraqi-supported rebellions in Iranian Kurdistan, which were gradually put down through a campaign of systematic repression.[43] 1985 also saw student anti-war demonstrations, which were crushed by government activists.[43]


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The war furthered the decline of the Iranian economy that had begun with the revolution in 1978–79.[43] Between 1979 and 1981, foreign exchange reserves fell from US$14.6 billion to $1 billion.[43]


Sony VPCF23N1E BatteryAs a result of the war, living standards dropped dramatically,[43][48]:252 and Iran was described by British journalists John Bulloch and Harvey Morris as “a dour and joyless place” ruled by a harsh regime that “seemed to have nothing to offer but endless war.”[44


Sony VPCF23P1E Battery]:239 Though Iran was becoming bankrupt, Khomeini interpreted Islam’s prohibition of usury to mean they could not borrow against future oil revenues to meet war expenses. As a result, Sony VPCF21Z1E/BI Battery

Sony VPCF24Q1E Battery Iran funded the war by the income from oil exports after cash had run out. The revenue from oil dropped from $20 billion in 1982 to $5 billion in 1988.[48]:252


In January 1985, former prime minister and anti-war Islamic Liberation Movement Mehdi Bazargan criticised the war in a telegram to the United Nations, calling it un-Islamic and illegitimate and arguing that Khomeini should have accepted Saddam’s truce offer in 1982 instead of attempting to overthrow the Ba’ath.[4Sony SVE151D11M battery


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3] He added, “Since 1986, you have not stopped proclaiming victory, and now you are calling upon population to resist until victory. Is that not an admission of failure on your part?”[ Sony VGN-FW31M Battery


Sony VGN-FW31J Battery48]:252 Khomeini was annoyed by Bazargan’s telegram, and issued a lengthy public rebuttal in which he defended the war as both Islamic and just.[43]

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By 1987, Iranian morale had begun to crumble, reflected in the failure of government campaigns to recruit “martyrs” for the front.[43Sony VGN-FW11Z Battery

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Sony VGN-FW56J Battery] Israeli historian Efraim Karsh points to the decline in morale in 1987–88 as being a major factor in Iran’s decision to accept the ceasefire of 1988.[43]


Not all saw the war in negative terms. The Islamic Revolution of Iran was strengthened and radicalised.[1


Sony VGN-FW51MF/H Battery60] The Iranian government-owned Etelaat newspaper wrote, “There is not a single school or town that is excluded from the happiness of ‘holy defence’ of the nation, from drinking the exquisite elixir of martyrdom, or from the sweet death of the martyr, who dies in order to live forever in paradise.”[161]

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Comparison of Iraqi and Iranian military strength[edit]


See also: Order of battle during the Iran–Iraq War

At the beginning of the war, Iraq held a clear advantage in armour, while both nations were roughly equal in terms of artillery. Sony VGN-FW21J Battery

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Sony VGN-FW51ZF/H BatteryThe gap only widened as the war went on. Iran started with a stronger air force, but over time, the balance of power reversed in Iraq’s favour. Estimates for 1980 and 1987 were:[162]


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Donald Rumsfeld as the American special envoy to the Middle East meets Saddam in December 1983. Rumsfeld would later become U.S. Defense Secretary during the 2003 Iraq War, which saw Saddam ousted from power and ultimately executed. Sony VGN-FW3ZJ Battery

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During the war, Iraq was regarded by the West and the Soviet Union as a counterbalance to post-revolutionary Iran.[4Sony VGN-FW41J/H Battery


Sony VGN-FW51 Battery4]:119 The Soviet Union, Iraq’s main arms supplier during the war, did not wish for the end of its alliance with Iraq, and was alarmed by Saddam’s threats to find new arms suppliers in the West and China if the Kremlin did not provide him with the weapons he wanted.[4


Sony VGN-FW46M Battery4]:119, 198–199 The Soviet Union hoped to use the threat of reducing arms supplies to Iraq as leverage for forming a Soviet-Iranian alliance.[44]:197


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During the early years of the war, the United States lacked meaningful relations with either Iran or Iraq, the former due to the Iranian Revolution and the Iran hostage crisis and the latter because of Iraq’s alliance with the Soviet Union and hostility towards Israel. Sony VGN-FW41M/H Battery

Sony VGN-FW41ZJ/H BatteryFollowing Iran’s success of repelling the Iraqi invasion and Khomeini’s refusal to end the war in 1982, the U.S. made an outreach to Iraq, beginning with the restoration of diplomatic relations in 1984. Sony VGN-FW11SR Battery

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Sony VGN-NW21MF BatteryThe United States wished to both keep Iran away from Soviet influence and protect other Gulf states from any threat of Iranian expansion. As a result, it began to provide limited support to Iraq.[44]:142–143 In 1982, Henry Kissinger, former Secretary of State, outlined U.S. policy towards Iran:


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The focus of Iranian pressure at this moment is Iraq. There are few governments in the world less deserving of our support and less capable of using it. Had Iraq won the war, the fear in the Gulf and the threat to our interest would be scarcely less than it is today. Sony VGN-FW11ZU Battery

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Sony VGN-FW56Z BatteryStill, given the importance of the balance of power in the area, it is in our interests to promote a ceasefire in that conflict; through not a cost that will preclude an eventual rapprochement with Iran either if a more moderate regime replaces Khomenini’s or if the present


Sony VGN-FW54S Battery rulers wake up to geopolitical reality that the historic threat to Iran’s independence has always come from the country with which it shares a border of 1,500 miles [2,400 km]: the Soviet Union. Sony VGN-FW21ZR Battery


Sony VGN-FW54J Battery A rapprochement with Iran, of course, must await at a minimum Iran’s abandonment of hegemonic aspirations in the Gulf.[44]:142–143


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Richard Murphy, Assistant Secretary of State during the war, testified to Congress in 1984 that the Reagan administration believed a victory for either Iran or Iraq was “neither militarily feasible nor strategically desirable.”[44]:178


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Support to Iraq was given via technological aid, intelligence, the sale of dual-use and military equipment, and satellite intelligence. Sony VGN-FW46S Battery

While there was direct combat between Iran and the United States, it is not universally agreed that the fighting between the U.S. and Iran was specifically to benefit Iraq, or for separate issues between the U.S. and Iran.

Sony VGN-FW51E/H BatteryAmerican official ambiguity towards which side to support was summed up by Henry Kissinger when he remarked, “It’s a pity they both can’t lose.”[16Sony VGN-FW46Z Battery

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3] The Americans and the British also either blocked or watered down UN resolutions that condemned Iraq for using chemical weapons against the Iranians and their own Kurdish citizens.


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More than 30 countries provided support to Iraq, Iran, or both; most of the aid went to Iraq. Iran had a complex clandestine procurement network to obtain munitions and critical materials. Iraq had an even larger clandestine purchasing network, Sony VGN-NW26M Battery


Sony VGN-NS11ER/S Battery involving 10–12 allied countries, to maintain ambiguity over their arms purchases and to circumvent “official restrictions”. Arab mercenaries and volunteers from Egypt[164] and Jordan formed the Yarmouk Brigade[165Sony VGN-NW20EF Battery


Sony VGN-NS11E/S Battery] and participated in the war alongside Iraqis.


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According to the Stockholm International Peace Institute, the Soviet Union, France, and China together accounted for over 90% of the value of Iraq’s arms imports between 1980 and 1988.[166]

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The United States pursued policies in favour of Iraq by reopening diplomatic channels, lifting restrictions on the export of dual-use technology, overseeing the transfer of third-party military hardware, and providing operational intelligence on the battlefield. Sony VGN-NW20SF Battery

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France, which from the 1970s onward had been one of Iraq’s closest allies, was a major supplier of military hardware to Iraq.[4Sony VGN-NW24JG Battery


Sony VGN-NS20EF/P Battery4]:184–185 The French sold weapons equal to the sum of US$5 billion, which comprised well over a quarter of Iraq’s total arms stockpile.[44Sony VGN-NW24MG Battery

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Sony VGN-NS30Z/S Battery]:184–185 China, which had no direct stake in the victory of either side and whose interests in the war were entirely commercial, freely sold arms to both sides.[44]:185, 187, 188, 192–193


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Iraq also made extensive use of front companies, middlemen, secret ownership of all or part of companies all over the world, forged end user certificates, and other methods to hide what it was acquiring. Some transactions may have involved people, Sony VGN-NW26EG Battery


Sony VGN-NS30E/S Batteryshipping, and manufacturing in as many as 10 countries.[167] Support from Great Britain exemplified the methods by which Iraq would circumvent export controls. Iraq bought at least one British company with operations in the United Kingdom and the United States,


Sony VGN-NS20M/S Batteryand had a complex relationship with France and the Soviet Union, its major suppliers of actual weapons.


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The United Nations Security Council initially called for a cease-fire after a week of fighting while Iraq was occupying Iranian territory, and renewed the call on later occasions. However, the UN did not come to Iran’s aid to repel the Iraqi invasion, and the Iranians thus interpreted the UN as subtly biased in favour of Iraq.[149] Sony VGN-NW26JG Battery

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Financial support[edit]

Iraq’s main financial backers were the oil-rich Persian Gulf states, most notably Saudi Arabia ($30.9 billion), Kuwait ($8.2 billion), and the United Arab Emirates ($8 billion).[150


Sony VGN-NS20E/P Battery] In all, Iraq received $35 billion in loans from the West and between $30 and $40 billion from the Persian Gulf states during the 1980s.[168]


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The Iraqgate scandal revealed that a branch of Italy’s largest bank, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL), in Atlanta, Georgia, US relied partially on U.S. taxpayer-guaranteed loans to funnel $5 billion to Iraq from 1985 to 1989. Sony VGN-NW21MF/P Battery

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Sony VGN-NS11J/S BatteryIn August 1989, when FBI agents raided the Atlanta branch of BNL, branch manager Christopher Drogoul was charged with making unauthorised, clandestine, and illegal loans to Iraq – some of which, according to his indictment, were used to purchase arms and weapons technology.[169]


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According to the Financial Times, the companies involved in the scandal by shipping militarily useful technology to Iraq were Hewlett-Packard, Tektronix and Matrix Churchill’s branch in Ohio, US.[170]


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While the United States directly fought Iran, citing freedom of navigation as a major casus belli, it also indirectly supplied some weapons to Iran as part of a complex and illegal programme that became known as the Iran-Contra affair. Sony VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery

Sony VGN-NS10E/S BatteryThese secret sales were partly to help secure the release of hostages held in Lebanon, and partly to make money to help the Contras rebel group in Nicaragua. This arms for hostages agreement turned into a major scandal.

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North Korea was a major arms supplier to Iran, often acting as a third party in arms deals between Iran and the Communist bloc. Support included domestically manufactured arms and Eastern-Bloc weapons, Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery


Sony VGP-BPS21B battery for which the major powers wanted deniability. Meanwhile, South Korea supported Iran by providing Western Bloc supplies (majorly F-4 Phantom II parts), and domestic produced heavy weapons. Other arms suppliers and supporters of Iran included Libya and China.

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Both countries[edit]

Besides the United States and the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia also sold weapons to both countries for the entire duration of the conflict. Likewise, Portugal helped both countries;[126]:8 it was not unusual to see Iranian and Iraqi flagged ships moored side-by-side at the Port of Sines.

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From 1980 to 1987 Spain sold €458 million in weapons to Iran and €172 million[clarification needed] in weapons to Iraq. Weapons sold to Iraq included 4×4 vehicles, BO-105 helicopters, explosives, and ammunition. Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

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Sony VGP-BPS21 battery A research party later discovered that an unexploded chemical Iraqi warhead in Iran was manufactured in Spain.[126]:8[171]


Although neither side acquired any weapons from Turkey, both sides enjoyed Turkish civilian trade during the conflict, although the Turkish government remained neutral and refused to support the trade embargo imposed by the U.S. on Iran. Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery

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Sony VGP-BPL21 battery Turkey’s export market jumped from $220 million in 1981 to $2 billion in 1985, making up 25% of Turkey’s overall exports. Turkish construction projects in Iraq totaled $2.5 billion between 1974 and 1990. Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery

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Sony VGP-BPL13 batteryTrading with both countries helped Turkey to offset its ongoing economic crisis, though the benefits decreased as the war neared its end and accordingly disappeared entirely with Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait and the resulting Iraq sanctions Turkey imposed in response.[172]

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Sony VGP-BPS13S batteryA key element of US political–military and energy–economic planning occurred in early 1984. The Iran–Iraq war had been going on for five years and there were significant casualties on both sides, Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A /B Batteryreading hundreds of thousands. Within the Reagan National Security Council concern was growing that the war could spread beyond the boundaries of the two belligerents. Sony VGP-BPS13B battery


Sony VGP-BPS21B batteryA National Security Planning Group meeting was called chaired by Vice President George Bush to review US options. It was determined that there was a high likelihood that the conflict would spread into Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states, Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

but that the US had little capability to defend the region. Furthermore it was determined that a prolonged war in the region would induce much higher oil prices and threaten the fragile world recovery which was just beginning to gain momentum. Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A battery On May 22, 1984, President Reagan was briefed on the project conclusions in the Oval Office by William Flynn Martin who had served as the head of the NSC staff that organized the study. The full declassified presentation can be seen here.[173] The conclusions were threefold:


Sony VGP-BPS21 battery first oil stocks needed to be increased among members of the International Energy Agency and, if necessary, released early in the event of oil market disruption; second the United States needed to beef up the security of friendly Arab states in the region and thirdly an embargo should be placed on sales of military equipment to Iran and Iraq. Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery


Sony VGP-BPL21 batteryThe Plan was approved by the President and later affirmed by the G-7 leaders headed by Margaret Thatcher in the London Summit of 1984.

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The plan was implemented and became the basis for US preparedness to respond to the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait in 1991. Which shows that the planning Gulf War of 1991 was begun in 1984, demonstrating the long lead times necessary for military deployment. Sony VGP-BPS13S battery

The policy of 1984 was undercut by the activities of the Reagan administration of selling arms to Iran (see Iran-Contra), demonstrating the inconsistencies in the Reagan policies.


Sony VGP-BPS21A batteryOn 17 May 1987, an Iraqi Mirage F1 attack aircraft launched two Exocet missiles at the USS Stark, a Perry class frigate. The first struck the port side of the ship and failed to explode, though it left burning propellant in its wake; Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

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the second struck moments later in approximately the same place and penetrated through to crew quarters, where it exploded, killing 37 crew members and leaving 21 injured. Whether or not Iraqi leadership authorised the attack is still unknown. Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPS21 batteryInitial claims by the Iraqi government (that Stark was inside the Iran–Iraq War zone) were shown to be false, and the motives and orders of the pilot remain unanswered. Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery


Sony VGP-BPL21 batteryThough American officials claimed that the pilot who attacked Stark had been executed, an ex-Iraqi Air Force commander since stated he had not been punished, and was still alive at the time.[41Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery


Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery] The attack remains the only successful anti-ship missile strike on an American warship.[174][175] Due to the extensive political and military cooperation between the Iraqis and Americans by 1987, the attack had little effect on relations between the two countries.

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U.S. military actions toward Iran[edit]

U.S. attention was focused on isolating Iran as well as maintaining freedom of navigation. It criticised Iran’s mining of international waters, and sponsored UN Security Council Resolution 598, which passed unanimously on 20 July, underSony VGP-BPS13B/S battery

which the U.S. and Iranian forces skirmished during Operation Earnest Will. During Operation Nimble Archer in October 1987, the U.S. attacked Iranian oil platforms in retaliation for an Iranian attack on the U.S.-flagged Kuwaiti tanker Sea Isle City.[112]

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On 14 April 1988, the frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts was badly damaged by an Iranian mine, and 10 sailors were wounded. U.S. forces responded with Operation Praying Mantis on 18 April, the U.S. Navy’s largest engagement of surface warships since World War II. Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery


Sony VGP-BPS13AB batteryTwo Iranian oil platforms were damaged, and five Iranian warships and gunboats were sunk. An American helicopter also crashed.[ Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery

Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery112] This fighting manifested in the International Court of Justice as Oil Platforms case (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America), which was eventually dismissed in 2003.

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U.S. shoots down civilian airliner[edit]

Main article: Iran Air Flight 655

In the course of escorts by the U.S. Navy, the cruiser USS Vincennes shot down Iran Air Flight 655 on 3 July 1988, killing all 290 passengers and crew on board. The American government claimed that that the Vincennes was in international waters at the time sony VPCEB1CGX battery


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(which was later proven to be untrue), that the civilian airliner had been mistaken for an Iranian F-14 Tomcat, and the Vincennes feared that it was under attack.[41]:260–273[174] The Iranians maintain that the Vincennes was in their own waters, sony VPCEB1EGX battery

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sony VPCEB2MGX batteryand that the passenger jet was turning away and increasing altitude after take-off. U.S. Admiral William J. Crowe later admitted on Nightline that the Vincennes was in Iranian territorial waters when it launched the missiles. At the time of the attack, Admiral Crowe claimed that the Iranian plane did not identify itself and sent no response to warning signals he had sent.

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According to an investigation conducted by Nightline, decoys were sent by the U.S. Navy into the Persian Gulf during the war to lure out the Iranian gunboats and destroy them, and that the Vincennes was performing such an operation when she shot down the Iranian airliner.

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Iranian solit had to use full PPE in front line of Iran–Iraq War

In a declassified 1991 report, the CIA estimated that Iran had suffered more than 50,000 casualties from Iraq’s use of several chemical weapons,[176] though current estimates are more than 100,000 as the long-term effects continue to cause casualties.[45] sony VPCEB1MFX battery


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[177] The official CIA estimate did not include the civilian population contaminated in bordering towns or the children and relatives of veterans, many of whom have developed blood, lung and skin complications, sony VPCEB1LFX battery

according to the Organization for Veterans of Iran. According to a 2002 article in the Star-Ledger, 20,000 Iranian soldiers were killed on the spot by nerve gas. As of 2002, 5,000 of the 90,000 survivors continue to seek regular medical treatment, while 1,000 are hospital inpatients.[178][179]

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sony VPCEB2HFX batteryVictims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, Iran

According to Iraqi documents, assistance in developing chemical weapons was obtained from firms in many countries, including the United States, West Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and France. sony VPCEB1KGX battery

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A report stated that Dutch, Australian, Italian, French and both West and East German companies were involved in the export of raw materials to Iraqi chemical weapons factories.[18sony VPCEB1PFX battery


sony VPCEB2FFX battery0] Declassified CIA documents show that the United States was providing reconnaissance intelligence to Iraq around 1987–88 which was then used to launch chemical weapon attacks on Iranian troops and that CIA fully knew that chemical weapons would be deployed and sarin attacks followed.[181]


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On 21 March 1986, the United Nations Security Council made a declaration stating that “members are profoundly concerned by the unanimous conclusion of the specialists that chemical weapons on many occasions have been used by Iraqi forces against Iranian troops, sony VPCEB1RGX battery

and the members of the Council strongly condemn this continued use of chemical weapons in clear violation of the Geneva Protocol of 1925, which prohibits the use in war of chemical weapons.” sony VPCEB1SFX battery


sony VPCEB2FFX batteryThe United States was the only member who voted against the issuance of this statement.[182][note 4] A mission to the region in 1988 found evidence of the use of chemical weapons, and was condemned in Security Council Resolution 612.

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sony VPCEB26FX batteryHalabja poison gas attack in 1988

According Walter Lang, senior defence intelligence officer for the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency at the time, “the use of gas on the battlefield by the Iraqis was not a matter of deep strategic concern” to Reagan and his aides, sony VPCEB1TGX battery


sony VPCEB23FX batterybecause they “were desperate to make sure that Iraq did not lose.” He claimed that the Defense Intelligence Agency “would have never accepted the use of chemical weapons against civilians, but the use against military objectives was seen as inevitable in the Iraqi struggle for survival”.[13sony VPCEB22FX battery

sony VPCEB24FX battery1] The Reagan administration did not stop aiding Iraq after receiving reports of the use of poison gas on Kurdish civilians.[183][184]

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The U.S. has accused Iran of using chemical weapons as well,[41]:214 though the allegations have been disputed. Joost Hiltermann, the principal researcher for Human Rights Watch between 1992 and 1994,


sony SVE15115FXS batteryconducted a two-year study that included a field investigation in Iraq, and obtained Iraqi government documents in the process. According to Hiltermann, the literature on the Iran–Iraq War reflects allegations of chemical weapons used by Iran, but they are “marred by a lack of specificity as to time and place, and the failure to provide any sort of evidence”.[185]:153sony SVE1513MCXS battery

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Analysts Gary Sick and Lawrence Potter have called the allegations against Iran “mere assertions” and stated, “No persuasive evidence of the claim that Iran was the primary culprit [of using chemical weapons] was ever presented.”[18sony SVE15137CXS battery

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5]:156 Policy consultant and author Joseph Tragert stated, “Iran did not retaliate with chemical weapons, probably because it did not possess any at the time”.[186]


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At his trial in December 2006, Saddam said he would take responsibility “with honour” for any attacks on Iran using conventional or chemical weapons during the 1980–1988 war, but he took issue with charges he ordered attacks on Iraqis.[187] sony SVE15125CXS battery


sony SVE15113FXS batteryA medical analysis of the effects of Iraqi mustard gas is described in a U.S. military textbook and contrasted effects of World War I gas.[188]


sony SVE15112FXS batteryIran’s attack on the Osirak nuclear reactor in September 1980 was the first attack on a nuclear reactor and one of only three attacks on a nuclear facility in the history of the world. It was also the first instance of a pre-emptive attack on a nuclear reactor to forestall the development of a nuclear weapon, sony SVE15115MFXS battery

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though it did not achieve its objective, as France repaired the reactor after the attack.[189] It took a second pre-emptive strike by the Israeli Air Force to disable the reactor, killing a French engineer in the process and causing France to pull out of Osirak. The decommissioning of Osirak has been cited as causing a substantial delay to Iraqi acquisition of nuclear weapons.[190][191][192][193][194]

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The Iran–Iraq War was also the first and only conflict in the history of warfare in which both forces used ballistic missiles against each other.[1sony SVE15134CXS battery


sony SVE1511HFXW battery90] The war also saw the only confirmed air-to-air helicopter battles in the history of warfare, with Iraqi Mi-25s flying against Iranian AH-1J SeaCobras on numerous occasions. The first instance of these helicopter “dogfights” was on the starting day of the war (22 September 1980): sony SVE15135CXS battery


sony SVE1511GFXW batterytwo Iranian SeaCobras crept up on two Mi-25s and hit them with TOW, wire-guided anti-tank missiles. One Mi-25 went down immediately, the other was badly damaged and crashed before reaching base. sony SVE1511AFXS battery


sony SVE1511DFYS battery The Iranians won a similar air battle on 24 April 1981, destroying two Mi-25s without incurring losses to themselves. According to unclassified documents, Iranian pilots achieved a 10 to 1 kill ratio over the Iraqi helicopter pilots during these engagements and even engaged Iraqi, fixed wing aircraft.[9sony SVE1511BGXS battery

sony SVE1511CFXS battery2] The Iran–Iraq War was also the first war to use unmanned drones in combat, when Iran created the Mohajer 1 series of drones and fitted them with 6 RPG-7 rockets to carry out attacks.[157]


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Both sides also carried out air and missile attack against population centers, especially Iraq. In October 1986, Iraqi aircraft began to attack civilian passenger trains and aircraft on Iranian soil, including an Iran Air Boeing 737 unloading passengers at Shiraz International Airport. sony SVE151190X battery


sony SVE14A390X battery [179] In retaliation for the Iranian Operation Karbala 5, Iraq attacked 65 cities in 226 sorties over 42 days, bombing civilian neighbourhoods. Eight Iranian cities came under attack from Iraqi missiles. sony SVE1511NFXS battery

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sony SVE14A190X batteryThe bombings killed 65 children in an elementary school in Borujerd. The Iranians also responded with Scud missile attacks on Baghdad and struck a primary school there. These events became known as the “war of the cities”.[45]

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Despite both sides fighting a war with each other, Iran and Iraq maintained diplomatic relations and embassies in each other’s countries until mid-1987.[8sony SVE1512KCXS battery


sony SVE14A35CXH battery5] Iran’s government used human waves to attack enemy troops or even in some cases to clear minefields. Children also volunteered as well. Some reports have the Basijis marching into battle marking their expected entry to heaven by wearing plasticsony SVE1513APXS battery


sony SVE1511RFX battery  ”keys to paradise” around their necks, although other analysts consider it to be a hoax, having been misinterpreted with a prayer book called “The Keys to Paradise”(Mafatih al-Janan) by Sheikh Abbas Qumi given to all volunteers.[86]

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According to journalist Robin Wright,


During the Fateh offensive [in February 1987], I toured the southwest front on the Iranian side and saw scores of boys, aged anywhere from nine to sixteen, who said with staggering and seemingly genuine enthusiasm that they had volunteered to become martyrs. sony SVE1513HCXS battery


sony SVE1513KCXS battery Regular army troops, the paramilitary Revolutionary Guards and mullahs all lauded these youths, known as baseeji [Basij], for having played the most dangerous role in breaking through Iraqi lines. They had led the way, running over fields of mines to clear the ground for the Iranian ground assault. sony SVE1513JCXW battery


sony SVE151390X batteryWearing white headbands to signify the embracing of death, and shouting “Shaheed, shaheed” (Martyr, martyr) they literally blew their way into heaven. Their numbers were never disclosed. sony SVE15128CXS battery

sony SVE151290X batteryBut a walk through the residential suburbs of Iranian cities provided a clue. Window after window, block after block, displayed black-bordered photographs of teenage or preteen youths.[195]

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Leaked Iraqi intelligence documents[edit]


During the 2003 invasion of Iraq, United States forces captured a voluminous archive of documents and recorded meetings that chronicled the deliberations of Saddam Hussein. Much of the collection has yet to be made public, sony SVE1713CCXB battery


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sony SVE17137CXB batterybut the Conflict Records Research Center, a government archive, released 20 transcripts and documents in conjunction with a conference on the Iran–Iraq war that was convened by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.[196][197][198]

Socialism and Capitalism

Socialism and Capitalism

Socialism is an economic system characterised by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy.[1Sony PCG-41315M battery

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Sony PCG-6121M battery "Social ownership" may refer to cooperative enterprises, common ownership, state ownership, citizen ownership of equity, or any combination of these.[2] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them.[3] They differ in the type of social ownership they advocate, Sony PCG-4R2M battery

Sony PCG-6112M batterythe degree to which they rely on markets or planning, how management is to be organised within productive institutions, and the role of the state in constructing socialism.[4]

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A socialist economic system consists of a system of production and distribution organised to directly satisfy economic demands and human needs, so that goods and services are produced directly for use instead of for private profit driven by the accumulation of capital.[5] Accounting is based on physical quantities, Sony VPCZ11 battery

 Sony VPCZ12Z9E/X batterya common physical magnitude, or a direct measure of labour-time in place of financial calculation.[6] Sony VPCZ11X9E battery

 Sony VPCZ12Z9E/B battery [7] Distribution is based on the principle to each according to his contribution. Marxist theory holds that the development of the socialist mode of production will give rise to a communist society, in which classes and the state are no longer present, there is access abundance to final goods, and thus distribution is based on to each according to his need.

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As a political movement, socialism includes a diverse array of political philosophies, ranging from reformism to revolutionary socialism. Proponents of state socialism advocate the nationalisation of the means of production, distribution and exchange as a strategy for implementing socialism. Sony VPCZ11Z9E battery

Sony VPCZ12V9E/B batteryIn contrast, libertarian socialism opposes the use of state power to achieve such an arrangement, opposing both parliamentary politics and state ownership.[8] Democratic socialism seeks to establish socialism through democratic processes and propagate its ideals within the context of a democratic political system.

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Modern socialism originated from an 18th-century intellectual and working class political movement that criticised the effects of industrialisation and private property on society. In the early 19th-century, “socialism”Sony VPCZ12M9E battery

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Sony VPCZ12V9E battery referred to any concern for the social problems of capitalism irrespective of the solutions to those problems. However, by the late 19th-century, “socialism” had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for an alternative system based on some form of social ownership.[9Sony PCG-6P2M Battery

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Sony PCG-8X1M Battery] Marxists expanded further on this, attributing scientific assessment and democratic planning as critical elements of socialism.[10] Sony PCG-6Q2M Battery

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Socialists adhere to a diverse range of philosophical views. Marxian socialism is philosophically materialist as well as having at its centre a commitment to historical materialism. sony VPC-F11M1E/H battery

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 Many forms of socialist theory hold that human behaviour is largely shaped by the social environment. In particular, Marxism and socialists inspired by Marxist theory, Sony PCG-6C1M Battery

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holds that social mores, values, cultural traits and economic practices are social creations, and are not the result of an immutable natural law.[1Sony PCG-6E1M Battery

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Sony PCG-7X1M Battery1] The ultimate goal for Marxist socialists is the emancipation of labour from alienating work. sony VPCF11S1E/B battery

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 Marxists argue that freeing the individual from the necessity of performing alienating work in order to receive goods would allow people to pursue their own interests and develop their own talents without being coerced into performing labour for othersSony PCG-6J1M Battery

Sony PCG-7T2M Battery  For Marxists, the stage of economic development in which this is possible, sometimes called full communism, is contingent upon advances in the productive capabilities of society.

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Socialists generally argue that capitalism concentrates power and wealth within a small segment of society that controls the means of production and derives its wealth through economic exploitation. This creates unequal social relations which fail to provide opportunities for every individual to maximise their potential,[12Sony PCG-6J2M Battery

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Sony PCG-7N2M Battery] and does not utilise available technology and resources to their maximum potential in the interests of the public.[13]

See also: Socialist economics and Production for use

The original conception of socialism was an economic system whereby production was organised in a way to directly produce goods and services for their utility (or use-value in classical and Marxian economics): sony VPCF22L1E battery

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 the direct allocation of resources in terms of physical units as opposed to financial calculation and the economic laws of capitalism (see: Sony PCG-6L2M Battery

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Sony PCG-7N1M BatteryLaw of value), often entailing the end of capitalistic economic categories such as rent, interest, profit and money.[14] sony VPCF22S1E battery

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sony VPCF12Z1E battery In a fully developed socialist economy, production and balancing factor inputs with outputs becomes a technical process to be undertaken by engineers.[15] Sony PCG-8V1M Battery

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Market socialism refers to an array of different economic theories and systems that utilise the market mechanism to organise production and to allocate factor inputs among socially owned enterprises, with the economic surplus (profits) Sony PCG-8V2M Battery

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Sony PCG-7H2M Batteryaccruing to society in a social dividend as opposed to private capital owners.[16] sony VPCF23Q1E battery

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sony VPCF13S0E/B battery Variations of market socialism include Libertarian proposals such as mutualism, based on classical economics, and neoclassical economic models such as the Lange Model.

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The ownership of the means of production can be based on direct ownership by the users of the productive property through worker cooperative; Sony PCG-8W2M Battery

Sony PCG-7G1M Batteryor commonly owned by all of society with management and control delegated to those who operate/use the means of production; or public ownership by a state apparatus. Public ownership may refer to the creation of state-owned enterprises, nationalisation, municipalisation or autonomous collective institutions. Sony PCG-7A1M Batterysony VPCF23S1E battery

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Sony PCG-7D1M Battery The fundamental feature of a socialist economy is that publicly owned, worker-run institutions produce goods and services in at least the commanding heights of the economy.[17]

Management and control over the activities of enterprises are based on self-management and self-governance, with equal power-relations in the workplace to maximise occupational autonomy.
Sony PCG-4121GM battery A socialist form of organisation would eliminate controlling hierarchies so that only a hierarchy based on technical knowledge in the workplace remains. sony VPCF11S1E battery

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sony VPCY21S1E/G battery Every member would have decision-making power in the firm and would be able to participate in establishing its
Sony PCG-41214M batteryoverall policy objectives. The policies/goals would be carried out by the technical specialists that form the coordinating hierarchy of the firm, who would establish plans or directives for the work community to accomplish these goals.[18sony VPCF11Z1E/BI battery

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The role and use of money in a hypothetical socialist economy is a contested issue. Socialists including Karl Marx, Robert Owen, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and John Stuart Mill advocated various forms of labour vouchers or labour-credits, Sony PCG-4121DM battery
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Sony PCG-41218M batterywhich like money would be used to acquire articles of consumption, but unlike money, they are unable to become capital and would not be used to allocate resources within the production process. Sony PCG-41211M battery
Sony PCG-41213M batteryBolshevik revolutionary Leon Trotsky argued that, following a socialist revolution, money could not be arbitrarily abolished. sony VPCF12F4E/H battery

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sony VPCF24Q1E battery Money had to exhaust its “historic mission” (continue to be used until it became redundant), and then would be transformed into bookkeeping receipts for statisticians, Sony VPCSD1S1C battery
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Sony SVE1511J1EW battery and only in the more distant future would it might not be required even for that role.[19]

The economic anarchy of capitalist society as it exists today is, in my opinion, the real source of the evil… I am convinced there is only one way to eliminate these grave evils, namely through the establishment of a socialist economy, Sony VPCSA2Z9E battery

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Sony SVE1511H1ESI battery accompanied by an educational system which would be oriented toward social goals. In such an economy, the means of production are owned by society itself and are utilized in a planned fashion. A planned economy, sony VPCF13E4E battery


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sony VPCF21Z1E/BI battery which adjusts production to the needs of the community, Sony SVE14AG18M battery
Sony SVE1511H1EW battery would distribute the work to be done among all those able to work and would guarantee a livelihood to every man, woman, and child. The education of the individual, in addition to promoting his own innate abilities, sony VPCF13E8E battery

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sony VPCF12Z1E/BI batterywould attempt to develop in him a sense of responsibility for his fellow men in place of the glorification of power and success in our present society. Sony SVE14AE15M battery
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— Albert Einstein, Why Socialism?, 1949[20]

Planned economy

Main article: Planned economy

A planned economy is a type of economy consisting of a mixture of public ownership of the means of production and the coordination of production and distribution through economic planning. Sony SVE14AJ15M battery
Sony SVE1511S1EB battery There are two major types of planning: decentralized-planning and centralized-planning. sony VPCF1318E/H battery


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sony VPCF13Z8E/BI battery Enrico Barone provided a comprehensive theoretical framework for a planned socialist economy. Sony SVE14AA11M battery

Sony SVE1511S1ESI battery In his model, assuming perfect computation techniques, simultaneous equations relating inputs and outputs to ratios of equivalence would provide appropriate valuations in order to balance supply and demand.[21sony VPCF13M1E/B battery

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The most prominent example of a planned economy was the economic system of the Soviet Union, and as such, the centralised-planned economic model is usually associated with the Communist states of the 20th century, Sony SVE171G11M battery
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Sony SVE1511G1EB battery where it was combined with a single-party political system. In a centrally planned economy, decisions regarding the quantity of goods and services to be produced are planned in advance by a planning agency. (See also: Sony SVE171E13M battery
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Analysis of Soviet-type economic planning). The economic systems of the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc are further classified as command economies, which are defined as systems where economic coordination is undertaken by commands, directives and production targets.[2Sony SVE151G11M battery
Sony SVE1511G1ESI battery2] Studies by economists of various political persuasions on the actual functioning of the Soviet economy indicate that it was not actually a planned economy. Instead of conscious planning, the Soviet economy was based on a process whereby the plan was modified by localized agents and the original plans went largely unfulfilled. Sony SVE151G13M battery
Sony SVE1511G1EW batteryPlanning agencies, ministries and enterprises all adapted and bargained with each other during the formulation of the plan as opposed to following a plan passed down from a higher authority, leading some economists to suggest that planning did not actually take place within the Soviet economy and that a better description would be an “administered” or “managed” economy.[23]

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Although central planning was largely supported by Marxist Leninists, some factions within the Soviet Union before the rise of Stalinism held positions contrary to central planning. Leon Trotsky rejected central planning in favor of decentralized planning. Sony SVS13AA11M battery
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Sony SVS1511W9EB battery He argued that central planners, regardless of their intellectual capacity, would be unable to coordinate effectively all economic activity within an economy because they operated without the input and tacit knowledge embodied by the participation of the millions of people who in the economy. As a result, central planners would be unable to respond to local economic conditions.[24]
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Self-managed economy

See also: Decentralized planning and Workers’ self-management

A self-managed, decentralised economy is based upon autonomous self-regulating economic units and a decentralised mechanism of resource allocation and decision-making. This model has found support in notable classical and neoclassical economists including Alfred Marshall, John Stuart Mill and Jaroslav Vanek. Sony SVS151A11M battery

Sony SVS1511V9EB batteryThere are numerous variations of self-management, including labour-managed firms and worker-managed firms. The goals of self-management are to eliminate exploitation and reduce alienation.[2Sony SVS151A12M battery
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5] Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers’ control of industry through the medium of trade-related guilds “in an implied contractual relationship with the public”.[26] It originated in the United Kingdom and was at its most influential in the first quarter of the 20th century.[2
Sony SVS1511T9ES battery6] It was strongly associated with G. D. H. Cole and influenced by the ideas of William Morris.

One such system is the cooperative economy, a largely free market economy in which workers manage the firms and democratically determine remuneration levels and labour divisions. Productive resources would be legally owned by the cooperative and rented to the workers, who would enjoy usufruct rights.[2Sony SVS1311P9EB battery

Sony SVS1511N3ES battery7] Another form of decentralised planning is the use of cybernetics, or the use of computers to manage the allocation of economic inputs. The socialist-run government of Salvador Allende in Chile experimented with Project Cybersyn, Sony SVS1511L3ES battery
Sony SVS1511M3EW batterya real-time information bridge between the government, state enterprises and consumers.[28] Another, more recent, variant is participatory economics, wherein the economy is planned by decentralised councils of workers and consumers. Workers would be remunerated solely according to effort and sacrifice, Sony vgp-bps24 battery

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so that those engaged in dangerous, uncomfortable, and strenuous work would receive the highest incomes and could thereby work less.[2Sony vgp-bpsc24 battery

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9] A contemporary model for a self-managed, non-market socialism is Pat Devine’s model of negotiated coordination. Negotiated coordination is based upon social ownership by those affected by the use of the assets involved, with decisions made by those at the most localised level of production.[30] Sony VPCSD1S1C battery
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Michel Bauwens identifies the emergence of the open software movement and peer-to-peer production as a new, alternative mode of production to the capitalist economy and centrally planned economy that is based on collaborative self-management, common ownership of resources, and the production of use-values through the free cooperation of producers who have access to distributed capital.[31] Sony VPCSA2Z9E battery
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Anarchist communism is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, private property, and capitalism in favour of common ownership of the means of production.[32][33]

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The economy of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia established a system based on market-based allocation, social ownership of the means of production and self-management within firms. This system substituted Yugoslavia’s Soviet-type central planning with a decentralized, self-managed system after reforms in 1953.[ Sony SVE171B11M battery
Sony SVE1711X1EB battery34] Another practical example of worker’s self-management was anarcho-syndicalism as practiced in Catalonia and other places in the Spanish Revolution during the Spanish Civil War.

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The Marxian economist Richard D. Wolff started a movement in 2010 called Democracy at Work, whose stated goal is the “transition to a new society whose productive enterprises (offices, factories, and stores) will mostly be WSDE’s (Workers’ Self-Directed Enterprises), a true economic democracy.”[3 Sony SVS151A12M battery

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Sony SVE1711V1EB battery5] As an example, Wolff claims that Mondragon is “a stunningly successful alternative to the capitalist organization of production.”[36]
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State-directed economy

See also: State socialism

State socialism can be used to classify any variety of socialist philosophies that advocates the ownership of the means of production by the state apparatus, either as a transitional stage between capitalism and socialism, or as an end-goal in itself. Typically it refers to a form of technocratic management, Sony SVE171C11M battery
Sony SVE1711T1EB battery whereby technical specialists administer or manage economic enterprises on behalf of society (and the public interest) instead of workers’ councils or workplace democracy. Sony SVS1311E3EW battery

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A state-directed economy may refer to a type of mixed economy consisting of public ownership over large industries, as promoted by various Social democratic political parties during the 20th century. Sony SVS1311P9EB battery

Sony PCG-41414M battery This ideology influenced the policies of the British Labour Party during Clement Attlee’s administration. In the biography of the 1945 UK Labour Party Prime Minister Clement Attlee, Francis Beckett states: “the government… wanted what would become known as a mixed economy”.[37] Sony SVS1511L3ES battery

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Nationalisation in the UK was achieved through compulsory purchase of the industry (i.e. with compensation). British Aerospace was a combination of major aircraft companies British Aircraft Corporation, Sony SVS1511M3EW battery
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Sony PCG-41213M battery Hawker Siddeley and others. British Shipbuilders was a combination of the major shipbuilding companies including Cammell Laird, Govan Shipbuilders, Swan Hunter, and Yarrow Shipbuilders; the nationalisation of the coal mines in 1947 created a coal board charged Sony SVS1511T9ES battery
with running the coal industry commercially so as to be able to meet the interest payable on the bonds which the former mine owners’ shares had been converted into.[38][39]

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Market socialism

Main article: Market socialism

Market socialism consists of publicly owned or cooperatively owned enterprises operating in a market economy. It is a system that utilises the market and monetary prices for the allocation and accounting of the means of production, thereby retaining the process of capital accumulation. The profit generated would be used to directly Sony SVS1511V9ES battery
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Sony PCG-4121EM battery remunerate employees or finance public institutions.[40] In state-oriented forms of market socialism, in which state enterprises attempt to maximise profit, the profits can be used to fund government programs and services through Sony VPCSA3Q9E battery
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a social dividend, eliminating or greatly diminishing the need for various forms of taxation that exist in capitalist systems. The neoclassical economist Léon Walras believed that a socialist economy based on state ownership of land and natural resources would provide a means of public finance to make income taxes unnecessary.[41Sony VPCSE2F1E battery
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Sony PCG-4121DM battery] Yugoslavia implemented a market socialist economy based on cooperatives and worker self-management.

Proudhon and his children, by Gustave Courbet, 1865. Pierre Joseph Proudhon, main theorist of mutualism and influential french socialist thinker.

Mutualism is an economic theory and anarchist school of thought that advocates a society where each person might possess a means of production, either individually or collectively, with trade representing equivalent amounts of labor in the free market.[ Sony SVE1511A1EB battery
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42] Integral to the scheme was the establishment of a mutual-credit bank that would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate, just high enough to cover administration.[ Sony SVE14A1S1EP battery

Sony SVE1713Z1E battery43] Mutualism is based on a labor theory of value that holds that when labor or its product is sold, in exchange, it ought to receive goods or services embodying “the amount of labor necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility”.[44]

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The current economic system in China is formally referred to as a Socialist market economy with Chinese characteristics. It combines a large state sector that comprises the ‘commanding heights’ of the economy, which are guaranteed their public ownership status by law,[45] with a private sector mainly engaged in commodity production and light industry responsible from anywhere between 33%[46] (People’s Daily Online 2005Sony SVE1511R9ESI battery
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Sony SVE1513M1E battery) to over 70% of GDP generated in 2005.[47] Although there has been a rapid expansion of private-sector activity since the 1980s, privatisation of state assets was virtually halted and were partially reversed in 2005.[4Sony SVE1511W1ESI battery

Sony SVE1513B4E battery8] The current Chinese economy consists of 150 corporatised state-owned enterprises that report directly to China’s central government.[49] By 2008, these state-owned corporations had become increasingly dynamic and generated large increases in revenue for the state,[50][5Sony SVE14 battery

Sony SVE1513B1E battery1] resulting in a state-sector led recovery during the 2009 financial crises while accounting for most of China’s economic growth.[52] However, the Chinese economic model is widely cited as a contemporary form of state capitalism, the major difference between Western capitalism and the Chinese model being the degree of state-ownership of shares in publicly listed corporations.

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The Socialist Republic of Vietnam has adopted a similar model after the Doi Moi economic renovation, but slightly differs from the Chinese model in that the Vietnamese government retains firm control over the state sector and strategic industries, but allows for private-sector activity in commodity production.[53]

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Social and Political theory

In this context, socialism has been used to refer to a political movement, a political philosophy and a hypothetical form of society these movements aim to achieve. As a result, in a political context socialism has come to refer to the strategy Sony SVE15 battery
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Sony SVE1511R9E battery (for achieving a socialist society) or policies promoted by socialist organisations and socialist political parties; all of which have no connection to socialism as a socioeconomic system.

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Main articles: Marxism and Socialism (Marxism)

At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or – this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms – with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto. Sony SVE171A11M battery

Sony VGP-BPS20/S battery Then begins an era of social revolution. The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure. – Karl Marx, Critique of the Gotha Program[54] Sony SVE151C11M battery
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The writings of Karl Marx provided the basis for the development of Marxist political theory and Marxian economics. Sony SVE1711K1EW battery
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In the most influential of all economic theories on socialist thought, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that socialism would emerge out of historical necessity as capitalism rendered itself obsolete and unsustainable from increasing internal contradictions emerging from the development of the productive forces and technology. Sony SVE1711X1EB battery

Sony VPCZ23K9E batteryIt was these advances in the productive forces combined with the old social relations of production of capitalism that would generate contradictions, leading to working-class consciousness.[55]

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Marx and Engels held the view that the consciousness of those who earn a wage or salary (the working class in the broadest Marxist sense) would be moulded by their conditions of wage slavery, leading to a tendency to seek their freedom or emancipation by overthrowing ownership of the means of production by capitalists, Sony SVE1511G1EB battery
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Sony VPCZ13Z9E/X batteryand consequently, overthrowing the state that upheld this economic order. For Marx and Engels, conditions determine consciousness and ending the role of the capitalist class leads eventually to a classless society in which the state would wither away.

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The Marxist conception of socialism is that of a specific historical phase that will displace capitalism and precede communism. The major characteristics of socialism (particularly as conceived by Marx and Engels after the Paris Commune of 1871) Sony SVE1511S1EB battery
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are that the proletariat will control the means of production through a workers’ state erected by the workers in their interests. Economic activity would still be organised through the use of incentive systems and social classes would still exist, but to a lesser and diminishing extent than under capitalism.

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For orthodox Marxists, socialism is the lower stage of communism based on the principle of “from each according to his ability, to each according to his contribution” while upper stage communism is based on the principle of “from each according to his ability, to each according to his need”; Sony SVE1511H1ESI battery

Sony PCG-6123M batterythe upper stage becoming possible only after the socialist stage further develops economic efficiency and the automation of production has led to a superabundance of goods and services.[56][57]

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Marx argued that the material productive forces (in industry and commerce) brought into existence by capitalism predicated a cooperative society since production had become a mass social, collective activity of the working class to create commodities but with private ownership (the relations of production or property relations). Sony VPCCA4S1E battery
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This conflict between collective effort in large factories and private ownership would bring about a conscious desire in the working class to establish collective ownership commensurate with the collective efforts their daily experience.[54]

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Che Guevara and Mao Zedong sought socialism based on the rural peasantry rather than the urban working class. Che Guevara attempted to inspire the peasants of Bolivia by his own example into a change of consciousness. Guevara said in 1965:

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Socialism cannot exist without a change in consciousness resulting in a new fraternal attitude toward humanity, both at an individual level, within the societies where socialism is being built or has been built, and on a world scale, with regard to all peoples suffering from imperialist oppression.[58] Sony PCG-41311M battery

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Evolutionary and Institutional economics

Thorstein Veblen, a leading American institutionalist and evolutionary economist, argued that a subset of the working-class, the technical specialists and engineers, would become the driving force behind socioeconomic change within capitalism. Sony PCG-41314M battery

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Sony PCG-6112M batteryThere is an antagonism between industry and business, where industry refers to the process of producing goods and services and business is defined as the process of “making money”.Sony PCG-4R2M battery

Sony PCG-6Z4M battery Thorstein Veblen saw socialism as an immediate stage in an ongoing evolutionary process in economics that would result from the natural decay of the system of business enterprise. In contrast to Marx, he did not believe socialism would be the result of political struggle or political revolution by the working class as a whole and did not believe it to be the ultimate goal of humanity.[ Sony PCG-4R2M battery

Sony PCG-4U2M battery59] But like Marx, Veblen saw technology as the underlying force driving social change.

Joseph Schumpeter viewed intellectuals and the intelligentsia as the group within society that would gradually move society toward socialism. Socialism would be partially a result of socio-economic evolution, Sony VPCZ11 battery

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Sony VPCZ12Z9E/X battery the growth of workers’ self-management, industrial democracy and social planning, and partially from political pressure on the part of intellectuals in Western society.[60]

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Role of the state

Socialists have different perspectives on the state and its role in revolutionary struggles, constructing socialism, and within an established socialist economy.

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Preceding the Bolshevik-led revolution in Russia, many socialists, including reformists, orthodox Marxist currents such as council communism and the Mensheviks, and Anarchists / Libertarian socialists criticised the idea of using the state to conduct central planning and own the means of production as a way to establish socialism.[61]

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Joseph Schumpeter rejected the association of socialism and social ownership with state ownership over the means of production, because the state as it exists in its current form is a product of capitalist society and cannot be transplanted into a different institutional framework. Schumpeter argued that, Sony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery

Sony VPCZ12V9E battery just as there were different institutions within feudalism, there will be different institutions with different functions within socialism. The state, along with the concept of property and taxation, are concepts exclusive to commercial society (capitalism); placing them within the context of a future socialist society amounts to a distortion of these concepts.[62]

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Utopian versus scientific

Main articles: Utopian socialism and Scientific socialism

Utopian socialism is a label ascribed to earlier socialists whose emphasis was on designing or imagining ideal forms of society. A utopian socialist is based on an idealist philosophy, where an ideal is envisioned and then worked towards, in contrast to Marxisms materialist methodology.

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For Marxists, the development of capitalism in western Europe provided a material basis for the possibility of bringing about socialism because, according to the Communist Manifesto, “What the bourgeoisie produces above all is its own grave diggers”,[6Sony SVS13AA11L Battery

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Reform versus revolution

Main articles: Revolutionary socialism and Reformism

Revolutionary socialists believe that a social revolution is necessary to effect structural changes to the socio-economic structure of society. Sony SVS131A11L Battery

Among revolutionary socialists there are differences in strategy, theory and the definition of “revolution”. Orthodox Maxists and Left Communists take an Impossibilist stance, believing revolution should be spontaneous as a result of contradictions in society resulting from technological changes in the productive forces. Sony SVS131B11L Battery

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Sony PCG-41413L Battery In contrast, Marxist-Leninists and most Trotskyists advocate Vanguardism: the creation of a democratic centralist revolutionary Vanguard party led by a cadre of professional revolutionaries to overthrow the capitalist state and, eventually, the institution of the state altogether. Sony SVS151B11L Battery

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Sony PCG-41412L Battery “Revolution” is not necessarily defined by revolutionary socialists as violent insurrection,[64] but as a complete dismantling and rapid transformation of all areas of class society led by the majority of the masses: the working class.

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Reformism is generally associated with social democracy and gradualist democratic socialism. Reformism is the belief that socialists should stand in parliamentary elections within capitalist society, and if elected, utilize the machinery of government to pass political and social reforms for the purposes of ameliorating the instabilities and inequities of capitalism.

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The issue of socialization

Main article: Socialization (economics)

In economic discourse, socialization (or socialisation) has several different but related connotations. Sony PCG-4121FL Battery

In socialist economics the term usually refers to the process of structuring or restructuring the economy on a socialist basis, usually in reference to establishing a system of production for use in place of organizing production for private profit along with the end of the operation of the laws of capitalism. Sony PCG-4121GL Battery

Sony PCG-41217L Battery In its most developed form, the concept of socialization entails the end of money and financial valuation and calculation in the production process.[65] More broadly, socialization has also been used in reference to social ownership, Sony PCG-41211L Battery

Sony PCG-41216L Battery an umbrella term encompassing all the various models of resource and enterprise ownership proposed for socialist economies. Usually it refers to various types of employee-ownershipSony PCG-41212L Battery

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Sony PCG-41214L Batteryas a major component for hypothetical socialist economies, defining social ownership as ownership of an enterprise by those affected by the use of the assets involved.[66]

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sony PCG-6Z4L batterySocialists in Union Square, N.Y.C. on May Day 1912

The major socialist political movements are described below. Independent socialist theorists, [utopian socialist] authors, sony PCG-4Q4L battery

sony PCG-6Z3L battery and academic supporters of socialism may not be represented in these movements. Some political groups have called themselves socialist while holding views that some consider antithetical to socialism. sony PCG-4Q1L battery

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sony PCG-6Z1L battery The term socialist has also been used by some politicians on the political right as an epithet against certain individuals who do not consider themselves to be socialists, and against policies that are not considered socialist by their proponents.

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There are many variations of socialism and as such there is no single definition encapsulating all of socialism. However there have been common elements identified by scholars.[67] Angelo S. Rappoport in his Dictionary of Socialism (19sony PCG-6X2L battery

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sony PCG-6XBL battery24) analysed forty definitions of socialism to conclude that common elements of socialism include: general criticisms of the social effects of private ownership and control of capital – as being the cause of poverty, low wages, unemployment, economic and social inequality, and a lack of economic security; sony PCG-6X7L battery

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sony PCG-6XAL battery a general view that the solution to these problems is a form of collective control over the means of production, distribution and exchange (the degree and means of control vary amongst socialist movements); Sony SVS131C1DL Battery

Sony PCG-91311L Batteryagreement that the outcome of this collective control should be a society based upon social justice, including social equality, economic protection of people, and should provide a more satisfying life for most people.[68] Bhikhu Parekh in The Concepts of Socialism (1975) Sony SVS131C24L Battery

Sony PCG-91211L Battery identifies four core principles of socialism and particularly socialist society: sociality, social responsibility, cooperation, and planning.[69] Michael Freeden in his study Ideologies and Political Theory (1996) Sony SVS131E1DL Battery

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Sony PCG-71914L Battery states that all socialists share five themes: the first is that socialism posits that society is more than a mere collection of individuals; second, that it considers human welfare a desirable objective; third, that it considers humans by nature to be active and productive; fourth, Sony SVS151C1GL Battery

it holds the belief of human equality; and fifth, that history is progressive and will create positive change on the condition that humans work to achieve such change.[69]

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Main article: Anarchism

Anarchism is often defined as a political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful.[70][71] However, others argue that while anti-statism is central, it is inadequate to define anarchism. Sony SVS151E1GL Battery

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Sony PCG-71912L Battery [72] Therefore they argue, alternatively, that anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations, including, but not only, the state system.[73][74][75][76][7Sony PCG-61A13L Battery

Sony PCG-71911L Battery7][78][79] Proponents of anarchism, known as “anarchists”, advocate stateless societies based on non-hierarchical[74][80][81] voluntary associations. Sony PCG-61A14L Battery

Sony PCG-71811L Battery [82][83] Mutualists advocate market socialism, collectivist anarchists workers cooperatives and salaries based on the amount of time contributed to production, anarcho-communists advocate a direct transition from capitalism to libertarian communism and a gift economy and anarcho-syndicalists worker’s direct action and the general strike.

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Libertarian socialism

Main article: Libertarian socialism

The first anarchist journal to use the term “libertarian” was Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social and it was published in New York City between 1858 and 1861 by French anarcho-communist Joseph Déjacque.[ Sony PCG-71C12L Battery

Sony PCG-71614L Battery4] Joseph Déjacque was the first recorded person to describe himself as “libertarian”.[85]

Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that promote a non-hierarchical, non-bureaucratic society without private property in the means of production. Libertarian socialists believe in converting present-day private productive property into common or public goods, while retaining respect for personal property.[ Sony PCG-61714L Battery

Sony PCG-61913L Battery86] Libertarian socialism is opposed to coercive forms of social organization. It promotes free association in place of government and opposes the social relations of capitalism, such as wage labor.[87Sony PCG-61813L Battery

Sony PCG-61911L Battery] The term libertarian socialism is used by some socialists to differentiate their philosophy from state socialism,[88][89] and by some as a synonym for left anarchism.[90][91][92Sony SVE141C11L Battery

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] Currents within libertarian socialism include Marxist tendencies such as left communism, council communism and autonomism, as well as non-Marxist movements such as social anarchism, Communalism, Participism, and Inclusive Democracy.

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Democratic socialism

Main article: Democratic socialism

Modern democratic socialism is a broad political movement that seeks to promote the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. Many democratic socialists support social democracy as a temporary measure to reform the current system, but others support more revolutionary tactics to establish socialism.[citation needed] Sony SVE151E11L Battery

Sony PCG-61316L Battery Conversely, modern social democracy emphasises a program of gradual legislative reform of capitalism in order to make it more equitable and humane, while the theoretical end goal of building a socialist society is either completely forgotten or redefined in a pro-capitalist way. Sony SVE151G11L Battery

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Sony PCG-61315L Battery The two movements are widely similar both in terminology and in ideology, although there are a few key differences.

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The major difference between social democracy and democratic socialism is the object of their politics: contemporary social democrats support a welfare state and unemployment insurance as a means to “humanize” capitalism, Sony SVE171C11L Battery

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Sony PCG-61311L Batterywhereas democratic socialists seek to replace capitalism with a socialist economic system, arguing that any attempt to “humanize” capitalism through regulations and welfare policies would distort the market and create economic contradictions.[93]

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Democratic socialism generally refers to any political movement that seeks to establish an economy based on economic democracy by and for the working class. Democratic socialists oppose authoritarian “socialists” as Stalinists and Maoists. Sony SVE171G112 Battery

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Democratic socialism is difficult to define, and groups of scholars have radically different definitions for the term. Some definitions simply refer to all forms of socialism that follow an electoral, reformist or evolutionary path to socialism, rather than a revolutionary one.[94]

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Religious socialism

Main articles: Socialism and Islam and Christian socialism

Christian socialism is a broad concept involving an intertwining of the Christian religion with the politics and economic theories of socialism.

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Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to describe a more spiritual form of socialism. Muslim socialists believe that the teachings of the Qur’an and Muhammad are compatible with principles of equality and public ownership drawing inspiration from the early Medina welfare state established by the Prophet Muhammad. Sony PCG-71312L Battery

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Sony PCG-71216L Battery Muslim Socialists are more conservative than their western contemporaries and find their roots in Anti-imperialism, anti-colonialism and Arab nationalism. Islamic Socialist leaders believe in Democracy and deriving legitimacy from public mandate as opposed to religious texts.

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Buddhist Socialism is another concept that seeks to reduce unnecessary consumption and create harmony while ensuring everyone’s basic needs are met.[citation needed]

Sony PCG-71212L BatterySégolène Royal, a prominent member of the French Socialist Party. Royal was a candidate for President of France in 2007 and 2011.

Social democracy is a political ideology that officially has as its goal the establishment of democratic socialism through reformist and gradualist methods.[ Sony PCG-71218L Battery

Sony PCG-71211L Battery95] Alternatively, Social democracy is defined as a policy regime involving a welfare state, collective bargaining schemes, and support for publicly financed public services. It is often used in this manner to refer to the social models and economic policies prominent in Western and Northern Europe during the later half of the 20th century.[96] Sony PCG-71217L Battery

Sony PCG-71318L Battery [97] It has been described by Jerry Mander as “hybrid” economics, an active collaboration of capitalist and socialist visions, and, while such systems aren’t perfect, they tend to provide high standards of living.[98]

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Social democrats advocate for a peaceful, evolutionary transition of the economy to socialism through progressive social reform of capitalism.[99][100] It asserts that the only acceptable constitutional form of government is representative democracy under the rule of law.[1Sony PCG-71313L Battery

01] It promotes extending democratic decision-making beyond political democracy to include economic democracy to guarantee employees and other economic stakeholders sufficient rights of co-determination.[10Sony PCG-71315L Battery

Sony PCG-71316L Battery1] It supports a mixed economy that opposes the excesses of capitalism such as inequality, poverty, and oppression of various groups, while rejecting both a totally free market or a fully planned economy.[102] Sony PCG-21313L Battery

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Common social democratic policies include advocacy of universal social rights to attain universally accessible public services such as education, health care, workers’ compensation, and other services, including child care and care for the elderly.[103Sony PCG-31311L Battery

Sony PCG-81314L Battery] Social democracy is connected with the trade union labour movement and supports collective bargaining rights for workers.[104] Most social democratic parties are affiliated with the Socialist International.[95]

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Main article: Syndicalism

Syndicalism is a social movement that operates through industrial trade unions and rejects state socialism and the use of establishment politics to establish or promote socialism. They reject using state power to construct a socialist society, favoring strategies such as the General strike. Syndicalists advocate a socialist economy based on federated unions or syndicates of workers who own and manage the means of production. Sony PCG-41112L Battery

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Some Marxist currents advocate Syndicalism, such as DeLeonism.


Main article: History of socialism

The term socialism is attributed to Pierre Leroux,[105] and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud; and in Britain to Robert Owen in 1827, father of the cooperative movement.[ Sony PCG-51111L Battery

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Sony PCG-81311L Battery106][107] Socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity. Mazdak, a Persian communal proto-socialist,[108] instituted communal possessions and advocated the public good. And it has been claimed, though controversially, Sony PCG-51311L Battery

Sony PCG-81214L Batterythat there were elements of socialist thought in the politics of classical Greek philosophers Plato[109] and Aristotle.[110]

The first advocates of socialism favoured social levelling in order to create a meritocratic or technocratic society based upon individual talent. Count Henri de Saint-Simon is regarded as the first individual to coin the term socialism.[ Sony PCG-51312L Battery

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Sony PCG-81114L Battery111] Saint-Simon was fascinated by the enormous potential of science and technology and advocated a socialist society that would eliminate the disorderly aspects of capitalism and would be based upon equal opportunities.[112Sony PCG-51412L Battery

Sony PCG-81113L Battery][unreliable source?] He advocated the creation of a society in which each person was ranked according to his or her capacities and rewarded according to his or her work.[111] Sony PCG-51511L Battery

Sony PCG-81112L Battery The key focus of Saint-Simon’s socialism was on administrative efficiency and industrialism, and a belief that science was the key to progress.[113]

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Sony PCG-81111L BatteryCharles Fourier, influential early French socialist thinker

This was accompanied by a desire to implement a rationally organised economy based on planning and geared towards large-scale scientific and material progress,[1Sony PCG-61412L Battery

Sony PCG-71111L Battery11] and thus embodied a desire for a more directed or planned economy. Other early socialist thinkers, such as Thomas Hodgkin and Charles Hall, based their ideas on David Ricardo’s economic theories. Sony PCG-6Z2M battery

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Sony PCG-71318M battery They reasoned that the equilibrium value of commodities approximated to prices charged by the producer when those commodities were in elastic supply, and that these producer prices corresponded to the embodied labour – the cost of the labour (essentially the wages paid) Sony PCG-6X2M battery,

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West European social critics, including Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Louis Blanc, Charles Hall and Saint-Simon, were the first modern socialists who criticised the excessive poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution. Sony PCG-4Q1M battery

Sony PCG-91311M battery They advocated reform, with some such as Robert Owen advocating the transformation of society to small communities without private property. Robert Owen’s contribution to modern socialism was his understanding that actions and characteristics of individuals were largely determined by the social environment they were raised in and exposed to.[113Sony PCG-71C11M battery

Sony PCG-91112M battery] On the other hand Charles Fourier advocated phalansteres which were communities that respected individual desires (including sexual preferences), affinities and creativity and saw that work has to be made enjoyable for people.[ Sony PCG-71D14M battery

15] The ideas of Owen and Fourier were tried in practice in numerous intentional communities around Europe and the American continent in the mid-19th century.

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Linguistically, the contemporary connotation of the words socialism and communism accorded with the adherents’ and opponents’ cultural attitude towards religion. In Christian Europe, of the two, Sony PCG-61611M battery

Sony PCG-71511M battery communism was believed the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, the word communism was too culturally and aurally close to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.[116]

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Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when the Communist Manifesto was published, “socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not.” The Owenites in England and the Fourierists Sony PCG-61712M battery

Sony PCG-61813M batteryin France were considered “respectable” socialists, while working-class movements that “proclaimed the necessity of total social change” denoted themselves communists. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany.[117]

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The term “socialism” was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, a founder of utopian socialism. The term “socialism” was created to contrast against the liberal doctrine of “individualism”.[118] The original socialists condemned liberal individualism as failing to address social concerns of poverty, social oppression, and gross inequality of wealth.[11Sony PCG-6Z2M battery,

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Sony PCG-71315M battery8] They viewed liberal individualism as degenerating society into supporting selfish egoism and that harmed community life through promoting a society based on competition.[118] They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism, that advocated a society based on cooperation.[118] Sony PCG-6X2M battery,

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Mikhail Bakunin speaking to members of the IWA at the Basel Congress in 1869

The International Workingmen’s Association (IWA), also known as the First International, was founded in London in 1864. The International Workingmen’s Association united diverse revolutionary currents including French followers of Proudhon,[11Sony PCG-4Q2M battery

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Sony PCG-91112M battery9] Blanquists, Philadelphes, English trade unionists, socialists and social democrats. The IWA held a preliminary conference in 1865, and had its first congress at Geneva in 1866. Due to the wide variety of philosophies present in the First International, there was conflict from the start. Sony PCG-4Q1M battery

The first objections to Marx’s came from the Mutualists who opposed communism and statism. However, shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers (called Collectivists while in the International) joined in 1868, the First International became polarised into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads.[12Sony PCG-71C11M battery

0] The clearest differences between the groups emerged over their proposed strategies for achieving their visions of socialism. The First International became the first major international forum for the promulgation of socialist ideas.

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As the ideas of Marx and Engels took on flesh, particularly in central Europe, socialists sought to unite in an international organisation. In 1889, on the centennial of the French Revolution of 1789, the Second International was founded, with 384 delegates from 20 countries representing about 300 labour and socialist organisations.[1Sony PCG-71D14M battery

Sony PCG-71411M battery21] It was termed the “Socialist International” and Engels was elected honorary president at the third congress in 1893. Anarchists were ejected and not allowed in mainly because of the pressure from marxists.[122]

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Revolutions of 1917–1936

By 1917, the patriotism of World War I changed into political radicalism in most of Europe, the United States, and Australia. In February 1917, revolution exploded in Russia. Workers, soldiers and peasants established soviets (councils), the monarchy fell, and a provisional government convoked pending the election of a constituent assembly. Sony PCG-61511M battery

In April of that year, Vladimir Lenin arrived in Russia from Switzerland, calling for “All power to the soviets.” In October, after his party, the Bolsheviks, had seized power in an October Revolution it won support of most soviets at the second All-Russian Congress of Soviets. As a matter of political pragmatism, Sony PCG-61611M battery

Sony PCG-61712M batteryLenin reversed Marx’s order of economics over politics, allowing for a political revolution led by a vanguard party of professional revolutionaries rather than a spontaneous establishment of socialist institutions led by a spontaneous uprising of the working class as predicted by Karl Marx.[1Sony VGN-FW21L Battery

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23] On 25 January 1918, at the Petrograd Soviet, Lenin declared “Long live the world socialist revolution!”[124] He proposed an immediate armistice on all fronts, and transferred the land of the landed proprietors, the crown and the monasteries to the peasant committees without compensation.[125Sony VGN-FW21M Battery

Leon Trotsky, Vladimir Lenin, and Lev Kamenev at the Second Communist Party Congress, 1919.

On 26 January 1918, the day after assuming executive power, Lenin wrote Draft Regulations on Workers' Control, which granted workers control of businesses with more than five workers and office employees, and access to all books, documents and stocks, and whose decisions were to be "binding upon the owners of the enterprises".[Sony SVE151D11M battery

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127] Governing through the elected soviets, and in alliance with the peasant-based Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, the Bolshevik government began nationalising banks, industry, and disavowed the national debts of the deposedSony VGN-FW31M Battery

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Sony VGN-FW56Z Battery  Romanov royal régime. It sued for peace, withdrawing from World War I, and convoked a Constituent Assembly in which the peasant Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SR) won a majority.[128]

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The Constituent Assembly elected Socialist-Revolutionary leader Victor Chernov President of a Russian republic, but rejected the Bolshevik proposal that it endorse the Soviet decrees on land, peace and workers’ control, Sony VGN-FW11ZU Battery

Sony VGN-FW54J Battery and acknowledge the power of the Soviets of Workers’, Soldiers’ and Peasants’ Deputies. The next day, the Bolsheviks declared that the assembly was elected on outdated party lists,[129] and the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets dissolved it.[130][131]

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Left wing groups which did not agree with the centralization and abandonment of the soviets by the Bolshevik Party led Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks which were a series of rebellions and uprisings against the Bolsheviks led or supported by left wing groups including Socialist Revolutionaries,[1Sony VGN-FW21J Battery

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Sony VGN-FW51E/H Battery32] Left Socialist Revolutionaries, Mensheviks, and anarchists.[133] Within this left wing discontent the most large scale events were the worker’s Kronstadt rebellion[134][13Sony VGN-FW3ZJ Battery

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Sony VGN-FW48E/H Battery5][136] and the anarchist led Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine uprising which controlled an area known as the Free Territory.[137][138][139]

The Bolshevik Russian Revolution of January 1918 engendered Communist parties worldwide, and their concomitant revolutions of 1917–23. Few Communists doubted that the Russian success of socialism depended upon successful, working-class socialist revolutions in developed capitalist countries.[140][ Sony VGN-FW41J/H Battery

Sony VGN-FW46Z Battery141] In 1919, Lenin and Trotsky organised the world’s Communist parties into a new international association of workers – the Communist International, (Comintern), also called the Third International.

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The Russian Revolution also influenced uprisings in other countries around this time. The German Revolution of 1918–1919 resulted in the replacement of Germany’s imperial government with a republic. Sony VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery

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Sony SVE14AJ15M battery45] and the Spartacist uprising. In Italy the events known as the Biennio Rosso[146][147] was characterized by mass strikes, worker manifestations as well as self-management experiments through land and factories occupations. In Turin and Milan, Sony VGN-FW46M Battery

Sony VGN-FW21SR Batteryworkers councils were formed and many factory occupations took place under the leadership of anarcho-syndicalists organized around the Unione Sindacale Italiana.[148]

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Sony VGN-FW11ZU BatteryRosa Luxemburg, prominent Marxist revolutionary, martyr and leader of the German Spartacist uprising, 1919.

By 1920, the Red Army, under its commander Trotsky, had largely defeated the royalist White Armies. In 1921, War Communism was ended and, under the New Economic Policy (NEP), private ownership was allowed for small and medium peasant enterprises. While industry remained largely state-controlled, Sony VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery

Lenin acknowledged that the NEP was a necessary capitalist measure for a country unripe for socialism. Profiteering returned in the form of “NEP men” and rich peasants (Kulaks) gained power in the countryside.[1Sony VGN-FW51MF/H Battery

Sony VGN-FW11SR Battery49] Nevertheless the role of Trotsky in this episode has been questioned by other socialists incluiding ex-trostkists. In the United States Dwight Macdonald broke with Trotsky and left the trotskyist Socialist Workers Party, Sony VGN-FW56E Battery

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Sony VGN-FW11MR Batteryby raising the question of the Kronstadt rebellion, which Trotsky as leader of the Soviet Red Army and the other Bolsheviks had brutally repressed. He then moved towards democratic socialism [150] and anarchism.[ Sony VGN-FW56M Battery

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I admit, the dictatorship under Stalin’s rule has become monstrous. That does not, however, lessen the guilt of Leon Trotsky as one of the actors in the revolutionary drama of which Kronstadt was one of the bloodiest scenes.”[152]

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In 1922, the fourth congress of the Communist International took up the policy of the United Front, urging Communists to work with rank and file Social Democrats while remaining critical of their leaders, whom they criticised for betraying the working class by supporting the war efforts of their respective capitalist classes. Sony VGN-FW31J Battery

Sony VGN-FW44MR BatteryFor their part, the social democrats pointed to the dislocation caused by revolution, and later, the growing authoritarianism of the Communist Parties. When the Communist Party of Great Britain applied to affiliate to the Labour Party in 1920 it was turned down.

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In 1923, on seeing the Soviet State’s growing coercive power, the dying Lenin said Russia had reverted to “a bourgeois tsarist machine… barely varnished with socialism.”[153] After Lenin’s death in January 1924, Sony VGN-NW21MF Battery

Sony VGN-NW26JG Battery the Communist Party of the Soviet Union – then increasingly under the control of Joseph Stalin – rejected the theory that socialism could not be built solely in the Soviet Union, in favour of the concept of Socialism in One Country. Sony VGN-NW21EF Battery

Sony VGN-NW26EG Battery Despite the marginalised Left Opposition’s demand for the restoration of Soviet democracy, Stalin developed a bureaucratic, authoritarian government, that was condemned by democratic socialists, anarchists and Trotskyists for undermining the initial socialist ideals of the Bolshevik Russian Revolution.[ Sony VGN-NW21JF Battery

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Sony VGN-NW24MR Battery154][155][self-published source?][unreliable source?]

The Russian Revolution of October 1917 brought about the definitive ideological division between Communists as denoted with a capital “С” on the one hand and other communist and socialist trends such as anarcho-communistsSony VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery

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Sony VGN-NW24MG Battery  and social democrats, on the other. The Left Opposition in the Soviet Union gave rise to Trotskyism which was to remain isolated and insignificant for another fifty years, except in Sri Lanka, Sony SVE171E11M battery
Sony SVE151C11M battery where Trotskyism gained the majority and the pro-Moscow wing was expelled from the Communist Party.

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In Spain in 1936, the national anarcho-syndicalist trade union Confederación Nacional del Trabajo initially refused to join a popular front electoral alliance, and abstention by CNT supporters led to a right wing election victory. But in 1936, Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery

Sony VGN-NW24EG Batterythe CNT changed its policy and anarchist votes helped bring the popular front back to power. Months later, the former ruling class responded with an attempted coup causing the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). Sony SVE151E11M battery
Sony SVE171A11M battery156] In response to the army rebellion, an anarchist-inspired movement of peasants and workers, supported by armed militias, took control of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain where they collectivised the land.[157][1Sony VGN-NW20EF/P Battery

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Sony VGN-NW20SF Battery58] The events known as the Spanish Revolution was a workers’ social revolution that began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organizational principles throughout various portions of the country for two to three years, primarily Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia, and parts of the Levante. Sony VGN-NW20EF/W Battery

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Sony VGN-NW20EF Battery Much of Spain’s economy was put under worker control; in anarchist strongholds like Catalonia, the figure was as high as 75%, but lower in areas with heavy Communist Party of Spain influence, Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery

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Sony VPCF23N1E Battery as the Soviet-allied party actively resisted attempts at collectivization enactment. Factories were run through worker committees, agrarian areas became collectivised and run as libertarian communes. Anarchist historian Sam Dolgoff estimated that about eight million people participated directly or at least indirectly in the Spanish Revolution,[ Sony SVE171E13M battery

159] which he claimed “came closer to realizing the ideal of the free stateless society on a vast scale than any other revolution in history.”[160] Sony VPCF11D4E Battery

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Post World War II

Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1953.

In 1951, British Health Minister Aneurin Bevan expressed the view that, “It is probably true that Western Europe would have gone socialist after the war if Soviet behaviour had not given it too grim a visage. Soviet Communism and Socialism are not yet sufficiently distinguished in many minds.”[161] Sony VPCF11S1E/B Battery

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In 1951, the Socialist International was re-founded by the European social democratic parties. It declared: “Communism has split the International Labour Movement and has set back the realisation of Socialism in many countries for decades… Communism falsely claims a share in the Socialist tradition. Sony VPC-F21Z1E Battery

Sony VPCF23P1E BatteryIn fact it has distorted that tradition beyond recognition. It has built up a rigid theology which is incompatible with the critical spirit of Marxism.”[162]

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In the postwar years, socialism became increasingly influential throughout the so-called Third World. Countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America frequently nationalised industries held by foreign owners. The Soviet Union had become a superpower through its adoption of a planned economy, albeit at enormous human cost. Sony VPCF22M1E Battery

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Sony VPCF24Q1E BatteryThis achievement seemed hugely impressive from the outside, and convinced many nationalists in the former colonies, not necessarily communists or even socialists, of the virtues of state planning and state-guided models of social development.

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Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Prior to its dissolution in 1991, the USSR had the second largest economy in the world after the United States.[163] The economy of the Soviet Union was the modern world’s first centrally planned economy. It was based on a system of state ownership of industry managed through Gosplan (the State Planning Commission), Sony SVE151C11M battery

Sony SVE14AG18M batteryGosbank (the State Bank) and the Gossnab (State Commission for Materials and Equipment Supply). Economic planning was conducted through a series of Five-Year Plans. The emphasis was put on a very fast development of heavy industry and the nation became one of the world’s top manufacturers of a large number of basic and heavy industrial products, but it lagged behind in the output of light industrial production and consumer durables.

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As the Soviet economy grew more complex, it required more and more complex disaggregation of control figures (plan targets) and factory inputs. As it required more communication between the enterprises and the planning ministries, and as the number of enterprises, trusts, and ministries multiplied, Sony VPCF231S1E Battery

Sony VPCF12Z1E/BI Battery the Soviet economy started stagnating. The Soviet economy was increasingly sluggish when it came to responding to change, adapting cost−saving technologies, and providing incentives at all levels to improve growth, productivity and efficiency.

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Most information in the Soviet economy flowed from the top down and economic planning was often done based on faulty or outdated information, particularly in sectors with large numbers of consumers. As a result, Sony VPCF11S1E Battery

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Sony VPCF12S1E/B Battery some goods tended to be under-produced, leading to shortages, while other goods were overproduced and accumulated in storage. Some factories developed a system of barter and either exchanged or shared raw materials and parts, while consumers developed a black market for goods that were particularly sought after but constantly under-produced.

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Conceding the weaknesses of their past approaches in solving new problems, the leaders of the late 1980s, headed by Mikhail Gorbachev, were seeking to mould a program of economic reform to galvanise the economy. Sony VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery

Sony VPCF13Z8E/BI Battery However, by 1990 the Soviet government had lost control over economic conditions. Government spending increased sharply as an increasing number of unprofitable enterprises required state support and consumer price subsidies to continue operations.

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The industrial production system in the Soviet Union suffered a political and economic collapse in 1991, after which two transitions occurred: first from centrally planned to market-based economies, and secondly, Sony VPCF12E1E/H Battery

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Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery from state-ownership to private-ownership of economic enterprises. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the economic integration of the Soviet republics was dissolved, and overall industrial activity declined substantially.[164] A lasting legacy remains in the physical infrastructure created during decades of combined industrial production practices.

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Social democratic parties

Main articles: Social democracy, Welfare state, and Nordic model

The Australian Labor Party, the first social democratic labour party in the world, was formed in 1891. In 1904, Australians elected the first Labor Party prime minister in the world: Chris Watson. In 1945, the British Labour Party, Sony VPCF13E8E Battery

Sony VPCF13M1E/B Battery led by Clement Attlee, was elected to office based upon a radical socialist programme. Social Democratic parties dominated post-war politics in countries such as France, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Norway. Sony VPCF13J0E/H Battery

Sony VPCF1318E/H BatteryIn Sweden, the Social Democratic Party held power from 1936 to 1976, 1982 to 1991, and 1994 to 2006. At one point, France claimed to be the world’s most state-controlled capitalist country. The nationalised public utilities included Charbonnages de France (CDF) Sony SVE151G13M battery

Sony SVE151E11M battery Electricité de France (EDF), Gaz de France (GDF), Air France, Banque de France, and Régie Nationale des Usines Renault.[165] Post-World War II social democratic governments introduced social reform and wealth redistribution via state welfare and taxation.

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Clement Attlee, U.K. Prime Minister, Labour Party government, 1945–51.

In the UK, the Labour Party was influenced by the British social reformer William Beveridge, who had identified five “Giant Evils” afflicting the working class of the pre-war period: “want” (poverty), disease, “ignorance” (lack of access to education), “squalor” (poor housing), and “idleness” (unemployment).[16Sony VGN-AR61ZRU Battery

Sony VGN-AR31MR Battery6] Unemployment benefits, national insurance and state pensions were introduced by the 1945 Labour government. Aneurin Bevan, who had introduced the Labour Party’s National Health Service in 1948, Sony VGN-AR61ZU Battery

Sony VGN-AR31M Battery criticised the Attlee government for not progressing further, demanding economic planning and criticising the implementation of nationalisation for not empowering the workers with democratic control of operations.

The UK Labour Government nationalised major public utilities such as mines, gas, coal, electricity, rail, iron, steel, and the Bank of England. British Petroleum, privatised in 1987, was officially nationalised in 1951,[16Sony VGN-AR71E Battery

Sony VGN-AR31E Battery7] and there was further government intervention during the 1974–79 Labour Government[168] Anthony Crosland said that in 1956, 25 per cent of British industry was nationalised, and that public employees, including those in nationalised industries, constituted a similar percentage of the country’s total employed population.[ Sony SVE171B11M battery

169] The Labour government, however, did not seek to end capitalism, and the “government had not the smallest intention of bringing in the ‘common ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange’”,[Sony VGN-AR71J Battery

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Sony VGN-AR21MR Battery170] Labour re-nationalised steel (1967, British Steel) after the Conservatives denationalised it, and nationalised car production (1976, British Leyland).[171] In 1977, major aircraft companies and shipbuilding were nationalised.

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The National Health Service provided taxpayer-funded health care to everyone, free at the point of service.[172] Working-class housing was provided in council housing estates, and university education became available via a school grant system. Ellen Wilkinson, Minister for Education, introduced taxpayer-funded milk in schools, saying, Sony VGN-AR71MR Battery

Sony VGN-AR41S Battery in a 1946 Labour Party conference: “Free milk will be provided in Hoxton and Shoreditch, in Eton and Harrow. What more social equality can you have than that?” Clement Attlee’s biographer argued that this policy “contributed enormously to the defeat of childhood illnesses resulting from bad diet. Sony VGN-AR51MR Battery

Sony VGN-AR41MR Battery Generations of poor children grew up stronger and healthier, because of this one, small, and inexpensive act of generosity, by the Attlee government”.[173]

Sony SVE171E11M batteryOlaf Palme, prime minister of Sweden who was a main architect of the Swedish social democratic model

The Nordic model refers to the economic and social models of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland). This particular adaptation of the mixed market economy is characterised by more generous welfare states (relative to other developed countries), which are aimed specifically at enhancing individual autonomy, Sony VGN-AR51SRU Battery

Sony VGN-AR41M Battery ensuring the universal provision of basic human rights and stabilising the economy. It is distinguished from other welfare states with similar goals by its emphasis on maximising labour force participation, promoting gender equality, egalitarian and extensive benefit levels, large magnitude of redistribution, Sony VGN-AR51SU Battery

and liberal use of expansionary fiscal policy.[174] This has included high degrees of labour union membership. In 2008, labour union density was 67.5% in Finland, 67.6% in Denmark, and 68.3% in Sweden. In comparison, union membership was 11.9% in the United States and 7.7% in France.[17

Sony VGN-AR41L Battery5] The Nordic Model, however, is not a single model with specific components or rules; each of the Nordic countries has its own economic and social models, sometimes with large differences from its neighbours. It has been credited with lowering poverty rates and promoting social mobility.[176][177][178]

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Post war radicalization

Main articles: New Left, Protests of 1968, Decolonization#Decolonization_after_1945, Chinese Revolution (1946−1950), and Cuban Revolution

The Chinese Revolution was the second part of Chinese Civil War which ended in the establishmente of the People’s Republic of China. Sony VGN-AR61E Battery

Sony VGN-AR41E Battery The term “Third World” was coined by French demographer Alfred Sauvy in 1952, on the model of the Third Estate, which, according to the Abbé Sieyès, represented everything, but was nothing: “…because at the end this ignored, exploited, scorned Third World like the Third Estate, wants to become something too” (Sauvy). Sony VGN-AR61MR Battery

Sony VGN-AR31SR Battery The emergence of this new political entity, in the frame of the Cold War, was complex and painful. Several tentatives were made to organize newly independent states in order to oppose a common front towards both the US’s and the USSR’s influence on them, with the consequences of the Sino-Soviet split already at works. Sony VGN-AR61MR Battery

Sony VGN-AR61S Battery Thus, the Non-Aligned Movement constituted itself, around the main figures of Jawaharlal Nehru, the leader of India, Sukarno, the Indonesian president, Josip Broz Tito the Communist leader of Yugoslavia, Sony VGN-AR11M Battery

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and Gamal Abdel Nasser, head of Egypt who successfully opposed the French and British imperial powers during the 1956 Suez crisis. After the 1954 Geneva Conference which put an end to the French war against Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam, the 1955 Bandung Conference gathered Nasser, Nehru, Tito, Sukarno, Sony VGN-AR11S Battery

Sony VGN-AR21M Battery the leader of Indonesia, and Zhou Enlai, Premier of the People’s Republic of China. As many African countries gained independence during the 1960s, some of these newly formed governments rejected the ideas of capitalism in favour of a more afrocentric economic model. Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Sony VGN-AR11SR Battery

Sony VGN-AR21B Battery Léopold Senghor of Senegal, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Sékou Touré of Guinea, were the main architects of African Socialism.[179]

The Cuban Revolution (1953-1959) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro’s 26th of July Movement and its allies against the government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista. The revolution began in July 1953, Sony VGN-NR31E/S Battery

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Sony VGN-NR21S/T Battery and finally ousted Batista on 1 January 1959, replacing his government with Castro’s revolutionary state. Castro’s government later reformed along communist lines, becoming the Communist Party of Cuba in October 1965.[180] In Hungary the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 [181Sony VGN-NR31ER/S Battery

] was a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the People’s Republic of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.

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The New Left was a term used mainly in the United Kingdom and United States in reference to activists, educators, agitators and others in the 1960s and 1970s who sought to implement a broad range of reforms on issues such as gay rights, abortion, gender roles and drugs[18Sony VGN-NR31MR/S Battery

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Sony VGN-NR21E/S Battery2] in contrast to earlier leftist or Marxist movements that had taken a more vanguardist approach to social justice and focused mostly on labor unionization and questions of social class.[183][184] They rejected involvement with the labor movement and Marxism’s historical theory of class struggle.[1Sony VGN-NR31SR/S Battery

Sony VGN-NR11Z/T Battery85] In the U.S., the “New Left” was associated with the Hippie movement and anti-war college campus protest movements. While initially formed in opposition to the “Old Left” Democratic party, groups composing the New Left gradually became central players in the Democratic coalition.[1Sony VGN-NR31Z/S Battery

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Sony VGN-NR11Z/S Battery82] In 1968 in Carrara, Italy the International of Anarchist Federations was founded during an international anarchist conference held there in 1968 by the three existing European federations of France, the Italian and the Iberian Anarchist Federation as well as the Bulgarian federation in French exile. Sony VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery

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The protests of 1968 comprised a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterized by popular rebellions against military, capitalist, and bureaucratic elites, who retorted with an escalation of political repression. Sony VGN-NR38E/S Battery

Sony VGN-NR11M/S Battery In capitalist countries, these protests marked a turning point for the Civil Rights movement in the United States, which produced revolutionary movements like the Black Panther Party. In that country the prominent civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. organized the “Poor People’s Campaign” to address issues of economic justice[Sony VGN-NR38S/S Battery

86] while personally showing sympathy for democratic socialism.[18Sony VGN-NR38M/S Battery

7] In reaction to the Tet Offensive, protests also sparked a broad movement in opposition to the Vietnam War all over the United States and even into London, Dell XPS 14 battery

Dell XPS M2010 batteryParis, Berlin and Rome. Mass socialist or communist movements grew not only in the United States but also in most European countries. The most spectacular manifestation of this were the May 1968 protests in France, Sony VGN-NR38Z/S Battery

Sony VGN-NR38Z/T Battery in which students linked up with wildcat strikes of up to ten million workers, and for a few days the movement seemed capable of overthrowing the government. In many other capitalist countries, struggles against dictatorships, state repression, and colonization were also marked by protests in 1968, Dell XPS 15 battery

Dell XPS M1730 battery such as the beginning of the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Tlatelolco massacre in Mexico City, and the escalation of guerrilla warfare against the military dictatorship in Brazil. In communist party led countries there were also protests against bureaucratic and military elites. It was amidst the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China (1966–1976),
Dell XPS M1530 battery and in Eastern Europe there were also widespread protests that escalated particularly in the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia.

Salvador Allende, president of Chile and member of the Socialist Party of Chile whose presidency was ended by a military dictatorship which later became an early experimenter in neoliberalism[188] Dell XPS 17 battery

In Chile Salvador Allende was a physician and Marxist candidate for the Socialist Party of Chile who became elected president through democratic elections for a brief period before being ousted out of power by a military dictatorship which lasted until the late 1980s. Dell XPS L401X battery
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Dell XPS M140 battery [189] In Italy Autonomia Operaia was a leftist movement particularly active from 1976 to 1978. It took an important role in the autonomist movement in the 1970s, aside earlier organisations such as Potere Operaio, created after May 1968, and Lotta Continua.[190] Out of this experience came out the contemporary socialist radicalDell XPS L502X battery

Dell XPS M1330 battery movement known as autonomism.[191] The Nicaraguan Revolution encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) Dell XPS L701X battery
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Dell XPS M1210 batteryto violently oust the dictatorship in 1978-79, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 until 1990[192] and the socialist measures which included widescale agrarian reform[193][194] and educational programs.[195]

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The late 20th century and contemporary times

Social democracy’s relation to neoliberalism

Main article: Third Way (centrism)

Many social democratic parties, particularly after the Cold war, adopted neoliberal-based market policies that include privatisation, liberalisation, deregulation and financialisation; resulting in the abandonment of pursuing the development of moderate socialism in favour of market liberalism. Dell Latitude E5400 battery
Dell Latitude E5420 batteryDespite the name, these pro-capitalist policies are radically different from the many non-capitalist free-market socialist theories that have existed throughout history.

In 1959, the German Social Democratic Party had adopted the Godesberg Program, rejecting class struggle and Marxism. By 1980, with the rise of conservative neoliberal politicians such as Ronald Reagan in the U.S., Dell Latitude E5410 battery
Dell Latitude E5220 batteryMargaret Thatcher in Britain, and Brian Mulroney in Canada, the Western welfare state was attacked from within. Monetarists and neoliberals attacked social welfare systems as impediments to private entrepreneurship at public expense.

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In the UK, the Labour Party leader Neil Kinnock made a public attack against the entryist group Militant at the 1985 Labour Party conference; the group had been found ineligible for affiliation to Labour, and its supporters were gradually being expelled. The Kinnock leadership had refusal Dell Latitude E5500 battery
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to support the 1984–1985 miner’s strike over pit closures, a decision the party’s left-wing and the National Union of Mineworkers blamed for its eventual defeat. In 1989, at Stockholm, the 18th Congress of the Socialist International adopted a new Declaration of Principles, saying:
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Democratic socialism is an international movement for freedom, social justice, and solidarity. Its goal is to achieve a peaceful world where these basic values can be enhanced and where each individual can live a meaningful life with the full development of his or her personality and talents, and with the guarantee of human and civil rights in a democratic framework of society.[196]

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In the 1990s, the British Labour Party, under Tony Blair, posited policies based upon the free market economy to deliver public services via the Private finance initiative. In 1995, the Labour Party re-defined its stance on socialism by re-wording Clause IV of its constitution, Dell Latitude E6500 battery
Dell Latitude E6320 battery effectively rejecting socialism by removing any and all references to public, direct worker or municipal ownership of the means of production. The Labour Party stated: “The Labour Party is a democratic socialist party. Dell Latitude E4300 battery
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Dell Latitude E6230 batteryIt believes that, by the strength of our common endeavour we achieve more than we achieve alone, so as to create, for each of us, the means to realise our true potential, and, for all of us, a community in which power, wealth, and opportunity are in the hands of the many, not the few.”[197]
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The objectives of the Party of European Socialists, the European Parliament’s socialist bloc, are now “to pursue international aims in respect of the principles on which the European Union is based, namely principles of freedom, equality, Dell Latitude E4320 battery
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Dell Latitude E6210 battery solidarity, democracy, respect of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and respect for the Rule of Law.” As a result, today, the rallying cry of the French Revolution – “Egalité, Liberté, Fraternité” – which overthrew absolutism and ushered industrialisation into French society, are promoted as essential socialist values.[198]
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Main article: African socialism

Kwame Nkrumah, the first President of Ghana and theorist of African socialism on a Soviet Union commemorative postage stamp.

African socialism has been and continues to be a major ideology around the continent. Julius Nyerere was inspired by Fabian socialist ideals.[199] Dell Latitude E6410 battery

Dell Latitude E6510 battery He was a firm believer in rural Africans and their traditions and ujamaa, a system of collectivisation that according to Nyerere was present before European imperialism. Essentially he believed Africans were already socialists. Other African socialists include Jomo Kenyatta, Kenneth Kaunda, Dell Latitude E6410 ATG battery
Dell Latitude E6500 batteryNelson Mandela and Kwame Nkrumah. Fela Kuti was inspired by socialism and called for a democratic African republic. In South Africa the African National Congress (ANC) abandoned its partial socialist allegiances after taking power, and followed a standard neoliberal Sony SVE1513A1ES battery

Sony SVE1512N1EB battery route. From 2005 through to 2007, the country was wracked by many thousands of protests from poor communities. One of these gave rise to a mass movement of shack dwellers, Abahlali baseMjondolo that, despite major police suppression, continues to work for popular people’s planning and against the creation of a market economy in land and housing.

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The People’s Republic of China, North Korea, Laos and Vietnam are Asian countries remaining from the wave of Marxism-Leninist implemented socialism in the 20th century. States with socialist economies have largely moved away from centralised economic planning in the 21st century, placing a greater emphasis on markets. Sony SVE1513B1EW battery

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Sony SVE1512Y1ES battery Forms include the Chinese socialist market economy and the Vietnamese socialist-oriented market economy. They utilise state-owned corporate management models as opposed to modelling socialist enterprise on traditional management styles employed by government agencies.

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In the People’s Republic of China, the Chinese Communist Party has led a transition from the command economy of the Mao period to an economic program they term the socialist market economy or “socialism with Chinese characteristics”. Under Deng Xiaoping, the leadership of China embarked upon a programme of market-based reform that was more sweeping than had been Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev’s Sony SVE151C11M battery

Sony SVE151G13M battery perestroika program of the late 1980s. Deng’s programme, however, maintained state ownership rights over land, state or cooperative ownership of much of the heavy industrial and manufacturing sectors and state influence in the banking and financial sectors.

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Irish Socialist Party politician Joe Higgins.

Elsewhere in Asia, some elected socialist parties and communist parties remain prominent, particularly in India and Nepal. The Communist Party of Nepal in particular calls for multi-party democracy, social equality, Sony SVE151G11M battery

Sony SVE1512I1ES batteryand economic prosperity.[200] In Singapore, a majority of the GDP is still generated from the state sector comprising government-linked companies.[201] In Japan, there has been a resurgent interest in the Japanese Communist Party among workers and youth.[202][ Sony SVE1513C1EW battery

Sony SVE1512H6EW battery203] In Malaysia, the Socialist Party of Malaysia got its first Member of Parliament, Dr. Jeyakumar Devaraj, after the 2008 general election.


In Europe, the socialist Left Party in Germany grew in popularity[204] due to dissatisfaction with the increasingly neoliberal policies of the SPD, becoming the fourth biggest party in parliament in the general election on 27 September 2009.[20Sony SVE1513G1EB battery

Sony SVE1512H6EB battery5] Communist candidate Dimitris Christofias won a crucial presidential runoff in Cyprus, defeating his conservative rival with a majority of 53%.[206] In Greece, in the general election on 17 June 2012, Coalition of the Radical Left (Syriza) won 26.89% of the votes and became the second largest party in parliament.

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In Ireland, in the 2009 European election, Joe Higgins of the Socialist Party took one of three seats in the capital Dublin European constituency. In Denmark, the Socialist People’s Party (SF or Socialist Party for short) more than doubled its parliamentary representation to 23 seats from 11, making it the fourth largest party.[20Sony SVE1513J1EB battery

Sony SVE1513Z1EB battery7] In 2011, the socialist parties of Social Democrats, Socialist People’s Party and the Danish Social Liberal Party formed government, after a slight victory over the liberal parties. They were led by Helle Thorning-Schmidt, and had the Red-Green Alliance as a supporting party. Sony SVE1513J1EW battery

Sony SVE1513Y1ESI battery In Norway, the current governing Red-Green Coalition consists of the Labour Party (Ap), the Socialist Left Party (SV), and the Centre Party (Sp).

In the UK, the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers put forward a slate of candidates in the 2009 European Parliament elections under the banner of No to EU – Yes to Democracy, a broad left-wing alter-globalisation coalition involving socialist groups such as the Socialist Party, aiming to offer an alternative to the “anti-foreigner” and pro-business policies of the UK Independence Party.[208][209][21Sony SVE1513L1ES battery

Sony SVE1513Y1ES battery0] In the following May 2010 UK general election, the Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition, launched in January 2010[211] and backed by Bob Crow, the leader of the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers union (RMT), other union leaders and the Socialist Party among other socialist groups, stood against Labour in 40 constituencies.[212][ Sony SVE1513P1EW battery

Sony SVE1513U1ESI battery213] The Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition plans to contest the 2011 elections, having gained the endorsement of the RMT June 2010 conference.[214]

Presidents Fernando Lugo of Paraguay, Evo Morales of Bolívia, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brasil, Rafael Correa of Ecuador, and Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, in Fórum Social Mundial for Latin America

In France, the Revolutionary Communist League (LCR) candidate in the 2007 presidential election, Olivier Besancenot, received 1,498,581 votes, Sony SVE1513Q1ES battery

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Sony SVE1513U1ES battery 4.08%, double that of the Communist candidate.[215] The LCR abolished itself in 2009 to initiate a broad anti-capitalist party, the New Anticapitalist Party, whose stated aim is to “build a new socialist, democratic perspective for the twenty-first century”.[216]

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Latin America

Main articles: Pink tide and Socialism of the 21st century

Every factory must be a school to educate, like Che Guevara said, to produce not only briquettes, steel, and aluminum, but also, above all, the new man and woman, the new society, the socialist society. Sony SVE1512N1ESI battery

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— Hugo Chávez, at a May 2009 socialist transformation workshop[217]

Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega, Bolivian President Evo Morales, and Ecuadorian president Rafael Correa refer to their political programmes as socialist. Chávez has adopted the term socialism of the 21st century. After winning re-election in December 2006, Chávez said, “Now more than ever, I am obliged to move Venezuela’s path towards socialism.”[2Sony SVE1512T1ES battery

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18] Hugo Chávez was also reelected in October 2012 for his third six-year term as President, but he died in March 2013 from cancer. After Chávez’s death on 5 March 2013, vice-president from Chavez’s party Nicolás Maduro assumed the powers and responsibilities of the President. A special election was held on 14 April of the same year to elect a new President, which Maduro Sony SVE171G11M battery

Sony SVE1713F1EB battery won by a tight margin as the candidate of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela; he was formally inaugurated on 19 April.[219]

Anti-capitalism and anti-globalization movements rose to prominence particularly through events such as the opposition to the WTO meeting of 1999 in Seattle. Socialist-inspired groups played an important role in these new movements, Sony SVE171A11M battery

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Sony SVE1511Y1E batterywhich nevertheless embraced much broader layers of the population, and were championed by figures such as Noam Chomsky. The 2003 invasion of Iraq led to a significant anti-war movement in which socialists argued their case.

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In Canada, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, the precursor to the New Democratic Party, had some significant success in provincial politics. In 1944, the Saskatchewan CCF formed the first socialist government in North America. Sony SVE1511Z1E battery

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Sony SVE1511X1E battery On the federal level, the social democratic New Democratic Party now forms the Official Opposition after winning 103/308 seats[223] (up from 37) in the 2011 Canadian federal election.

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Socialist parties in the United States reached their peak in the early 20th century. Current active parties and organisations include the Socialist Party USA, the Socialist Workers Party and the Democratic Socialists of America, the latter having approximately 10,000 members.[ Sony SVE1511B1E battery

Sony SVE1511B1EB battery224] Some internal factions of the Green Party are social democratic and Eco-Socialist.

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Economic liberals and right libertarians see private ownership of the means of production and the market exchange as natural entities or moral rights, which are central to their conceptions of freedom and liberty; Sony SVE171E11M battery

they therefore perceive public ownership of the means of production, cooperatives and economic planning as infringements upon liberty. Some of the primary criticisms of socialism are claims that it creates distorted or absent price signals,[227] Sony SVE1512E6EB battery

Sony SVE151E11M battery [228] results in reduced incentives,[

Critics from the neoclassical school of economics criticise state-ownership and centralisation of capital on the grounds that there is a lack of incentive in state institutions to act on information as efficiently as capitalist firms do because they lack budget constraints, resulting in reduced overall economic welfare for society.[240Sony SVE1512E6EW battery

Sony SVE1511D1E battery] Economists of the Austrian school argue that socialist systems based on economic planning are unfeasible because they lack the information to perform economic calculation in the first place, due to a lack of price signals and a free price system, which they argue are required for rational economic calculation.[241] Sony SVE1512H1EB battery



Capitalism is an economic system based on private ownership of the means of production and capital goods, and the production of goods and services for profit in a market economy.[1][2] Central characteristics of capitalism include the process of capital accumulation, competitive markets, and wage labor.[3Sony SVS13AA11L Battery] In a capitalist economy, the parties to a transaction nominally determine the prices at which assets, goods, and services are exchanged.[4]
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The degree of competition, role of intervention and regulation, and scope of public ownership varies across different models of capitalism.[5] Economists, political economists, and historians have taken different perspectives in their analysis of capitalism and recognized various forms of it in practice.
Sony PCG-41216L BatteryThese include laissez-faire capitalism, welfare capitalism and state capitalism; each highlighting varying degrees of dependency on markets, public ownership, and inclusion of social policies. The extent to which different markets are free, as well as the rules defining private property,
Sony PCG-41215L Batteryis a matter of politics and policy. Many states have what are termed capitalist mixed economies, referring to a mix between planned and market-driven elements.[6] A pejorative characterization, Sony SVS131A11L Battery

Sony PCG-41214L Battery crony capitalism, refers to a state of affairs in which insider corruption, nepotism and cartels dominate the system. This is considered to be the normal state of mature capitalism in Marxian economics.
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Capitalism has existed under many forms of government, in many different times, places, and cultures.[7] Following the demise of feudalism, capitalism became the dominant economic system in the Western world. Later, in the 20th century, Sony SVS131B11L Battery
capitalism overcame a challenge by centrally-planned economies and is now the dominant system worldwide,[8][9] with the mixed economy being its dominant form in the industrialized Western world.

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Different economic perspectives emphasize specific elements of capitalism in their preferred definition. Laissez-faire and liberal economists emphasize the degree to which government does not have control over markets and the importance of property rights.[10][ Sony SVS151B11L Battery
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Sony PCG-41212L Battery11] Neoclassical and Keynesian macro-economists emphasize the need for government regulation to prevent monopolies and to soften the effects of the boom and bust cycle.[12]
Sony PCG-41211L BatteryMarxian economists emphasize the role of capital accumulation, exploitation and wage labour. Most political economists emphasize private property as well, in addition to power relations, wage labour, class, and the uniqueness of capitalism as a historical formation.[6]
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Proponents of capitalism argue that it creates more prosperity than any other economic system, and that its benefits are mainly to the ordinary person.[13] Critics of capitalism variously associate it with economic instability[1Sony PCG-4121DL Battery
4] and an inability to provide for the well-being of all people.[15] In contrast to both perspectives, socialists maintain that capitalism is superior to all previously existing economic systems (such as feudalism or slavery) but that a new form of economic organization, superior to capitalism, is possible or likely to emerge in the near future.[16]

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The term capitalism, in its modern sense, is often attributed to Karl Marx.[7][17] However, Marx rarely used the term “capitalism”, although it was used twice in the more political interpretations of Marx’s work, which were primarily authored by Friedrich Engels. Sony PCG-41218L Battery

sony PCG-6Z4L batteryIn the 20th century defenders of the capitalist system often replaced the term capitalism with phrases such as free enterprise and private enterprise and replaced capitalist with rentier and investor in reaction to the negative connotations sometimes associated with capitalism.[18] Sony PCG-41411L Battery

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Capitalism is defined as a social and economic system in which capital assets are mainly owned and controlled by private persons, labor is purchased for money wages, capital gains accrue to private owners, Sony PCG-41412L Battery
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sony PCG-6Z2L battery and the price mechanism is utilized to allocate capital goods between uses. The extent to which the price mechanism is used, the degree of competitiveness, and government intervention in markets distinguish exact forms of capitalism.[19]

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There are different variations of capitalism which have different relationships to markets and the state. In free-market and laissez-faire forms of capitalism, markets are utilized most extensively with minimal or no regulation over the pricing mechanism. In interventionist and mixed economies, Sony PCG-41414L Battery

sony PCG-6XBL batterymarkets continue to play a dominant role but are regulated to some extent by government in order to correct market failures, promote social welfare, conserve natural resources, and fund defense and public safety. In state capitalist systems, markets are relied upon the least, with the state relying heavily on state-owned enterprises or indirect economic planning to accumulate capital.

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Capitalism and capitalist economics is generally considered to be the opposite of socialism, which contrasts with all forms of capitalism in the following ways: social ownership of the means of production, where returns on the means of production accrue to society at large, and goods and services are produced directly for their utility (as opposed to being produced by profit-seeking businesses). sony PCG-4R1L battery

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Money, capital, and accumulation[edit]

Money is primarily a standardized medium of exchange, and final means of payment, that serves to measure the value of all goods and commodities in a standard of value. It is an abstraction of economic value and medium of exchange that eliminates the cumbersome system of barter by sony PCG-4Q4L battery

sony PCG-6X8L battery separating the transactions involved in the exchange of products, thus greatly facilitating specialization and trade through encouraging the exchange of commodities. Capitalism involves the further abstraction of money into other exchangeable assets and the accumulation of money through ownership, exchange, interest and various other financial instruments. sony PCG-4Q3L battery

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Capital in this sense refers to money used to buy something only in order to sell it again to realize a financial profit.[citation needed]

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The accumulation of capital refers to the process of “making money”, or growing an initial sum of money through investment in production. Capitalism is based around the accumulation of capital,

sony PCG-6X2L batterywhereby financial capital is invested in order to realize a profit and then reinvested into further production in a continuous process of accumulation. In Marxian economic theory, this dynamic is called the law of value.

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Capital and financial markets[edit]

The defining feature of capitalist markets, in contrast to markets and exchange in pre-capitalist societies like feudalism, is the existence of a market for capital goods (the means of production), meaning exchange-relations (business relationships) Sony SVS13AB1GL Battery

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exist within the production process. Additionally, capitalism features a market for labor. This distinguishes the capitalist market from pre-capitalist societies which generally only contained market exchange for final goods and secondary goods. The “market” in capitalism refers to capital markets and financial markets.

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Capitalism is the system of raising, conserving and spending a set monetary value in a specified market. There are three main markets in a basic capitalistic economy: labor, goods and services, and financial. Labor markets (people) Sony SVS131C24L Battery
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Sony PCG-61A14L Batterymake products and get paid for work by the goods and services market (companies, firms, or corporations, etc.) which then sells the products back to the laborers. However, both of the first two markets pay into and receive benefits from the financial market, which handles and regulates the actual money in the economic system. Sony SVS131G1DL Battery

Sony PCG-61A13L BatteryThis includes banks, credit-unions, stock exchanges, etc. From a monetary standpoint, governments control just how much money is in circulation worldwide, which can play a role on how money is spent in one’s own country.
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Wage labor and class structure[edit]

Wage labor refers to the class-structure of capitalism, whereby workers receive either a wage or a salary, and owners receive the profits generated by the factors of production employed in the production of economic value. Sony SVS151C1GL Battery
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Sony SVS151E1GL BatteryIndividuals who possess and supply financial capital to productive ventures become owners, either jointly (as shareholders) or individually. In Marxian economics these owners of the means of production and suppliers of capital are generally called capitalists. The description of the role of the capitalist has shifted, Sony PCG-61714L Battery

Sony SVE151J11L Battery first referring to a useless intermediary between producers to an employer of producers, and eventually came to refer to owners of the means of production.[18] The term capitalist is not generally used by supporters of mainstream economics.

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“Workers” includes those who expend both manual and mental (or creative) labor in production, where production does not simply mean physical production but refers to the production of both tangible and intangible economic value. “Capitalists” are individuals who derive income from investments. Sony PCG-61911L Battery

Labor includes all physical and mental human resources, including entrepreneurial capacity and management skills, which are needed to produce products and services. Production is the act of making goods or services by applying labor power.[20][21]
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Macroeconomics keeps its eyes on things such as inflation: a general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money; growth: how much money a government has and how quickly it accrues money; Sony PCG-61913L Battery

Sony SVE151G11L Batteryunemployment, and rates of trade between other countries. Whereas microeconomics deals with individual firms, people, and other institutions that work within a set frame work of rules to balance prices and the workings of a singular government.
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Both micro and macroeconomics work together to form a single set of evolving rules and regulations. Governments (the macroeconomic side) set both national and international regulations that keep track of prices and corporations’ (microeconomics) growth rates, set prices, and trade, while the corporations influence what federal laws are set.[22][23][24]

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Types of capitalism[edit]

There are many variants of capitalism in existence that differ according to country and region. They vary in their institutional makeup and by their economic policies. The common features among all the different forms of capitalism is that they are based on the production of goods and
Sony SVE141L11L Battery services for profit, predominately market-based allocation of resources, and they are structured upon the accumulation of capital. The major forms of capitalism are listed below:
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Main articles: Mercantilism and Protectionism

Mercantilism is a nationalist form of early capitalism that came into existence approximately in the late 16th century. It is characterized by the intertwining of national business interests to state-interest and imperialism, and consequently, Sony PCG-71713L Battery

Sony SVE141C11L Battery the state apparatus is utilized to advance national business interests abroad. An example of this is colonists living in America who were only allowed to trade with and purchase goods from their respective mother countries (Britain, France, etc.). Sony PCG-71811L Battery

Sony PCG-91311L Battery Mercantilism holds that the wealth of a nation is increased through a positive balance of trade with other nations, and corresponds to the phase of capitalist development called the Primitive accumulation of capital.
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Free-market capitalism[edit]

See also: Free market and Laissez-faire

Free-market capitalism refers to an economic system where prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without intervention by government policy. Sony PCG-71911L Battery

Sony PCG-71914L BatteryIt typically entails support for highly competitive markets, private ownership of productive enterprises. Laissez-faire is a more extensive form of free-market capitalism where the role of the state is limited to protecting property rights.

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Social-market economy[edit]

Main articles: Social market and Nordic model

A social-market economy is a nominally free-market system where government intervention in price formation is kept to a minimum but the state provides significant services in the area of social security, unemployment benefits and recognition of labor rights through national collective bargaining arrangements. Sony SVE171C11L Battery

Sony PCG-61215L Battery This model is prominent in Western and Northern European countries, and Japan, albeit in slightly different configurations. The vast majority of enterprises are privately owned in this economic model.

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Sony PCG-61211L BatteryState capitalism[edit]

Main article: State capitalism

State capitalism consists of state ownership of the means of production within a state, and the organization of state enterprises as commercial, profit-seeking businesses. The debate between proponents of private versus state capitalism is centered around questions of managerial efficacy, productive efficiency, and fair distribution of wealth. Sony SVE171E12L Battery

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According to Aldo Musacchio, a professor at Harvard Business School, it is a system in which governments, whether democratic or autocratic, exercise a widespread influence on the economy, through either direct ownership or various subsidies. Musacchio also emphasizes the difference between today’s state capitalism and its predecessors. Sony SVE171G112 Battery
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Sony PCG-71215L Battery Gone are the days when governments appointed bureaucrats to run companies. The world’s largest state-owned enterprises are traded on the public markets and kept in good health by large institutional investors.[25]

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Corporate capitalism[edit]

Main article: Corporate capitalism

See also: State monopoly capitalism and Crony capitalism

Corporate capitalism is a free or mixed-market economy characterized by the dominance of hierarchical, bureaucratic corporations. State-monopoly capitalism was originally a Marxist concept referring to a form of corporate capitalism in which state policy Sony PCG-91112L Battery

Sony PCG-71211L Battery is utilized to benefit and promote the interests of dominant or established corporations by shielding them from competitive pressures or by providing them with subsidies.[citation needed]
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Mixed economy[edit]

Main article: Mixed economy

See also: Economic interventionism

A mixed economy is a largely market-based economy consisting of both private and public ownership of the means of production and economic interventionism through macroeconomic policies intended to correct market failures, Sony PCG-71312L Battery
reduce unemployment and keep inflation low. The degree of intervention in markets varies among different countries. Some mixed economies, such as France under dirigisme, also featured a degree of indirect economic planning over a largely capitalist-based economy. Sony PCG-71311L Battery

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The term capitalist as referring to an owner of capital (rather than its meaning of someone adherent to the economic system) shows earlier recorded use than the term capitalism, dating back to the mid-17th century. Capitalist is derived from capital, which evolved from capitale, a late Latin word based on proto-Indo-European caput, Sony PCG-71218L Battery

Sony PCG-71316L Batterymeaning “head” — also the origin of chattel and cattle in the sense of movable property (only much later to refer only to livestock). Capitale emerged in the 12th to 13th centuries in the sense of referring to funds, stock of merchandise, sum of money, or money carrying interest.[34][35] Sony PCG-71217L Battery
[36] By 1283 it was used in the sense of the capital assets of a trading firm. It was frequently interchanged with a number of other words — wealth, money, funds, goods, assets, property, and so on.[34] Sony PCG-71313L Battery
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The Hollandische Mercurius uses capitalists in 1633 and 1654 to refer to owners of capital.[34] In French, Étienne Clavier referred to capitalistes in 1788,[37] six years before its first recorded English usage by Arthur Young in his work Travels in France (1792).[36][ Sony PCG-61311L Battery

Sony PCG-61317L Battery38] David Ricardo, in his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817), referred to “the capitalist” many times.[39] Samuel Taylor Coleridge, an English poet, used capitalist in his work Table Talk (Sony PCG-61312L Battery
1823).[40] Pierre-Joseph Proudhon used the term capitalist in his first work, What is Property? (1840) to refer to the owners of capital. Benjamin Disraeli used the term capitalist in his 1845 work Sybil. Sony PCG-61315L Battery
Sony PCG-61316L Battery [36] Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels used the term capitalist (Kapitalist) in The Communist Manifesto (1848) to refer to a private owner of capital.

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According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the term capitalism was first used by novelist William Makepeace Thackeray in 1854 in The Newcomes, where he meant “having ownership of capital”.[36] Also according to the OED, Carl Adolph Douai, a German-American socialist and abolitionist, used the term private capitalism in 1863.

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The initial usage of the term capitalism in its modern sense has been attributed to Louis Blanc in 1850 and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in 1861.[41] Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels referred to the capitalistic system (kapitalistisches System)[42][43] Sony PCG-7142L Battery

Sony PCG-8141L Battery and to the capitalist mode of production (kapitalistische Produktionsform) in Das Kapital (1867).[44] The use of the word “capitalism” in reference to an economic system appears twice in Volume I of Das Kapital, Sony PCG-7151L Battery
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Sony PCG-8131L Batteryp. 124 (German edition), and in Theories of Surplus Value, tome II, p. 493 (German edition). Marx did not extensively use the form capitalism, but instead those of capitalist and capitalist mode of production, which appear more than 2600 times in the trilogy Das Kapital.
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Marx’s notion of the capitalist mode of production is characterised as a system of primarily private ownership of the means of production in a mainly market economy, with a legal framework on commerce and a physical infrastructure provided by the state. He believed that no legal framework was available to protect the laborers, Sony PCG-7153L Battery
and so exploitation by the companies was rife.[45][page needed] Engels made more frequent use of the term capitalism; volumes II and III of Das Kapital, both edited by Engels after Marx’s death, contain the word “capitalism” four and three times, respectively. The three combined volumes of Das Kapital (1867, 1885, 1894Sony PCG-7154L Battery
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Sony PCG-7184L Battery) contain the word capitalist more than 2,600 times.

An 1877 work entitled Better Times by Hugh Gabutt and an 1884 article in the Pall Mall Gazette also used the term capitalism.[3Sony PCG-7162L Battery
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Sony PCG-7183L Battery6] A later use of the term capitalism to describe the production system was by the German economist Werner Sombart, in his 1902 book The Jews and Modern Capitalism (Die Juden und das Wirtschaftsleben). Sony PCG-7172L Battery

Sony PCG-7182L BatterySombart’s close friend and colleague, Max Weber, also used capitalism in his 1904 book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus). Sony PCG-7173L Battery

A painting of a French seaport from 1638 at the height of mercantilism.

The European economy between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries is commonly labelled as mercantilism.[ Sony PCG-7174L Battery
Sony PCG-7181L Battery47] This period, the Age of Discovery, saw geographic exploration being exploited by merchant overseas traders, especially from Russia, France, Spain, Portugal, England and the Low Countries; the European colonization of the Americas; Sony PCG-21313L Battery

Sony PCG-81411L Battery and the rapid growth in overseas trade. Mercantilism involved trade for profit, although commodities were still largely produced by non-capitalist production methods.[7]

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While some scholars see mercantilism as the earliest stage of capitalism, others argue that capitalism did not emerge until later. For example, Karl Polanyi, noted that “mercantilism, with all its tendency toward commercialization, Sony PCG-41112L Battery

Sony PCG-81314L Battery never attacked the safeguards which protected [the] two basic elements of production—labor and land—from becoming the elements of commerce”; thus mercantilist attitudes towards economic regulation were closer to feudalist attitudes, “they disagreed only on the methods of regulation”.

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Moreover, Polanyi saw the hallmark of capitalism as the establishment of generalized markets for what he referred to as the “fictitious commodities”: land, labor, and money. Accordingly, “not until 1834 was a competitive labor market established in England, hence industrial capitalism as a social system cannot be said to have existed before that date.”[48]

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Evidence of long-distance merchant-driven trade motivated by profit exists from as early as the second millennium BCE, with the Old Assyrian merchants.[46] The earliest forms of mercantilism date back to the Roman Empire and Ancient China. Sony PCG-51211L Battery

Sony PCG-81313L Battery When the Roman Empire expanded, the mercantilist economy expanded throughout Europe. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, local feudal powers came to control most of the European economy, and mercantilism collapsed there; however, mercantilism persisted in Arabia, Sony PCG-51311L Battery

Sony PCG-81312L Batterythe silk-road trade-routes continued, and mercantilism cycled following dynasty rise and collapse in East Asia. Due to their proximity to neighboring countries, the Arabs established trade routes to Egypt, Sony PCG-51312L Battery

Sony PCG-81311L BatteryPersia, and Byzantium. As Islam spread in the 7th century, mercantilism spread rapidly to Spain, Portugal, Northern Africa, and Asia. Mercantilism revived in Greater Europe in the 14th century, as mercantilism spread from Portugal and Spain.[49]
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The doctrine of bullionism, a major tenet of mercantilist theory, stressed the importance of accumulating precious metals. Mercantilists argued that a state should export more goods than it imported so that foreigners would have to pay the difference in precious metals. Sony PCG-51411L Battery
Mercantilists argued that only raw materials that could not be extracted at home should be imported; and promoted government subsidies (such as the granting of monopolies and protective tariffs) which mercantilists regarded as necessary to encourage home production of manufactured goods.
Sony PCG-81114L BatteryRobert Clive after the Battle of Plassey. The battle began East India Company rule in India.

European merchants, backed by state controls, subsidies, and monopolies, made most of their profits from the buying and selling of goods. In the words of Francis Bacon, mercantilism aimed at “the opening and well-balancing of trade; Sony PCG-51412L Battery

Sony PCG-81113L Battery the cherishing of manufacturers; the banishing of idleness; the repressing of waste and excess by sumptuary laws; the improvement and husbanding of the soil; the regulation of prices …”[50]
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Similar practices of economic regimentation had begun earlier in medieval European towns. However, under mercantilism, given the contemporaneous rise of political absolutism, the state superseded the system of local guilds as the regulator of the economy. Sony PCG-51511L Battery
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Sony PCG-81111L BatteryDuring that time the guilds essentially functioned like cartels that monopolized the quantity of craftsmen to earn above-market wages.[51]

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From the 18th century, the commercial stage of capitalism originated from the start of the British East India Company (founded in 1600) and the Dutch East India Company (founded in 1602).[52][53] These companies profited from the colonial and expansionary powers given to them by nation-states.[5Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

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2] During this era, merchants, who had traded under the previous stage of mercantilism, invested capital in the East India Companies and other colonies, seeking a return on investment.

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Joseph Schumpeter predicted that nations would move away from a capitalist model, and embrace lots of socialist ideologies similar to what is seen in many European countries. He considered it to be the result of a compromise Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery

or truce between capitalism and communism, but in reality this topic is actually hotly debated and many people and nations disagree on both sides of the political spectrum.[54] In his History of Economic Analysis, Schumpeter reduced mercantilist propositions to three main concerns:[55]

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A Watt steam engine. The steam engine, fuelled primarily by coal, propelled the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.[56] Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

A new group of economic theorists, led by David Hume[57] and Adam Smith, in the mid-18th century, challenged fundamental mercantilist doctrines as the belief that the amount of the world’s wealth remained constant and that a state could only increase its wealth at the expense of another state.

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During the Industrial Revolution, the industrialist replaced the merchant as a dominant actor in the capitalist system and affected the decline of the traditional handicraft skills of artisans, guilds, and journeymen. Also during this period, Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery

the surplus generated by the rise of commercial agriculture encouraged increased mechanization of agriculture. Industrial capitalism marked the development of the factory system of manufacturing, Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery

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Sony VGP-BPL21 battery characterized by a complex division of labor between and within work process and the routine of work tasks; and finally established the global domination of the capitalist mode of production.[47]

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Britain also abandoned its protectionist policy, as embraced by mercantilism. In the 19th century, Richard Cobden and John Bright, who based their beliefs on the Manchester School, initiated a movement to lower tariffs.[ Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

Sony VGP-BPS13B battery58] In the 1840s, Britain adopted a less protectionist policy, with the repeal of the Corn Laws and the Navigation Acts.[47] Britain reduced tariffs and quotas, in line with Adam Smith and David Ricardo’s advocacy for free trade.

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Karl Polanyi argued that capitalism did not emerge until the progressive commodification of land, money, and labor culminating in the establishment of a generalized labor market in Britain in the 1830s. For Polanyi, Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery

Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery“the extension of the market to the elements of industry – land, labor and money – was the inevitable consequence of the introduction of the factory system in a commercial society.”[59] Other sources argued that mercantilism fell after the repeal of the Navigation Acts in 1849.[58][60][61] Sony VGP-BPS13S battery

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After World War II, a broad array of new analytical tools in the social sciences were developed to explain the social and economic trends of the period, including the concepts of post-industrial society and the welfare state.[47] Sony VGP-BPL11 Battery

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This era was greatly influenced by Keynesian economic stabilization policies. The postwar boom ended in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and the situation was worsened by the rise of stagflation.[62] Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery

In particular, monetarism, a theoretical alternative to Keynesianism that is more compatible with laissez-faire, gained increasing prominence in the capitalist world, especially under the leadership of Ronald Reagan in the US and Margaret Thatcher in the UK in the 1980s. Sony VGP-BPL14 Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS13/Q BatteryPublic and political interest began shifting away from the so-called collectivist concerns of Keynes’s managed capitalism to a focus on individual choice, called “remarketized capitalism.” [63] In the eyes of many economic and political commentators, the collapse of the Soviet Union brought further evidence of the superiority of market capitalism over planned economy. Sony VGP-BPL14B Battery

Welfare economics[edit]

Modern welfare economics has produced a number of detailed defenses of the mixed capitalist economy based on public ownership of infrastructure and defense of positive human rights such as housing or education. Sony VGP-BPL14/S Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q BatteryAmartya Sen in particular, in Development as Freedom, his Nobel Prize winning work, argued that the optimal economic system is a democratic mixed economy with a welfare state.[64][page needed].

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Main article: Globalization

Although international trade has been associated with the development of capitalism for over five hundred years, some thinkers argue that a number of trends associated with globalization have acted to increase the mobility of people and capital since the last quarter of the 20th Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery

Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery century, combining to circumscribe the room to maneuver of states in choosing non-capitalist models of development. Today, these trends have bolstered the argument that capitalism should now be viewed as a truly world system.[4Sony VGP-BPS10 Battery

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7] However, other thinkers argue that globalization, even in its quantitative degree, is no greater now than during earlier periods of capitalist trade.[65]

The classical school of economic thought emerged in Britain in the late 18th century. The classical political economists Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Jean-Baptiste Say, Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery

Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Batteryand John Stuart Mill published analyses of the production, distribution and exchange of goods in a market that have since formed the basis of study for most contemporary economists.

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In France, ‘Physiocrats’ like François Quesnay promoted free trade based on a conception that wealth originated from land. Quesnay’s Tableau Économique (1759), described the economy analytically and laid the foundation of the Physiocrats’ economic theory, Sony VGP-BPS12/Q Battery

Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Batteryfollowed by Anne Robert Jacques Turgot who opposed tariffs and customs duties and advocated free trade. Richard Cantillon defined long-run equilibrium as the balance of flows of income, and argued that the supply and demand mechanism around land influenced short-term prices. Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

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Smith’s attack on mercantilism and his reasoning for “the system of natural liberty” in The Wealth of Nations (1776) are usually taken as the beginning of classical political economy. Smith devised a set of concepts that remain strongly associated with capitalism today. Sony VGP-BPS14 Battery

Sony VGP-BPL26 Battery His theories regarding the “invisible hand” are commonly interpreted to mean individual pursuit of self-interest unintentionally producing collective good for society. It was necessary for Smith to be so forceful in his argument in favor of free markets because he had to overcome the popular mercantilist sentiment of the time period.[66]

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He criticized monopolies, tariffs, duties, and other state enforced restrictions of his time and believed that the market is the most fair and efficient arbitrator of resources. This view was shared by David Ricardo, Sony VGP-BPS14/S Battery

Sony VGP-BPS26 Batterysecond most important of the classical political economists and one of the most influential economists of modern times.[67]

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In The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817), he developed the law of comparative advantage, which explains why it is profitable for two parties to trade, even if one of the trading partners is more efficient in every type of economic production. Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery

Sony VGP-BPL22 Battery This principle supports the economic case for free trade. Ricardo was a supporter of Say’s Law and held the view that full employment is the normal equilibrium for a competitive economy.[68] Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery

Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery He also argued that inflation is closely related to changes in quantity of money and credit and was a proponent of the law of diminishing returns, which states that each additional unit of input yields less and less additional output.[69]

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The values of classical political economy are strongly associated with the classical liberal doctrine of minimal government intervention in the economy, though it does not necessarily oppose the state’s provision of a few basic public goods.[70] Sony VGP-BPS15/S Battery

Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery Classical liberal thought has generally assumed a clear division between the economy and other realms of social activity, such as the state.[71]

While economic liberalism favors markets unfettered by the government, it maintains that the state has a legitimate role in providing public goods.[ Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery72] For instance, Adam Smith argued that the state has a role in providing roads, canals, schools and bridges that cannot be efficiently implemented by private entities. However, he preferred that these goods should be paid proportionally to their consumption (e.g. putting a toll). In addition, Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery he advocated retaliatory tariffs to bring about free trade, and copyrights and patents to encourage innovation.[72]

Marxist political economy[edit]

Main article: Marxian economics

Karl Marx considered capitalism to be a historically specific mode of production (the way in which the productive property is owned and controlled, combined with the corresponding social relations between individuals based on their connection with the process of production) in which capitalism has become the dominant mode of production.[47] Sony VGP-BPL14 battery

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The capitalist stage of development or “bourgeois society,” for Marx, represented the most advanced form of social organization to date, but he also thought that the working classes would come to power in a worldwide socialist or communist transformation of human society as the end of the series of first aristocratic, then capitalist, and finally working class rule was reached.[73][74]

Sony VGP-BPS14/B batteryKarl Marx

Following Adam Smith, Marx distinguished the use value of commodities from their exchange value in the market. Capital, according to Marx, is created with the purchase of commodities for the purpose of creating new commodities with an exchange value higher than the sum of the original purchases. Sony VGP-BPL14/S battery

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For Marx, the use of labor power had itself become a commodity under capitalism; the exchange value of labor power, as reflected in the wage, is less than the value it produces for the capitalist.

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This difference in values, he argues, constitutes surplus value, which the capitalists extract and accumulate. In his book Capital, Marx argues that the capitalist mode of production is distinguished by how the owners of capital extract this surplus from workers—all prior class societies had extracted surplus labor, but capitalism was new in doing so via the sale-value of produced commodities.[7Sony VGP-BPS14/S battery

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5] He argues that a core requirement of a capitalist society is that a large portion of the population must not possess sources of self-sustenance that would allow them to be independent, and must instead be compelled, to survive, to sell their labor for a living wage.[76][77][78]

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In conjunction with his criticism of capitalism was Marx’s belief that the working class, due to its relationship to the means of production and numerical superiority under capitalism, would be the driving force behind the socialist revolution.[79Sony VGP-BPS12/Q battery

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] This argument is intertwined with Marx’s version of the labor theory of value arguing that labor is the source of all value, and thus of profit.

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Vladimir Lenin, in Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916), further developed Marxist theory and argued that capitalism necessarily led to monopoly capitalism and the export of capital—which he also called “imperialism”—to find new markets and resources, representing the last and highest stage of capitalism.[8Sony vgp-bps24 battery

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0] Some 20th-century Marxian economists consider capitalism to be a social formation where capitalist class processes dominate, but are not exclusive.[81]

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Capitalist class processes, to these thinkers, are simply those in which surplus labor takes the form of surplus value, usable as capital; other tendencies for utilization of labor nonetheless exist simultaneously in existing societies where capitalist processes are predominant. However,

Sony VGP-BPL20 batteryother late Marxian thinkers argue that a social formation as a whole may be classed as capitalist if capitalism is the mode by which a surplus is extracted, even if this surplus is not produced by capitalist activity, as when an absolute majority of the population is engaged in non-capitalist economic activity.[82]

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In Limits to Capital (1982), David Harvey outlines an overdetermined, “spatially restless” capitalism coupled with the spatiality of crisis formation and resolution. Harvey used Marx’s theory of crisis to aid his argument that capitalism must have its “fixes” but that we cannot predetermine what fixes will be implemented, Sony vgp-bpsc24 battery

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nor in what form they will be. His work on contractions of capital accumulation and international movements of capitalist modes of production and money flows has been influential.[83] According to Harvey, capitalism creates the conditions for volatile and geographically uneven development [84] Sony VGP-BPS12 battery

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Weberian political sociology[edit]

Max Weber

In social science, the understanding of the defining characteristics of capitalism has been strongly influenced by the German sociologist, Max Weber. Sony VGP-BPS26 battery

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Weber considered market exchange, a voluntary supply of labor and a planned division of labor within the enterprises as defining features of capitalism. Capitalist enterprises, in contrast to their counterparts in prior modes of economic activity, Sony VGP-BPS26A battery

Sony VGP-BPS22A batterywere directed toward the rationalization of production, maximizing efficiency and productivity – a tendency embedded in a sociological process of enveloping rationalization that formed modern legal bureaucracies in both public and private spheres.[8

Sony VGP-BPL22 battery5] According to Weber, workers in pre-capitalist economies understood work in terms of a personal relationship between master and journeyman in a guild, or between lord and peasant in a manor.[86]

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For these developments of capitalism to emerge, Weber argued, it was necessary the development of a “capitalist spirit”; that is, ideas and habits that favor a rational pursuit of economic gain. These ideas, in order to propagate a certain manner of life and come to dominate others, “had to originate somewhere Sony VGP-BPS22 battery

Sony VGP-BPS26A battery… as a way of life common to whole groups of men”.[85] In his book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904–1905), Weber sought to trace how a particular form of religious spirit, infused into traditional modes of economic activity, was a condition of possibility of modern western capitalism. For Weber, Sony VGP-BPL22 battery

Sony VGP-BPL26 battery the ‘spirit of capitalism’ was, in general, that of ascetic Protestantism; this ideology was able to motivate extreme rationalization of daily life, a propensity to accumulate capital by a religious ethic to advance economically through hard and diligent work, and thus also the propensity to reinvest capital. This was sufficient, then, to create “self-mediating capital” as conceived by Marx. Sony VGP-BPS22A battery

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This is pictured in the Protestant understanding of beruf [87] – whose meaning encompass at the same time profession, vocation, and calling – as exemplified in Proverbs 22:29, “Seest thou a man diligent in his calling? He shall stand before kings”.Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

Sony VGP-BPS21A battery In the Protestant Ethic, Weber describes the developments of this idea of calling from its religious roots, through the understanding of someone’s economic success as a sign of his salvation, until the conception that moneymaking is, within the modern economic order, the result and the expression of diligence in one’s calling.

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Finally, as the social mores critical for its development became no longer necessary for its maintenance, modern western capitalism came to represent the order “now bound to the technical and economic conditions of machine production which today determine the lives of all Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery

the individuals who are born into this mechanism, not only those directly concerned with economic acquisition, with irresistible force. Perhaps it will so determine them until the last ton of fossilized coal is burnt” (p. 123).[88Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery

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Sony VGP-BPL21 battery] This is further seen in his criticism of “specialists without spirit, hedonists without a heart” that were developing, in his opinion, with the fading of the original Puritan “spirit” associated with capitalism. Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery

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Thorstein Veblen

Institutional economics, once the main school of economic thought in the United States, holds that capitalism cannot be separated from the political and social system within which it is embedded. Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery

Sony VGP-BPS13B battery It emphasizes the legal foundations of capitalism (see John R. Commons) and the evolutionary, habituated, and volitional processes by which institutions are erected and then changed.

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One key figure in institutional economics was Thorstein Veblen who in his book, The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899), analyzed the motivations of wealthy people in capitalism who conspicuously consumed their riches as a way of demonstrating success. The concept of conspicuous consumption was in direct contradiction to the neoclassical view that capitalism was efficient. Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery

In The Theory of Business Enterprise (1904) Veblen distinguished the motivations of industrial production for people to use things from business motivations that used, or misused, industrial infrastructure for profit, Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery

Sony VGP-BPS13AB batteryarguing that the former often is hindered because businesses pursue the latter. Output and technological advance are restricted by business practices and the creation of monopolies. Businesses protect their existing capital investments and employ excessive credit, leading to depressions and increasing military expenditure and war through business control of political power. Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

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German Historical School and Austrian School[edit]

Main articles: Historical school of economics and Austrian School

From the perspective of the German Historical School, capitalism is primarily identified in terms of the organization of production for markets. Although this perspective shares similar theoretical roots with that of Weber, its emphasis on markets and money lends it different focus.[47Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery

Sony VGP-BPS21A battery] For followers of the German Historical School, the key shift from traditional modes of economic activity to capitalism involved the shift from medieval restrictions on credit and money to the modern monetary economy combined with an emphasis on the profit motive.

Sony VGP-BPS21 batteryLudwig von Mises

In the late 19th century, the German Historical School of economics diverged, with the emerging Austrian School of economics, led at the time by Carl Menger. Later generations of followers of the Austrian School continued to be influential in Western economic thought in the early part of the 20th century. Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery

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Austrian-born economist Joseph Schumpeter, sometimes associated with the School,[89] emphasized the “creative destruction” of capitalism—the fact that market economies undergo constant change. Schumpeter argued that at any moment in time there are rising industries and declining industries. Schumpeter, Sony VGP-BPS13A battery

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Sony VGP-BPL21 battery and many contemporary economists influenced by his work, argue that resources should flow from the declining to the expanding industries for an economy to grow, but they recognized that sometimes resources are slow to withdraw from the declining industries because of various forms of institutional resistance to change.

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The Austrian economists Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek were among the leading defenders of market economy against 20th century proponents of socialist planned economies. Mises and Hayek argued that only market capitalism could manage a complex, modern economy.

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Since a modern economy produces such a large array of distinct goods and services, and consists of such a large array of consumers and enterprises, argued Mises and Hayek, the information problems facing any other form of economic organization other than market capitalism would exceed its capacity to handle information. Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

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Sony VGP-BPS13S battery Thinkers within Supply-side economics built on the work of the Austrian School, and particularly emphasize Say’s Law: “supply creates its own demand.” Capitalism, to this school, is defined by lack of state restraint on the decisions of producers. Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery

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John Maynard Keynes

In his 1937 The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, the British economist John Maynard Keynes argued that capitalism suffered a basic problem in its ability to recover from periods of slowdowns in investment. Keynes argued that a capitalist economy could remain in an indefinite equilibrium despite high unemployment. Sony VGP-BPS13B battery

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Essentially rejecting Say’s law, he argued that some people may have a liquidity preference that would see them rather hold money than buy new goods or services, Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery

Sony VGP-BPS21A batterywhich therefore raised the prospect that the Great Depression would not end without what he termed in the General Theory “a somewhat comprehensive socialization of investment.”

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Keynesian economics challenged the notion that laissez-faire capitalist economics could operate well on their own, without state intervention used to promote aggregate demand, fighting high unemployment and deflation of the sort seen during the 1930s. He and his followers recommended “pump-priming”Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery

Sony VGP-BPS21 battery the economy to avoid recession: cutting taxes, increasing government borrowing, and spending during an economic down-turn. This was to be accompanied by trying to control wages nationally partly through the use of inflation to cut real wages and to deter people from holding money.[90] Sony VGP-BPS13S battery

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John Maynard Keynes tried to provide solutions to many of Marx’s problems without completely abandoning the classical understanding of capitalism. His work attempted to show that regulation can be effective, and that economic stabilizers can rein in the aggressive expansions and recessions that Marx disliked. Sony VGP-BPS21A/B battery

Sony VGN-FE49VN battery These changes sought to create more stability in the business cycle, and reduce the abuses of laborers. Keynesian economists argue that Keynesian policies were one of the primary reasons capitalism was able to recover following the Great Depression.[9Sony VGN-FE11E battery

Sony VGN-FE48M battery1] The premises of Keynes’s work have, however, since been challenged by neoclassical and supply-side economics and the Austrian School.

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Another challenge to Keynesian thinking came from his colleague Piero Sraffa, and subsequently from the Neo-Ricardian school that followed Sraffa. In Sraffa’s highly technical analysis, capitalism is defined by an entire system of social relations among both producers and consumers, Sony VGN-FE11M battery

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Sony VGN-FE41Z battery but with a primary emphasis on the demands of production. According to Sraffa, the tendency of capital to seek its highest rate of profit causes a dynamic instability in social and economic relations.

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Neoclassical economics and the Chicago School[edit]

Main article: Neoclassical economics

Today, the majority of academic research on capitalism in the English-speaking world draws on neoclassical economic thought. It favors extensive market coordination and relatively neutral patterns of governmental market regulation aimed at maintaining property rights; Sony VGN-FE11S battery

Sony VGN-FE41MR batteryderegulated labor markets; corporate governance dominated by financial owners of firms; and financial systems depending chiefly on capital market-based financing rather than state financing. Sony VGN-FE11SR battery

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Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman took many of the basic principles set forth by Adam Smith and the classical economists and gave them a new twist. One example of this is his article in the September 1970 issue of The New York Times Magazine, Sony VGN-FE21H battery

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where he argues that the social responsibility of business is “to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits … (through) open and free competition without deception or fraud.” This is similar to Smith’s argument that self-interest in turn benefits the whole of society.[9Sony VGN-FE21S battery

Sony VGN-FE41E battery2] Work like this helped lay the foundations for the coming marketization (or privatization) of state enterprises and the supply-side economics of Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher.

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The Chicago School of economics is best known for its free market advocacy and monetarist ideas. According to Friedman and other monetarists, market economies are inherently stable if left to themselves and depressions result only from government intervention.[93]

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Friedman, for example, argued that the Great Depression was result of a contraction of the money supply, controlled by the Federal Reserve, and not by the lack of investment as John Maynard Keynes had argued. Ben Bernanke, current Chairman of the Federal Reserve, is among the economists today generally accepting Friedman’s analysis of the causes of the Great Depression.[94] Sony VGN-FE31H battery

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Neoclassical economists, who by 1998 constituted a majority of academic economists,[95] subscribe to a subjective theory of value, according to which the value derived from consumption of a good, rather than being objective and static, Sony VGN-FE31HR battery

Sony VGN-FE31M battery varies widely from person to person and for the same person at different times. Adherence to a subjective theory of value compels Neoclassical thinkers to reject the labor theory of value , upheld by Adam Smith and other classical liberal thinkers, which was grounded upon a conception of objective value. Sony PCG-81112M battery

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Neoclassical models typically adopt the assumptions of Marginalism, according to which economic value results from marginal utility and marginal cost (the marginal concepts). Marginalist theory implies that capitalists earn profits not by exploiting workers, but by forgoing current consumption, taking risks, and organizing production.

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Neoclassical economic theory[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2010)

Neoclassical economics explain capitalism as made up of individuals, Sony PCG-81213M battery

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Sony VGN-FE21H battery enterprises, markets and government. According to their theories, individuals engage in a capitalist economy as consumers, laborers, and investors. As laborers, individuals may decide which jobs to prepare for, Sony PCG-81312M battery

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and in which markets to look for work. As investors they decide how much of their income to save and how to invest their savings. These savings, which become investments, provide much of the money that businesses need to grow.

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Business firms decide what to produce and where this production should occur. They also purchase inputs (materials, labor, and capital). Businesses try to influence consumer purchase decisions through marketing and advertisement, Sony PCG-81411M battery

Sony VGN-FE11SR batteryas well as the creation of new and improved products. Driving the capitalist economy is the search for profits (revenues minus expenses). This is known as the profit motive, and it helps ensure that companies produce the goods and services that consumers desire and are able to buy. To be profitable, Sony PCG-81412M battery

Sony VGN-FE11S batteryfirms must sell a quantity of their product at a certain price to yield a profit. A business may lose money if sales fall too low or if its costs become too high. The profit motive encourages firms to operate more efficiently. By using less materials, labor or capital, a firm can cut its production costs, which can lead to increased profits.

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An economy grows when the total value of goods and services produced rises. This growth requires investment in infrastructure, capital and other resources necessary in production. In a capitalist system, businesses decide when and how much they want to invest.

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Income in a capitalist economy depends primarily on what skills are in demand and what skills are being supplied. Skills that are in scarce supply are worth more in the market and can attract higher incomes. Competition among workers for jobs — and among employers for skilled workers — help determine wage rates. Sony VGN-FE11E battery

Sony VGN-FE11H battery Firms need to pay high enough wages to attract the appropriate workers; when jobs are scarce, workers may accept lower wages than they would when jobs are plentiful. Trade union and governments influence wages in capitalist systems. Unions act to represent their members in negotiations with employers over such things as wage rates and acceptable working conditions. Sony VGN-FE21SR battery

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The price (P) of a product is determined by a balance between production at each price (supply, S) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand, D). This results in a market equilibrium, with a given quantity (Q) sold of the product. A rise in demand would result in an increase in price and an increase in output. Sony VGN-FE31HR battery

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Supply is the amount of a good or service produced by a firm and which is available for sale. Demand is the amount that people are willing to buy at a specific price. Prices tend to rise when demand exceeds supply, and fall when supply exceeds demand. In theory, the market is able to coordinate itself when a new equilibrium price and quantity is reached.

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Competition arises when more than one producer is trying to sell the same or similar products to the same buyers. In capitalist theory, competition leads to innovation and more affordable prices. Without competition, a monopoly or cartel may develop. A monopoly occurs when a firm supplies the total output in the market; Sony VGN-FE31ZR battery

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Sony PCG-81313M battery the firm can therefore limit output and raise prices because it has no fear of competition. A cartel is a group of firms that act together in a monopolistic manner to control output and raise prices.

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Role of government[edit]

Further information: Competition regulator, Consumer protection, and Competition law

In a capitalist system, the government does not prohibit private property or prevent individuals from working where they please. The government does not prevent firms from determining what wages they will pay and what prices they will charge for their products. Many countries, however, have minimum wage laws and minimum safety standards. Sony VGN-FE41M battery

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Under some versions of capitalism, the government carries out a number of economic functions, such as issuing money, supervising public utilities and enforcing private contracts. Many countries have competition laws that prohibit monopolies and cartels from forming. Sony VGN-FE41S battery

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Sony PCG-81311M batteryDespite anti-monopoly laws, large corporations can form near-monopolies in some industries. Such firms can temporarily drop prices and accept losses to prevent competition from entering the market, and then raise them again once the threat of entry is reduced. Sony VGN-FE48E battery

Sony PCG-81213M batteryIn many countries, public utilities (e.g. electricity, heating fuel, communications) are able to operate as a monopoly under government regulation, due to high economies of scale.

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Government agencies regulate the standards of service in many industries, such as airlines and broadcasting, as well as financing a wide range of programs. In addition, the government regulates the flow of capital and uses financial tools such as the interest rate to control factors such as inflation and unemployment.[96] Sony VGN-FE49VN battery

The relationship between the state, its formal mechanisms, and capitalist societies has been debated in many fields of social and political theory, with active discussion since the 19th century. Hernando de Soto is a contemporary economist who has argued that an important characteristic Sony PCG-81112M battery

Sony PCG-81113M batteryof capitalism is the functioning state protection of property rights in a formal property system where ownership and transactions are clearly recorded.[97]
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According to de Soto, this is the process by which physical assets are transformed into capital, which in turn may be used in many more ways and much more efficiently in the market economy. A number of Marxian economists have argued that the Enclosure Acts in England, and similar legislation elsewhere, Sony PCG-6P2M Battery
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Sony PCG-7X1M Battery were an integral part of capitalist primitive accumulation and that specific legal frameworks of private land ownership have been integral to the development of capitalism.[98][99] Sony PCG-6R1M Battery
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New institutional economics, a field pioneered by Douglass North, stresses the need of a legal framework in order for capitalism to function optimally, and focuses on the relationship between the historical development of capitalism and the creation and maintenance of political and economic institutions.[1Sony PCG-6D1M Battery

Sony PCG-7T2M Battery00] In new institutional economics and other fields focusing on public policy, economists seek to judge when and whether governmental intervention (such as taxes, welfare, and government regulation) can result in potential gains in efficiency. According to Gregory Mankiw, Sony PCG-6E1M Battery

Sony PCG-7R1M Battery a New Keynesian economist, governmental intervention can improve on market outcomes under conditions of “market failure”, or situations in which the market on its own does not allocate resources efficiently.[101]

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Market failure occurs when an externality is present and a market will either under-produce a product with a positive externalization or overproduce a product that generates a negative externalization. Air pollution, for instance, Sony PCG-6H1M Battery
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Sony PCG-7N1M Battery is a negative externalization that cannot be incorporated into markets as the world’s air is not owned and then sold for use to polluters. So, too much pollution could be emitted and people not involved in the production pay the cost of the pollution instead of the firm that initially emitted the air pollutionSony PCG-6J1M Battery
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Sony PCG-7M1M Battery. Critics of market failure theory, like Ronald Coase, Harold Demsetz, and James M. Buchanan argue that government programs and policies also fall short of absolute perfection. Market failures are often small, and government failures are sometimes large. It is therefore the case that imperfect markets are often better than imperfect governmental alternatives. Sony PCG-6L1M Battery
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While all nations currently have some kind of market regulations, the desirable degree of regulation is disputed.


The relationship between democracy and capitalism is a contentious area in theory and popular political movements. The extension of universal adult male suffrage in 19th century Britain occurred along with the development of industrial capitalism, Sony PCG-7Y1M Battery
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and democracy became widespread at the same time as capitalism, leading many theorists to posit a causal relationship between them, or that each affects the other. However, in the 20th century, according to some authors, Sony PCG-8W2M Battery
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Sony PCG-7H2M Battery capitalism also accompanied a variety of political formations quite distinct from liberal democracies, including fascist regimes, absolute monarchies, and single-party states.[47] Sony PCG-8V2M Battery
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While some thinkers argue that capitalist development more-or-less inevitably eventually leads to the emergence of democracy, others dispute this claim. Research on the democratic peace theory indicates that capitalist democracies rarely make war with one another[10Sony PCG-7D1M Battery
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Sony PCG-7H1M Battery2] and have little internal violence. However, critics of the democratic peace theory note that democratic capitalist states may fight infrequently and or never with other democratic capitalist states because of political similarity or stability rather than because they are democratic or capitalist.

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Some commentators argue that though economic growth under capitalism has led to democratization in the past, it may not do so in the future, as authoritarian regimes have been able to manage economic growth without making concessions to greater political freedom.[103][10Sony VGN-NW20ZF Battery
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Sony VGN-SR57S Battery4] States that have highly capitalistic economic systems have thrived under authoritarian or oppressive political systems. Singapore, which maintains a highly open market economy and attracts lots of foreign investment, does not protect civil liberties such as freedom of speech and expression. Sony VGN-NW20EF Battery
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The private (capitalist) sector in the People’s Republic of China has grown exponentially and thrived since its inception, despite having an authoritarian government. Augusto Pinochet’s rule in Chile led to economic growth by using authoritarian means to create a safe environment for investment and capitalism.

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In response to criticism of the system, some proponents of capitalism have argued that its advantages are supported by empirical research. Indices of Economic Freedom show a correlation between nations with more economic freedom (as defined by the indices) and higher scores on variables such as income and life expectancy, including the poor, in these nations.
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Capitalism and the economy of the People’s Republic of China

Many theorists and policymakers in predominantly capitalist nations have emphasized capitalism’s ability to promote economic growth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), capacity utilization or standard of living. This argument was central, Sony VGN-FW51 Battery
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for example, to Adam Smith’s advocacy of letting a free market control production and price, and allocate resources. Many theorists have noted that this increase in global GDP over time coincides with the emergence of the modern world capitalist system.[106][107]

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In years 1000–1820 world economy grew sixfold, 50% per person. After capitalism had started to spread more widely, in years 1820–1998 world economy grew 50-fold, i.e., 9-fold per person.[108] In most capitalist economic regions such as Europe, the United States, Sony VGN-FW41J/H Battery
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Sony VGN-FW56 Battery Canada, Australia and New Zealand, the economy grew 19-fold per person even though these countries already had a higher starting level, and in Japan, which was poor in 1820, to 31-fold, whereas in the rest of the world the growth was only 5-fold per person.[108]

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Proponents argue that increasing GDP (per capita) is empirically shown to bring about improved standards of living, such as better availability of food, housing, clothing, and health care.[109] The decrease in the number of hours worked per week and the decreased participation of children and the elderly in the workforce have been attributed to capitalism.[110][11Sony VGN-FW56M Battery

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Proponents also believe that a capitalist economy offers far more opportunities for individuals to raise their income through new professions or business ventures than do other economic forms. To their thinking, this potential is much greater than in either traditional feudal or tribal societies or in socialist societies.

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Political freedom[edit]

In his book The Road to Serfdom, Freidrich Hayek reasons that the economic freedom of capitalism is a requisite of political freedom. He argues that the market mechanism is the only way of deciding what to produce and how to distribute the items without using coercion. Milton Friedman, Andrew Brennan and Ronald Reagan also promoted this view. Sony VGN-FW56E Battery
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Sony VGN-FW46Z BatteryFriedman claimed that centralized economic operations are always accompanied by political repression. In his view, transactions in a market economy are voluntary, and that the wide diversity that voluntary activity permits is a fundamental threat to repressive political leaders and greatly diminish their power to coerce. Sony VGN-NW24JG Battery

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Sony VGN-FW46S Battery Some of Friedman’s views were shared by John Maynard Keynes, who believed that capitalism is vital for freedom to survive and thrive.[112][113]

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The novelist Ayn Rand attempted a positive moral defense of laissez-faire capitalism, most notably in her 1957 novel Atlas Shrugged. She insisted that capitalism should be supported on moral grounds, not just on the basis of practical benefits.[114] Sony PCG-41212M battery

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[115] Her views have been ignored or rejected by mainstream academia, but she has significantly influenced conservative and libertarian defenders of capitalism, especially in the American Tea Party movement.[116]

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Austrian School economists have argued that capitalism can organize itself into a complex system without an external guidance or central planning mechanism. Friedrich Hayek considered the phenomenon of self-organization as underpinning capitalism. Prices serve as a signal as to the urgent and unfilled wants of people, Sony PCG-41217M battery

Sony VPCZ21Q9E battery and the opportunity to earn profits if successful, or absorb losses if resources are used poorly or left idle, gives entrepreneurs incentive to use their knowledge and resources to satisfy those wants. Thus the activities of millions of people, each seeking his own interest, are coordinated.[117Sony PCG-41218M battery

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An Industrial Workers of the World poster (1911)

Critics of capitalism associate it with social inequality and unfair distribution of wealth and power; a tendency toward market monopoly or oligopoly (and government by oligarchy); imperialism, counter-revolutionary wars and various forms of economic and cultural exploitation; materialism;

Sony VPCZ13V9E batteryrepression of workers and trade unionists; social alienation; economic inequality; unemployment; and economic instability. Individual property rights have also been associated with the tragedy of the anticommons.

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Notable critics of capitalism have included: socialists, anarchists, communists, national socialists, social democrats, technocrats, some types of conservatives, Luddites, Narodniks, Shakers, and some types of nationalists.

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Marxists have advocated a revolutionary overthrow of capitalism that would lead to socialism, before eventually transforming into communism. Many socialists consider capitalism to be irrational, in that production and the direction of the economy are unplanned, creating many inconsistencies and internal contradictions.[1Sony PCG-31113M battery

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18] Labor historians and scholars such as Immanuel Wallerstein have argued that unfree labor — by slaves, indentured servants, prisoners, and other coerced persons — is compatible with capitalist relations.[119] Sony PCG-31114M battery

Many aspects of capitalism have come under attack from the anti-globalization movement, which is primarily opposed to corporate capitalism. Environmentalists have argued that capitalism requires continual economic growth, and that it will inevitably deplete the finite natural resources of the Earth.[120]

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Many religions have criticized or opposed specific elements of capitalism. Traditional Judaism, Christianity, and Islam forbid lending money at interest,[121][1Sony PCG-41313M battery

Sony PCG-6123M battery22] although alternative methods of banking have been developed. Some Christians have criticized capitalism for its materialist aspects[123] and its inability to account for the wellbeing of all people. Many of Jesus’s parables deal with clearly economic concerns: farming, shepherding, being in debt, doing hard labor, Sony PCG-41314M battery

Sony PCG-6122M battery being excluded from banquets and the houses of the rich, and have implications for wealth and power distribution.[124][125]

The Lockheed Martin F-22 and F-35—- Air Superiority Fighter

The Lockheed Martin F-22 and F-35—- Air Superiority Fighter

The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a single-seat, twin-engine fifth-generation super maneuverable fighter aircraft that uses stealth technology. It was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but has additional capabilities that include ground attack, electronic warfare, and signals intelligence roles.[ Sony SVS13AA11L Battery

5] Lockheed Martin Aeronautics is the prime contractor and is responsible for the majority of the airframe, weapon systems and final assembly of the F-22. Sony SVS131A11L Battery
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Sony PCG-41414L Battery Program partner Boeing Defense, Space & Security provides the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and training systems.

The aircraft was variously designated F-22 and F/A-22 during the years prior to formally entering USAF service in December 2005 as the F-22A. Sony SVS151A11L Battery

Sony PCG-41413L Battery Despite a protracted and costly development period, the United States Air Force considers the F-22 a critical component of U.S. tactical air power, and claims that the aircraft is unmatched by any known or projected fighter.[6] Lockheed Martin claims that the Raptor’s combination of stealth, speed, Sony SVS151B11L Battery

Sony PCG-41412L Battery agility, precision and situational awareness, combined with air-to-air and air-to-ground combat capabilities, makes it the best overall fighter in the world today.[7] Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston, Sony SVS151G1GL Battery

Sony PCG-41411L Battery former Chief of the Australian Defence Force, said in 2004 that the “F-22 will be the most outstanding fighter plane ever built.”[ Sony PCG-4121DL Battery

Sony PCG-41218L Battery8] Hostage of USAF Air Combat Command has said that upgrades will keep the Raptor the “pre-eminent airplane in the world into the 2030s”.[9]

The high cost of the aircraft, a lack of clear air-to-air combat missions because of delays in the Russian and Chinese fifth-generation fighter programs, Sony PCG-4121EL Battery

Sony PCG-41217L Batterya U.S. ban on Raptor exports, and the ongoing development of the planned cheaper and more versatile F-35 resulted in calls to end F-22 production.[N 1] In April 2009, the U.S. Department of Defense proposed to cease placing new orders, subject to Congressional approval, for a final procurement tally of 187 operational aircraft. Sony PCG-4121FL Battery

Sony PCG-41216L Battery [11] The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 lacked funding for further F-22 production. The final F-22 rolled off the assembly line on 13 December 2011 during a ceremony at Dobbins Air Reserve Base.[12] Sony PCG-4121GL Battery

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Starting in 2010, the F-22 was plagued by problems with its pilot oxygen systems which contributed to one crash and death of a pilot. In 2011 the fleet was grounded for four months before resuming flight operations, Sony PCG-41211L Battery

Sony PCG-41214L Battery but reports of oxygen systems issues have continued.[13] In July 2012, the Air Force announced that the hypoxia-like symptoms experienced were caused by a faulty valve in the pilots’ pressure vest; the valve was replaced and changes to the filtration system were also made. Sony PCG-41212L Battery

An F-22 during takeoff, at Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska

In 1981 the U.S. Air Force developed a requirement for an Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) as a new air superiority fighter to replace the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon. Sony PCG-41213L Battery

This was influenced by the emerging worldwide threats, including development and proliferation of Soviet Su-27 “Flanker”- and MiG-29 “Fulcrum”-class fighter aircraft. It would take advantage of the new technologies in fighter design on the horizon, sony PCG-6Z1L battery

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including composite materials, lightweight alloys, advanced flight-control systems, more powerful propulsion systems, and stealth technology. A request for proposals (RFP) was issued in July 1986 and two contractor teams, sony PCG-6Z3L battery
Sony SVS151E1GL Battery Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics and Northrop/McDonnell Douglas, were selected on 31 October 1986 to undertake a 50-month demonstration phase, culminating in the flight test of two prototypes, the YF-22 and the YF-23.[14][15][16] sony PCG-6Z4L battery

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Each design team produced two prototypes, one for each of the two engine options. The Lockheed-led team chose to employ thrust vectoring for enhanced pitch performance, a useful capability in dogfights. sony PCG-6122L battery
Sony SVS151C1GL BatteryThe ATF’s increasing weight and cost drove out some features during development. A dedicated infra-red search and track (IRST) system was downgraded from multi-color to single color and then deleted, sony PCG-6123L battery

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Sony SVS131G1DL Battery the side-looking radars were deleted and the ejection seat requirement was downgraded from a fresh design to the existing McDonnell Douglas ACES II.[17]

After a 90-day flight test validation of the prototype air vehicles, on 23 April 1991, Secretary of the U.S. Air Force Donald Rice announced the YF-22 was the winner of the ATF competition.[1
Sony SVS131E1DL Battery8] The YF-23 design was more stealthy and faster, but the YF-22 was more agile.[19] The aviation press speculated that the YF-22 was also more adaptable to the Navy’s Navalized Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF), Sony SVS13AB1GL Battery
Sony SVS131C24L Batterybut by 1992, the U.S. Navy had abandoned NATF.[20] In 1991, the USAF planned to buy 650 aircraft.[21]

Production and procurement[edit]

F-22 being painted. Workers wearing white apparel standing on the aircraft’s top applying a gray and black coat over the F-22. Temporary construction equipment surrounds its leading edges and nose sections. Sony SVS131C1DL Battery


The first operational F-22 Raptor is painted at the Lockheed Martin assembly plant at Marietta, Georgia

On 9 April 1997, the production F-22 model was unveiled at Lockheed Georgia Co., Marietta, Georgia. It first flew on 7 September 1997. Sony PCG-61A11L Battery
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The first production F-22 was delivered to Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, on 7 January 2003.[22] In 2006, the Raptor’s development team, composed of Lockheed Martin and over 1,000 other companies, plus the United States Air Force, won the Collier Trophy, American aviation’s most prestigious award.[23Sony PCG-61A14L Battery

Sony SVE151G11L Battery] In 2006, the USAF sought to acquire 381 F-22s, to be divided among seven active duty combat squadrons and three integrated Air Force Reserve Command and Air National Guard squadrons.[24] Sony PCG-71C11L Battery

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Several design changes were made from the YF-22 for production. The swept-back angle on the wing’s leading edge was decreased from 48° to 42°, while the vertical stabilizer area was decreased by 20%.Sony PCG-71C12L Battery

Sony SVE141L11L Battery To improve pilot visibility, the canopy was moved forward 7 inches (178 mm), and the engine intakes were moved rearward 14 inches (356 mm). The shape of the wing and stabilator trailing edges was refined to improve aerodynamics, strength, and stealth characteristics.[25][2Sony PCG-61714L Battery

Sony SVE141D11L Battery6] Also, the vertical stabilizer was shifted rearward.[27]

During the development process the aircraft continued to gain weight at the cost of range and aerodynamic performance, even as capabilities were deleted or delayed in the name of affordability.[28] Sony PCG-61813L Battery

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F-22 production was split up over many subcontractors across 46 states, in a strategy to increase Congressional support for the program.[29][30] However the production split, along with the implementation of several new technologies were likely responsible for increased costs and delays.[3Sony PCG-61911L Battery

Sony PCG-91311L Battery1] Many capabilities were deferred to post-service upgrades, reducing the initial cost but increasing total project cost.[32] Each aircraft required “1,000 subcontractors and suppliers and 95,000 workers” to build.[ Sony PCG-61913L Battery
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Sony PCG-91211L Battery33] The F-22 was in production for 15 years, at a rate of roughly two per month.[34]

Two F-22s overflying snow-capped mountains.


Two F-22s during flight testing, the upper one being the first EMD F-22, “Raptor 01″

The United States Air Force originally planned to order 750 ATFs at a cost of $26.2 billion,[35] with production beginning in 1994; however, Sony PCG-71713L Battery

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Sony PCG-71914L Battery the 1990 Major Aircraft Review led by Defense Secretary Dick Cheney altered the plan to 648 aircraft beginning in 1996. The goal changed again in 1994, when it became 438 aircraft entering service in 2003 or 2004, but a 1997 Department of Defense report put the purchase at 339.[ Sony PCG-71811L Battery
Sony PCG-71912L Battery35] In 2003, the Air Force said that the existing congressional cost cap limited the purchase to 277. In December 2004, the Department of Defense reduced procurement funding so only 183 aircraft could be bought.[ Sony PCG-71911L Battery
36] The Pentagon stated the reduction to 183 fighters would save $15 billion but raise the cost of each aircraft; this was implemented in the form of a multi-year procurement plan, which allowed for further orders later. The total cost of the program by 2006 was $62 billion.[24] Sony SVE151J11L Battery

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In April 2006, the cost of the F-22 was assessed by the Government Accountability Office to be $361 million per aircraft. By April 2006, $28 billion had been invested in F-22 development and testing; while the Unit Procurement Cost was estimated at $177.6 million in 2006, based on a production run of 181 aircraft.[37Sony SVE171C11L Battery
Sony SVE171E11L Battery][38] It was estimated by the end of production, $34 billion will have been spent on procurement, resulting in a total program cost of $62 billion, around $339 million per aircraft. The incremental cost for an additional F-22 was estimated at about $138 million.[24][3Sony SVE171E12L Battery

Sony PCG-61211L Battery9] In March 2012, the GAO increased the estimated cost to $412 million per aircraft.[40][41]



Two F-22 Raptors line up for refueling during their first official deployment, October 2005

On 31 July 2007, Lockheed Martin received a multi-year contract for 60 F-22s worth a total of $7.3 billion.[42][ Sony SVE171G112 Battery

Sony PCG-71216L Battery43] The contract brought the number of F-22s on order to 183 and extended production through 2011.[42] If production were restarted the cost for another 75 aircraft was estimated in 2009 to be an extra $70 million per unit.[44] Sony PCG-61713L Battery
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Ban on exports[edit]

No opportunity for export currently exists because the export sale of the F-22 is barred by American federal law.[45] Current customers for U.S. fighters are either acquiring earlier designs such as the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, Sony PCG-91112L Battery
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General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, and Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, or are waiting to acquire the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II (Joint Strike Fighter), which contains technology from the F-22 but is designed to be cheaper, more flexible, Sony PCG-71311L Battery

Sony PCG-71215L Batteryand available for export.[46] The F-35 will not be as agile as the F-22 or fly as high or as fast, but its radar and avionics will be more advanced.[47] On 27 September 2006, Congress upheld the ban on foreign sales of the F-22; Sony PCG-71218L Battery
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Sony PCG-71212L Battery [48] and confirmed this in December 2006.[49]

The Japanese government showed interest in the F-22 for its Replacement-Fighter program.[50] However, a sale would need approval from the Pentagon, State Department and Congress. It was stated that the F-22 would decrease the number of fighters needed by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF), Sony PCG-71313L Battery

Sony PCG-71211L Batteryreducing engineering and staffing costs. In August 2009, it was reported that the F-22 would require increases to the military budget beyond the historic 1 percent of GDP.[51] In June 2009, Japanese Defense Minister Yasukazu Hamada said Japan still sought the F-22.[52Sony PCG-71315L Battery

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Some Australian politicians and defense commentators have proposed that Australia should purchase F-22s instead of the F-35.[53][ Sony PCG-71316L Battery
Sony PCG-71317L Battery54] In 2006, Kim Beazley, leader of the Australian Labor Party supported this proposal on the grounds that the F-22 is a proven, highly capable aircraft, while the F-35 is still under development.[5Sony PCG-61311L Battery

Sony PCG-61317L Battery5] However, Australia’s Howard government ruled out purchase of the F-22, as its release for export is unlikely, and lacks sufficient ground/maritime strike capacity.[56] The following year, Sony PCG-61312L Battery
the newly elected Rudd Government ordered a review of plans to procure the F-35 and F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, including an evaluation of the F-22′s suitability. The then Defence Minister Joel Fitzgibbon stated: Sony PCG-61315L Battery
Sony PCG-61316L Battery “I intend to pursue American politicians for access to the Raptor”.[57] In February 2008, U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates said he had no objection to F-22 sales to Australia.[58] However, the RAAF found that the “F-22 Raptor cannot perform the strike or close air support roles planned for the JSF.”[59] Sony PCG-3B1L Battery
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“The IAF would be happy to equip itself with 24 F-22s, but the problem at this time is the U.S. refusal to sell the aircraft, and its $200 million price tag.”
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Israeli Air Force (IAF) chief procurement officer Brigadier-General Ze’ev Snir.[60]

Thomas Crimmins of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy speculated in 2009 that the F-22 could be a strong diplomatic tool for Israel, strengthening the capability to strike Iranian nuclear facilities.[6Sony PCG-3B3L Battery
1] Crimmins also stated the F-22 may be the only aircraft able to evade Russian S-300 air defense systems, which Russia may sell to Iran.[62] However, Lockheed Martin has stated that the F-35 can handle the S-300, additionally Russia has stated they support and voted for United Nations sanctions on Iran preventing sales of the S-300.[63][ Sony PCG-3B4L Battery

Sony PCG-3F3L Battery64]

The 2010 defense authorization bill included provisions that required the DoD to prepare a report on the costs and feasibility for an F-22 export variant and another report on the impact of F-22 export sales on the U.S. aerospace industry.[65][66Sony PCG-3C2L Battery

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Production termination[edit]

In 2006, David M. Walker, Comptroller General of the United States at the time, found that “the DoD has not demonstrated the need or value for making further investments in the F-22A program.”[6
Sony PCG-3F1L Battery7] During the two-month grounding of nearly 700 older F-15s in 2007, some U.S. Senators demanded Deputy Secretary of Defense Gordon R. England release three government reports supporting additional F-22s beyond the planned 183 jets.[6Sony PCG-3C3L Battery

Sony PCG-3E3L Battery8] In December 2007, the USAF requested continued production beyond the planned 183 F-22s.[69]



Two F-22A Raptors in close trail formation

In January 2008, the Pentagon announced that it would ask Congress to fund additional F-22s to replace other aircraft lost in combat, Sony PCG-3D3L Battery
Sony PCG-3D4L Battery and proposed that $497 million that would have been used to shut down the F-22 line be instead used to buy four extra F-22s, leaving the production line open beyond 2011 and allowing the next administration an option to buy more F-22s.[70] Funds earmarked for line shutdown were redirected to repairs upon the F-15 fleet, delaying the end of F-22 production.[71] Sony PCG-9Z1L Battery

On 24 September 2008, Congress passed a defense spending bill funding continued production of the F-22.[72] On 12 November 2008, the Pentagon released $50 million of the $140 million approved by Congress to buy parts for an additional four aircraft, thus leaving the Raptor program in the hands of the incoming Obama Administration.[73Sony PCG-9Z2L Battery
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] On 6 April 2009, Secretary of Defense Gates called for the phasing out of F-22 production in fiscal year 2011, leaving the USAF with a production run of 187 fighters, minus losses.[11] F-35 acquisition would be accelerated.[74] Sony PCG-7142L Battery
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[75] On 17 June 2009 the House Armed Services Committee inserted $368.8 million in the budget towards a further 12 F-22s in FY 2011.[76]

On 9 July 2009, General James Cartwright, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, explained to the U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services his reasons for supporting termination of F-22 Sony PCG-7152L Battery

Sony PCG-8131L Battery production. He stated that fifth-generation fighters need to be proliferated to all three services by shifting resources to the multirole F-35. He noted that commanders had concerns regarding electronic warfare (EW) Sony PCG-7153L Battery

Sony PCG-7185L Battery capabilities, and that keeping the F/A-18 production line “hot” offered a fallback option to the F-35 in the EA-18G Growler.[7Sony PCG-7154L Battery

Sony PCG-7184L Battery7] By mid-2009, leaked reports from the Pentagon to The Washington Post made it apparent that the F-22 was suffering from poor reliability and availability performance, specifically an average of one critical failure for every 1.7 flying hours and 30 hours of maintenance for every hour of flight.[46] Sony PCG-7161L Battery

“The Pentagon cannot continue with business as usual when it comes to the F-22 or any other program in excess of our needs.”


Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, speaking on the cancellation.[78][79]

On 21 July 2009, President Obama threatened to veto further F-22 production.[80][81] On 21 July 2009, the Senate voted in favor of ending F-22 production. Secretary Gates said that the decision to end production was taken in light of the F-35′s capabilities.[8Sony PCG-7162L Battery
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Sony PCG-7182L Battery
Sony PCG-7183L Battery2] On 29 July 2009, the Air National Guard’s director asked for “60 to 70″ F-22s for air sovereignty missions, noting that these could lack capabilities such as ground attack.[83] On 30 July 2009, the House agreed to remove funds for an additional 12 aircraft and abide by the 187 cap.[8Sony PCG-7172L Battery

Sony PCG-7181L Battery4] In mid-2010, Gates reduced the F-22 requirement from 243 to 187 aircraft, by lowering the preparations for two major regional conflicts to one.[8Sony PCG-7174L Battery

5] President Obama signed the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 in October 2009, without F-22 funding.[86][87] Sony PCG-7173L Battery

In 2010, RAND estimated that restarting production and building an additional 75 Raptors would cost a total of $17 billion or $227 million per aircraft; shutting down and restarting production two years later would add $54 million to the average cost.[ Sony PCG-21313L Battery

Sony PCG-81411L Battery88] Lockheed Martin stated that restarting the production line itself would cost about $200 million.[89] The RAND paper was produced as part of an USAF study to determine the costs of retaining F-22 tooling for a future Service Life Extension Program (SLEP).[90Sony PCG-31311L Battery

Sony PCG-81314L Battery] The tooling for F-22 production will be documented in illustrated electronic manuals stored at the Sierra Army Depot.[91]

Russian and Chinese fighter developments have fueled concern; General John Corley, head of Air Combat Command, Sony PCG-41112L Battery

Sony PCG-81313L Batterywrote in a 2009 letter to a senator, “In my opinion, a fleet of 187 F-22s puts execution of our current national military strategy at high risk in the near- to mid-term”. But Gates replied “Nonsense”.[9Sony PCG-51111L Battery

Sony PCG-81312L Battery2] On 8 January 2011, Gates clarified that Chinese fifth-generation fighter developments had been accounted when the number of F-22s was set, and that the United States would have a considerable advantage in stealth aircraft in 2025, Sony PCG-51113L Battery

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Sony PCG-81311L Battery even with F-35 delays.[93][94] On 11 January 2011, China’s J-20 stealth aircraft made its first flight,[95] leading to speculation on the reactivation of F-22 production;[96][97][98] Sony PCG-51211L Battery

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In December 2011, the 195th and final F-22 was completed (out of 8 test and 187 combat aircraft produced).[99]

Because of the limited production run, there are zero attrition reserve aircraft and extra care is given at the Hill Air Force Base F-22 maintenance center to keep the entire fleet operational. Lockheed’s retained tooling will be used to produce additional parts, if needed.[100] Sony PCG-51311L Battery

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On 5 January 2001, Raptor 4005 flew with the Block 3.0 software, which was the first combat-capable avionics version.[1Sony PCG-51312L Battery

Sony PCG-81112L Battery01] In June 2009, Increment 3.1 was tested at Edwards Air Force Base. This provided a basic ground-attack capability through synthetic-aperture radar mapping, electronic attack and the GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb. Sony PCG-51411L Battery
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Sony PCG-81111L Battery The Increment 3.1 Modification Team with the 412th Test Wing received the Chief of Staff Team Excellence Award for upgrading 149 Raptors.[102][103] The fleet upgrade should start at the end of 2011. Sony PCG-51511L Battery

Sony PCG-71111L Battery [104] An additional $808 million will be spent in 2013 to implement the 3.1 upgrade.[105] The first upgraded aircraft were delivered in early 2012.[106]

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F-22 Raptor, Andrews Air Force Base

Increment 3.2 was to add an improved SDB capability, an automatic ground collision avoidance system for low level operations (no longer planned) and enable use of the AIM-9X Sidewinder and AIM-120D AMRAAM missiles. Sony PCG-61412L Battery

However, a helmet mounted cueing system has been deferred by technical issues.[107][108] Increment 3.2 was expected to be fielded in FY15,[109] possibly including the Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL).[110][111Sony VPCF115FM battery
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] In July 2009, the USAF announced the modification of three business jets with the interim Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN) to allow communication between F-22s and other platforms until MADL is installed.[11Sony VPCF11MFX battery

Sony VPCF119HX battery2] In March 2010, the USAF accelerated software portions of the Increment 3.2 upgrades to be completed in FY 2013, Sony VPCF11FGX battery

Sony VPCF114FX batteryother upgrades will be completed later.[113] Upgrading the first 183 aircraft to the 3.2 upgrade is estimated to cost $8 billion.[114] In May 2009, General Norton Schwartz and Air Force Secretary Michael B. Donley gave testimony to Congress that this would be paid for through the early retirement of legacy fighters.[1Sony VPCF113FX battery
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Sony VPCF11PFX battery15] A total of 249 fourth-generation fighters were retired during Fiscal Year 2010.[116] On 16 September 2009, Gates said “Our commitment to this aircraft is underscored by the 6 and-a half billion dollars… to upgrade the existing F-22 fleet to be fully mission-capable.”[117] Sony VPCF11DGX battery

The USAF opened the Raptor enhancement, development and integration (REDI) contract to other bidders in January 2011 with a total budget of $16 billion.[118] On 18 November 2011, the upgrade contract with Lockheed Martin was increased bySony VPCF117FX battery

Sony VPCF11HGX battery  $1.4 billion to a maximum value of $7.4 billion. This increment opens the way for further upgrades in 2012.[119][120Sony VPCF112FX battery
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Sony VPCF11BFX battery][121] The $11.7 billion allocated for the planned upgrades to the 3.2B level (of which $5.5 billion has been spent) includes almost $2 billion for structural repairs and reliability issues, Sony VPCF11CGX battery

Sony VPCF11AFX battery but does not include related infrastructure costs. One of the goals of the reliability costs is to raise the fleet availability rate from its current level of 55.5% to 70.6% by 2015. The 3.2C level upgrades will be bid out as a separate project.[122] Sony VPCF116FX battery

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Lockheed Martin has proposed upgrades to add capabilities from the newer F-35.[123] Elements such as MADL are delayed until the F-35 program is completed to reduce risk.[124] One upgrade from the F-35 is new high-durability stealth coatings to lower maintenance.[1Sony VPCF111FX battery

Sony VPCF119GX battery25] The Ada software language was blamed for slow progress and increased costs on the program, leading to a reorganization in 2011.[126] Increment 3.2A in 2014 focuses on electronic warfare,
Sony VPCF11NFX batterycommunications and identification. Increment 3.2B in 2017 will support the AIM-9X and AIM-120D missiles. Increment 3.2C in 2019 may migrate some avionics to an open platform, allowing features to be added by various companies.[127] Sony VPCF11GGX battery Lockheed Martin is working on upgrading the AN/AAR-56 Missile Launch Detector (MLD) to provide situational awareness and defensive Infrared Search and Track similar to the F-35′s SAIRST.[128] sony VPCEB3AFM battery


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The current upgrade schedule is:

Increment 3.1 now entering service adds capabilities for SDB, SAR, and electronic attack.

Update 4 in 2012 will add a rudimentary capability for the AIM-120D.

Increment 3.2A will be fielded in 2014 with Link 16 and electronic warfare improvements. (The Link 16 receive capability has been moved up to 2013.)[129] sony VPCEB42FM battery


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Also by May 30, 2015 an automatic backup oxygen supply will be installed on all aircraft.[130][131]

Update 5 in 2015 will add an initial capability for the AIM-9X.

In 2016 the fleet will be upgraded to 36 Block 20 training aircraft and 149 Block 30/35 operational aircraft.


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Increment 3.2B in 2018 will add full capability for the air-to-air missiles, and “significantly improved ground threat geolocation”. This schedule has slipped seven years because of “requirements and funding instability”.[13sony VPCEA24FM battery


sony VPCEB17FX battery2] Because of this delay the upgrade will be applied to fielded aircraft that have already consumed a significant fraction of their useful airframe lifespan.[133][134]

Increment 3.2C was renamed 3.3 and while it is still being defined,[135] it will include air traffic control updates.[136sony VPCEA46FM battery


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Features not currently planned for addition or upgrades include:

The previously planned side-mounted AESA radar arrays

Infrared search and track (IRST) sony VPCEA36FM battery


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Helmet-mounted sight

Powered air to surface missiles, the GBU-53 Small Diameter Bomb II, or other systems capable of engaging moving ground targets[137]

Because of these limitations, the Raptor will be unable to use the off-boresite and lock-on after launch features of its missiles.[138] sony VPCEB33FMbattery


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The Raptor were designed with a lifespan of 30 years and 8000 flight hours, but to achieve this goal required a $100 million “structures retrofit program”.[139] Investigations are being made for upgrades to extend their useful lives further.[140][141sony VPCEB32FMbattery


sony VPCEB11GX battery The F-22 is expected to eventually be replaced by the fighter from the Next Generation Air Dominance program.[142]

While no definitive, single cause has been found for the frequent oxygen deprivation issues that has resulted in several incidents, including a fatal crash, sony VPCEB11FM battery

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sony VPCEB13FX batterythe F-22 will be upgraded with a 10 pound backup oxygen system, software upgrades and oxygen sensors to allow the pilots to operate normally in spite of the problem.[143] Due to frequent stand downs during the investigation, the F-22 fleet averaged less than eight flight hours per month over 2011.[1sony VPCEH14FM battery

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sony VPCEB14FX battery44] In early 2013 the faulty flight vest valves will be replaced in the field, lifting the altitude restrictions, and once a backup oxygen system is installed the distance restrictions will be lifted, allowing F-22s to resume their air sovereignty missions over Alaska.[145]


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In February 2013 Lockheed’s upgrade contract was modified to include the 3.2B features. This brought the total upgrade cost for the fleet to $6.9 billion (including work already done) and the upgrade work is expected to be completed by 2023. sony VPCEH3BFM battery

sony VPCEH35FM battery The 3.2C features were moved to a 3.3 upgrade to be decided later.[146]

The USAF was to evaluate the Visionix Scorpion helmet-mounted cueing system (HMCS) for use on the F-22 in order to enable the use of high off-boresight missile launches,[14sony SVE1513MCXS battery


sony SVE1511HFXW battery7] however this was canceled when the US House failed to find the needed revenues to offset sequestration.[148]


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Rear view of jet aircraft in-flight at dawn/dusk above mountains. Its engines are in full afterburner, evident through the presence of shock diamonds.

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F-22 Raptor flying with its F119-PW-100 engines on full afterburner

The F-22 Raptor is a fifth generation fighter that is considered a fourth-generation stealth aircraft by the USAF.[1sony SVE15138CXS battery


sony SVE1511CFXS battery49] Its dual afterburning Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 turbofans incorporate pitch axis thrust vectoring, with a range of ±20 degrees. The maximum thrust is classified, though most sources place it at about 35,000 lbf (156 kN) sony SVE15132CXS battery

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sony SVE1511BGXS battery per engine.[150] Maximum speed, without external weapons, is estimated to be Mach 1.82 in supercruise mode,[151] as demonstrated by General John P. Jumper, former U.S. Air Force Chief of Staff, when his Raptor exceeded Mach 1.7 without afterburners on 13 January 2005.[152sony SVE15125CXS battery


sony SVE1511AFXS battery] With afterburners, it is “greater than Mach 2.0″ (greater than 1,327 mph, 2,135 km/h). Former Lockheed chief test pilot Paul Metz stated that the Raptor has a fixed inlet, as opposed to variable intake ramps, and that the F-22 has a greater climb rate than the F-15, despite the F-15′s higher thrust-to-weight ratio of 1.2:1sony SVE15115MFXS battery

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sony SVE15135CXS battery  (the F-22 has a ratio closer to 1:1).[153] The U.S. Air Force claims that the Raptor cannot be matched by any known or projected fighter types,[6] and Lockheed Martin claims: “the F-22 is the only aircraft that blends supercruise speed, super-agility, stealth and sensor fusion into a single air dominance platform.”[154] sony SVE15126CXS battery

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File:F-22 Raptor.ogg


F-22 Raptor flight demonstration video

The ability of airframes to withstand both stress and heat is a major design factor, thus the F-22 makes use of various materials. High strength titanium and composites are used much more extensively than previous fighters at 39% and 24% respectively.[ sony SVE15112FXS battery

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155] The use of internal weapons bays allows the aircraft to maintain a comparatively higher performance while carrying a heavy payload over many other aircraft due to a lack of drag from external stores. It is one of only a few aircraft that can supercruisesony SVE15115FXS battery


sony SVE1522CX battery  or sustain supersonic flight without the use of afterburners, which consume vastly more fuel. The F-22 can intercept time-critical or rapidly moving targets that a subsonic aircraft would not have the speed to follow and an afterburner-dependent aircraft would lack fuel to reach.[156] sony SVE151190X battery


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The F-22 is highly maneuverable, at both supersonic and subsonic speeds. It is extremely departure-resistant,[15sony SVE1511NFXS battery

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sony SVE151290X battery7] enabling it to remain controllable at extreme pilot inputs. The Raptor’s thrust vectoring nozzles allow the aircraft to turn tightly, and perform extremely high alpha (angle of attack) maneuvers such as the Herbst maneuver (or J-turn), Pugachev’s Cobra,[153] and the Kulbit.[15sony SVE1512JCXW battery


sony SVE15128CXS battery3] The F-22 is also capable of maintaining a constant angle of attack of over 60° while maintaining some control of roll.[153sony SVE1512KCXS battery


sony SVE1513JCXW battery][158] During June 2006 exercises in Alaska, F-22 pilots demonstrated that cruise altitude has a significant effect on combat performance, and routinely attributed their altitude advantage as a major factor in achieving an unblemished kill ratio against other U.S. fighters and 4th/4.5th generation fighters.[159] sony SVE1513APXS battery

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The F-22 has a unique combination of speed, altitude, agility, sensor fusion and stealth that all work together to increase its effectiveness. sony SVE1713ACXB battery

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Altitude plus advanced active and passive electronic warfare systems allow the F-22 to spot targets for its own weapons at considerable ranges. Altitude plus speed increases the reach of the F-22′s own weapons. Altitude naturally increases the range from ground based defenses, sony SVE1713CCXB battery


sony SVE171290X batterywhich increases the effectiveness of stealth, and when combined with speed reduces the time defensive systems have to react to the F-22′s attacks.[160][161][162][163]

Avionics[edit] sony SVE1713DCXB battery


The F-22′s avionics include BAE Systems E&IS radar warning receiver (RWR) AN/ALR-94,[164] AN/AAR 56 Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet MAWS (Missile Approach Warning System) and the Northrop Grumman AN/APG-77 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar. sony SVE1713ECXB battery


sony SVE17135CXB battery The AN/ALR-94 is a passive receiver system to detect radar signals; composed of more than 30 antennas blended into the wings and fuselage that provide all around coverage. It was described by Tom Burbage, sony SVE1712ACXB battery

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former F-22 program head at Lockheed Martin, as “the most technically complex piece of equipment on the aircraft.” It has a greater range (250+ nmi) than the radar, allowing the F-22 to limit its own radar emissions to maximise stealth. sony SVE17122CXB battery

As a target approaches, the receiver can cue the AN/APG-77 radar to track the target with a narrow beam, which can be as focused down to 2° by 2° in azimuth and elevation.[165]

Two personnel in white apparel handing a radar

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The AN/APG-77 AESA radar

The AN/APG-77 radar, designed for air superiority and strike operations, features a low-observable, active-aperture, electronically-scanned array that can track multiple targets in any weather. sony SVE17125CXB battery

The AN/APG-77 changes frequencies more than 1,000 times per second to lower interception probability. Additionally, radar emissions can be focused in an electronic-attack capability to overload enemy sensors.[166][167] Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery

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The radar’s information is processed by two Raytheon Common Integrated Processor (CIP)s. Each CIP can process 10.5 billion instructions per second and has 300 megabytes of memory. Information can be gathered from the radar and other onboard and offboard systems, filtered by the CIP, and offered in easy-to-digest ways on several cockpit displays, enabling the pilot to remain on top of complicated situations. Sony VGP-BPL14/B Battery


Sony VGP-BPL26 BatteryThe F-22′s avionics software has some 1.7 million lines of code, the majority involving processing data from the radar.[168] The radar has an estimated range of 125–150 miles, though planned upgrades will allow a range of 250 miles (400 km) or more in narrow beams.[15Sony VGP-BPL14B Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS26A Battery9] In 2007, tests by Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, and L-3 Communications enabled the AESA system of a Raptor to act like a WiFi access point, able to transmit data at 548 megabits per second and receive at gigabit speed; Sony VGP-BPL21 Battery

this is far faster than the Link 16 system used by U.S. and allied aircraft, which transfers data at just over 1 Mbit/s.[169] Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

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The F-22 has a threat detection and identification capability comparative with the RC-135 Rivet Joint.[159] The F-22′s stealth allows it to safely operate far closer to the battlefield, compensating for the reduced capability.[15Sony VGP-BPS10 Battery

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Sony VGP-BPL22 Battery9] The F-22 is capable of functioning as a “mini-AWACS”, however the radar is less powerful than dedicated platforms such as the E-3 Sentry.[153] The F-22 allows its pilot to designate targets for cooperating F-15s and F-16s, and determine whether two friendly aircraft are targeting the same aircraft.[153][1Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery59] This radar system can sometimes identify targets “many times quicker than the AWACS”.[159] The radar is capable of high-bandwidth data transmission; conventional radio “chatter” can be reduced via these alternative means.[159] Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS22 Battery The IEEE-1394B data bus developed for the F-22 was derived from the commercial IEEE-1394 “FireWire” bus system.[170] Sensor fusion combines data from all onboard and offboard sensors into a common view to prevent the pilot from being overwhelmed.[171]

In a critical article former Navy Secretary John Lehman wrote “[a]t least [the F-22s] are safe from cyberattack. Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS21A/B BatteryNo one in China knows how to program the ’83 vintage IBM software that runs them.”[172] Former Secretary of the USAF Michael Wynne blamed the use of the DoD’s Ada as a reason for cost overruns and schedule slippages on many major military projects, including the F-22 Raptor.[17Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

3] The F-22 uses the INTEGRITY-178B operating system from Green Hills Software, which is also used on the F-35, several commercial airliners and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle.[174]


Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery However cyberattacks on Lockheed Martin’s subcontractors have raised doubts about the security of the F-22′s systems and its usefulness in combat as a result.[175]

Herbert J. Carlisle has said that the F-22 can datalink with the Tomahawk (missile).[176]

Cockpit[edit] Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery

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Cockpit of the F-22, showing instruments, head up display and throttle top (lower left)

The F-22 features a glass cockpit with no analog flight instruments.[177] The primary flight controls are a force-sensitive side-stick controller and a pair of throttles. Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery

Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A BatteryThe monochrome head-up display offers a wide field of view and serves as a primary flight instrument for the pilot; information is also displayed upon six color liquid crystal display (LCD) panels.[17Sony VGP-BSP13/S Battery


Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery7] The canopy’s dimensions are approximately 140 inches long, 45 inches wide, and 27 inches tall (355 cm x 115 cm x 69 cm) and weighs 360 pounds.[1Sony VGP-BPS14/B Battery


Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery78] In August 2006, the Air Force Packaging Technology Engineering Facility (AFPTEF) was tasked with the design of a new shipping and storage container for the fragile F-22 Canopy.[17Sony VGP-BPS14 Battery


Sony VGP-BPS15/S Battery9]

The Raptor has integrated radio functionality for communicating on standard frequencies, the signal processing systems are virtualised rather than a separated hardware module.[180] Radio functions are inactive during the strictest emissions control protocols Sony VGP-BPS14B Battery

Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery (EMCON level) to maintain stealth; at lower EMCON levels the pilot may use the radio at will.[citation needed] There has been several media reports on the F-22′s inability to communicate with other aircraft and funding cuts on integrating the new datalinking standard, MADL.[181][1Sony VGP-BPS14/S Battery

82] Voice communication is possible, but not data transfer yet.[183] However, the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS), the software-defined radio project, was cancelled in October 2011 (before delivery to the F-22).[184] Sony VGP-BPL14 battery

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The integrated control panel (ICP) is a keypad system for entering communications, navigation, and autopilot data. Two 3 × 4 in (7.6 × 10 cm) up-front displays located around the ICP are used to display integrated caution advisory/warning data, communications, navigation and identification (CNI) data[185Sony VGP-BPL14/S battery

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Sony VGP-BPS14/B battery] and also serve as the stand-by flight instrumentation group and fuel quantity indicator.[186] The stand-by flight group displays an artificial horizon, for basic instrument meteorological conditions. The 8 × 8 in (20 × 20 cm) primary multi-function display (PMFD) is located under the ICP, Sony VGP-BPS14/B battery

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Sony VGP-BPS14 battery and is used for navigation and situation assessment.[186] Three 6.25 × 6.25 in (15.9 × 15.9 cm) secondary multi-function displays are located around the PMFD for tactical information and stores management.[186] Sony VGP-BPL12 battery

Sony VGP-BPS12 battery

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The ejection seat is a version of the ACES II (Advanced Concept Ejection Seat) commonly used in USAF aircraft, with a center-mounted ejection control.[187] The F-22 has a complex life support system. Components include the on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS), Sony VGP-BPS12/Q battery

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protective pilot garments, and a breathing regulator/anti-g valve controlling flow and pressure to the pilot’s mask and garments. The protective garments are designed to protect against chemical/biological hazards and cold-water immersion, Sony vgp-bpsc24 battery

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Sony VGP-BPL14/B battery to counter g-forces and low pressure at high altitudes, and to provide thermal relief. It was developed under the Advanced Technology Anti-G Suit (ATAGS) project.[188] Suspicions regarding the performance of the OBOGS and life support equipment have been raised by several mishaps, including a fatal crash.[189] Sony VGP-BPS12 battery


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The USAF initially wanted the aircraft to use direct voice input (DVI) controls. This was finally judged too technically risky and was abandoned.[190] Sony PCG-51113L Battery

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ArmamentThe Raptor has three internal weapons bays: a large bay on the bottom of the fuselage, and two smaller bays on the sides of the fuselage, aft of the engine intakes.[191] It can carry six compressed-carriage medium range missiles[19Sony VGP-BPS12/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPS20/B battery2] in the center bay and one short range missile in each of the two side bays. Four of the medium range missiles can be replaced with two bomb racks that can each carry one medium-size bomb or four small diameter bombs.[16Sony VGP-BPS20 battery

Sony VGP-BPL20 battery1] Carrying missiles and bombs internally maintains its stealth capability and maintains lower drag resulting in higher top speeds and longer combat ranges. Sony PCG-51311L Battery


Sony PCG-71111L Battery Launching missiles requires opening the weapons bay doors for less than a second, while the missiles are pushed clear of the airframe by hydraulic arms. Sony VGP-BPS26 battery


Sony VGP-BPS22A batteryThis reduces the Raptor’s chance of detection by enemy radar systems due to launched ordnance and also allows the F-22 to launch long range missiles while maintaining supercruise.[19Sony VGP-BPL26 battery


Sony VGP-BPL22 battery3] The F-22 can also carry air-to-surface weapons such as bombs with Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) guidance and the Small-Diameter Bomb, but cannot self-designate for laser-guided weapons.[13Sony VGP-BPS26A battery

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Sony VGP-BPS22 battery7] Air-to-surface ordnance is limited to 2,000 lb (compared to 17,000 lb of F/A-18).[194] The Raptor has an M61A2 Vulcan 20 mm cannon in the right wing root. The M61A2 carries 480 rounds; Sony PCG-51312L Battery

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Sony PCG-61412L Batteryenough ammunition for approximately five seconds of sustained fire. The opening for the cannon’s firing barrel is covered by a door when not in use to maximise stealth.[1Sony VGP-BPL22 battery

95] The F-22 has been able to close to gun range in training dogfights while avoiding detection.[153] The cannon fire is tracked by the aircraft’s radar and displayed on the pilot’s head up display.[196]

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Sony VGP-BPS26A batteryFor stealth, the F-22 carries weapons in internal bays. The doors for the center bay and smaller side bays are open showing the six LAU-142/A AMRAAM Vertical Ejection Launchers (AVEL). Sony VGP-BPS26 battery

The Raptor’s very high sustained cruise speed and operational altitude add significantly to the effective range of both air-to-air and air-to-surface munitions. This gives it a 40% greater employment range for air to air missiles than the F-35.[19Sony VGP-BPL26 battery

7] The USAF plans to procure the AIM-120D AMRAAM, reported to have a 50% increase in range compared to the AIM-120C. Sony PCG-51412L Battery

Sony PCG-51513L Battery While specific figures remain classified, it is expected that JDAMs employed by F-22s will have twice or more the effective range of munitions dropped by legacy

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platforms.[198] In testing, a Raptor dropped a 1,000 lb (450 kg) unpowered, free-fall JDAM from 50,000 feet (15,000 m), while cruising at Mach 1.5, striking a moving target 24 miles (39 km) away.[199]

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This reach advantage of the F-22 has been cited by Robert Gottliebsen as sufficient reason for Australia to reject the F-35 in favor of a F-22 that has been updated with F-35 systems.[200] Sony PCG-51511L Battery

While the F-22 typically carries its weapons internally, the wings include four hardpoints, each rated to handle 5,000 lb (2,300 kg). Sony VPCSA2Z9E battery
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Each hardpoint has a pylon that can carry a detachable 600 gallon fuel tank or a launcher holding two air-air missiles. However, the use of external stores has a detrimental effect on the F-22′s stealth, maneuverability and speed. Sony SVS13AA11M battery

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Sony PCG-41215M battery The two inner hardpoints are “plumbed” for external fuel tanks; the hardpoints can be jettisoned in flight so the fighter can maximize its stealth after exhausting external stores.[201] A stealth ordnance pod and pylon is being developed to carry additional weapons internally.[202] Sony SVS131B12M battery
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The stealth of the F-22 is due to a combination of factors, including the overall shape of the aircraft, the use of radar absorbent material (RAM), and attention to detail such as hinges and pilot helmets that could provide a radar return.[2Sony SVS151A12M battery
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Sony PCG-41214M battery03] However, reduced radar cross section is one of five facets of presence reduction addressed in the designing of the F-22. The F-22 was designed to disguise its infrared emissions, reducing the threat of infrared homing (“heat seeking”) Sony SVS1311P9EB battery

Sony PCG-41414M batterysurface-to-air or air-to-air missiles, including its flat thrust vectoring nozzles.[204] The aircraft was designed to be less visible to the naked eye; radio, heat and noise emissions are equally controlled.[203]

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Sony PCG-41218M batteryF-22 with external weapons pylons.

The F-22 reportedly relies less on maintenance-intensive radar absorbent coatings than previous stealth designs like the F-117. Sony SVS1511M3EW battery

Sony PCG-41213M battery These materials are susceptible to adverse weather conditions.[205] Unlike the B-2, which requires climate-controlled hangars, the F-22 can undergo repairs on the flight line or in a normal hangar.[205Sony SVS1511N3ES battery

Sony PCG-41211M battery] The F-22 features a Signature Assessment System which delivers warnings when the radar signature is degraded and has necessitated repair.[205] The exact radar cross section (RCS) remains classified; Sony SVS1511T9ES battery
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Sony PCG-4121EM battery however, in 2009 Lockheed Martin released information indicating it to have a RCS (from certain angles) of −40 dBsm – the equivalent radar reflection of a “steel marble”.[206] Effectively maintaining the stealth features can decrease the F-22′s mission capable rate to 62–70%.[N 2] Sony SVS1511V9ES battery

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The effectiveness of the stealth characteristics is difficult to gauge. The RCS value is a restrictive measurement of the aircraft’s frontal or side area from the perspective of a static radar. When an aircraft maneuvers it exposes a completely different set of angles and surface area, potentially increasing visibility. Sony SVS1511W9EB battery

Sony VPCSE2V9E batteryFurthermore, stealth contouring and radar absorbent materials are chiefly effective against high-frequency radars, Sony VPCSA3Q9E battery
Sony VPCSE2F1E battery usually found on other aircraft. Low-frequency radars, employed by weather radars and ground warning stations, Sony VPCSB4S9E battery
are alleged to be less affected by stealth technologies and are thus more capable as detection platforms.[208Sony PCG-31114M battery
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Sony SVE15 battery
][209] Rebecca Grant states that while faint or fleeting radar contacts make defenders aware that a stealth aircraft is present, interception cannot be reliably vectored to attack the aircraft.[210] Sony SVE1511F1E battery
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The F-22 also includes measures designed to minimize its detection by infrared, including special paint and active cooling of leading edges to deal with the heat buildup encountered during supercruise flight.[211]

Operational history[edit]

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Designation and testing[edit]

Rear/starboard view of aerial refueling tanker transferring fuel to a jet fighter via a long boom. The two aircraft are slightly banking left.

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An F-22 refuels from a KC-135 during testing; the attachment on the back top is for a spin recovery chute

The YF-22 was originally given the unofficial name “Lightning II”, after the World War II fighter P-38, by Lockheed, which persisted until the mid-1990s when the USAF officially named the aircraft “Raptor”. Sony SVE1511P1E battery
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The aircraft was also briefly dubbed “SuperStar” and “Rapier”.[212] The F-35 later received the Lightning II name on 7 July 2006.[213] In September 2002, Air Force leaders changed the Raptor’s designation to F/A-22. The new designation, mimicking the Navy’s McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, was intended to highlight plans for a ground-attack capability amid intense debate over Sony SVE1511V1E battery
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Sony SVE1511W1ESI battery the relevance of expensive air-superiority jets. The F-22 designation was reinstated on 12 December 2005, when the aircraft entered service.[6][214]

Flight testing of the F-22 began with Raptor 4001, the first engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) jet, Sony SVE1512B1E battery
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Sony SVE1511V1EW battery in 1997. Nine F-22s would participate in the EMD and flight testing program.[215] Raptor 4001 was retired from flight testing in 2000 and was subsequently subjected to live fire at Wright-Patterson AFB to test the fighter’s survivability.[2Sony SVE1512J1E battery
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Sony SVE1511R9ESI battery16] Other EMD F-22s have since been used as maintenance trainers at Tyndall AFB and Langley AFB.[217]

In May 2006, a released report documented a problem with a forward titanium boom on the aircraft. The problem was caused by a manufacturing defect in the heat-treating, making the boom less ductile than specified and potentially shortening the lives of roughly the first 80 F-22s. Modifications were implemented to restore full life expectancy.[218][ Sony SVE1513C5E battery

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Entering service[edit]

On 15 December 2005 the USAF announced that the Raptor had reached its Initial Operational Capability (IOC).[2Sony SVE1513D1E battery

Sony SVE14A1S1EP battery20] During Exercise Northern Edge in Alaska in June 2006, 12 F-22s of the 94th FS downed 108 adversaries with no losses in simulated combat exercises.[24] Sony SVE1513E9E battery

Sony SVE14A1S1EB battery In two weeks of exercises, the Raptor-led Blue Force amassed 241 kills against two losses in air-to-air combat; neither Blue Force loss was an F-22. Shortly after was Red Flag 07-1 in February 2007. Sony SVE1513H1E battery
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Sony SVE1511A1EB battery Fourteen F-22s of the 94th FS supported Blue Force strikes and undertook close air support sorties themselves. Against superior numbers of Red Force Aggressor F-15s and F-16s, 6–8 F-22s maintained air dominance throughout. No sorties were missed because of maintenance or other failures, and only one Raptor was judged lost against the opposing force’s defeat.[N 3] F-22s also provided airborne electronic surveillance.[221] Sony SVE1711R1E battery
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Aerial port view of two aircraft in flight, one on top of the other. The bottom aircraft is a four-engined propeller-driven aircraft, which is escorted by a jet fighter. The Moon is visible as a tiny spot in the sky.
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An F-22 from Elmendorf AFB, Alaska, intercepting a Russian Tupolev Tu-95 near American airspace


While attempting its first overseas deployment to the Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan, on 11 February 2007, six F-22s of 27th Fighter Squadron flying from Hickam AFB, Hawaii, experienced multiple system failures while crossing the International Date Line (or 180th meridian of longitude) caused by software errors.[222][2Sony SVE1711X1E battery
Sony SVE1712Z1E battery23][224] The fighters were able to return to Hawaii by following tanker aircraft. Within 48 hours, the error was resolved and the journey resumed.[2Sony SVE1712Q1E battery
24] 90th Fighter Squadron performed the first F-22 NORAD interception of two Russian Tu-95MS ‘Bear-H’ bombers over Alaska on 22 November 2007.[225] Since then, F-22s have also escorted probing Tu-160 “Blackjack” strategic bombers.[226] Sony VPCEA3S1R Battery


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On 12 December 2007, General John D.W. Corley, USAF, Commander of Air Combat Command, officially declared the F-22s of the integrated active duty 1st Fighter Wing and Virginia Air National Guard 192d Fighter Wing fully operational, three years after the first Raptor arrived at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia.[2Sony SVE171A11M battery


Sony PCG-41314M battery27] This was followed by an Operational Readiness Inspection (ORI) of the integrated wing from 13 to 19 April 2008; it was rated “excellent” in all categories, with a simulated kill-ratio of 221–0.[22Sony SVE151C11M battery
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Sony PCG-41313M battery8] The first pair of Raptors assigned to the 49th Fighter Wing became operational at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, on 2 June 2008.[229] Sony SVE1711K1EW battery

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In December 2007, Secretary of the Air Force Michael Wynne requested that the F-22 be deployed to the Middle East; Secretary of Defense Gates rejected this option.[230] Time suggested part of the reason for it not being used in the 2011 military intervention in Libya may have been its high unit cost.[231]

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An F-22 observes as an F-15 Eagle banks left. The F-22 is intended to replace the F-15C/D

On 28 August 2008, an unmodified F-22 from the 411th Flight Test Squadron performed in the first ever air-to-air refueling of an aircraft using synthetic jet fuel. Sony SVE1711X1EB battery
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Sony VPCCA2S1E battery The test was a part of a wider USAF effort to qualify aircraft to use the fuel, a 50/50 mix of JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch process-produced, natural gas-based fuel.[232] Then in 2011 a Raptor made a supersonic flight on a 50% mixture of biofuel derived from camelina.[23Sony SVE1511G1ESI battery
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Sony VPCCA3S1E battery3]

In April 2012, the U.S. military deployed several F-22s to an allied base less than 200 miles from Iran.[234] The Iranian defense minister called the deployment of stealth fighters to the UAE a security threat.[235] The F-22s returned to the U.S. in January 2013 after the nine-month deployment.[236]

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On 14 January 2013, 12 F-22 Raptors and 300 staff arrived at Kadena Air Base in Okinawa. It is the seventh deployment since 2007 and will last four months.[237] Sony SVE1511S1EW battery

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On 31 March 2013, a senior U.S. official confirmed F-22 Raptors had been deployed to Osan Air Base in South Korea from Japan to support ongoing U.S.-South Korean military Key Resolve/Foal Eagle drills.[238] Sony SVE1511S1ESI battery

On 17 September 2013, the Air Force revealed that an F-22 Raptor had previously chased off an Iranian fighter over the Persian Gulf. In March 2013, an Iranian F-4 Phantom II flew within 16 miles of an MQ-1 Predator flying off Iran’s coast, Sony SVE1511S1EB battery
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Sony SVE1511J1EW batteryescorted by previously “undisclosed” fighters. The Raptor was flown by Air Force Reservist Lt. Col. Kevin “Showtime” Sutterfield. The Raptor used its stealth to fly under the Phantom to look at its weapons load. Sony SVE1511H1EW battery
Sony SVE1511H1ESI batteryIt then pulled up next to its left wing and told the Iranian “to go home”. The confrontation is the first publicized engagement involving the F-22 and military forces of Iran. Air Force officials have not confirmed the location of a Raptor base, but maintains it has one located in Southwest Asia.[239] Sony PCG-4R2M battery


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In 2008, before the USMC came up with the Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force for Crisis Response, two F-22 pilots met in a bar and outlined the concept that the USAF form their own rapid response airborne package of one C-17 supporting four F-22s that can setup and engage in combat within 24 hours.[240][241][242][243Sony PCG-4R2M battery


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Maintenance and training[edit]

In 2004, the F-22 had a mission ready rate of 62% fleet-wide but this was improved to 70% in 2009, with the mission ready rate being predicted to reach 85% as the fleet reached 100,000 flight hours.[244Sony PCG-4U2M battery

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] In the early years of its service, the F-22 required more than 30 hours of maintenance for every flight hour, with the total cost per flight hour of $44,000, however in 2008 this figure had been lowered to 18.1 hours, Sony PCG-6112M battery


Sony VGP-BPS20/B battery and 10.5 hours by 2009;[244] this is compared to the original Pentagon requirement of 12 maintenance hours per flight hour.[135] At introduction the F-22 also had a Mean Time Between Maintenance (MTBM) of 1.7 hours, Sony PCG-6121M battery

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Sony VGP-BPL20 battery however in the 7 years since this has been improved to 3.2 hours, exceeding the original requirement of 3.0 hours by 2010.[244] But by 2013 the cost per flight hour had grown to $68,362, over three times as much as the F-16.[245] Sony PCG-6123M battery

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Each Raptor requires a month-long packaged maintenance plan (PMP) after every 300 flight hours.[246] The aircraft’s stealth system, including its radar absorbing metallic skin, account for almost one third of all maintenance.[2Sony VPCZ13 battery


Sony VPCZ21Q9E battery44] Another source of maintenance problems is that many components require custom hand-fitting and are not interchangeable.[46] The canopy of the aircraft was required to have a life of 800 hours, Sony VPCZ13M9E/B battery

Sony VPCZ13Z9E/X batteryhowever the original design failed to meet this, averaging at 331 hours.[46] In response to this the canopy was redesigned, and the new canopy has met its requirements of a 800 hour life expectancy.[244] Sony VPCZ13V9E battery


In January 2007, it was reported that the F-22 maintained a 97% sortie rate (flying 102 out of 105 tasked sorties) while amassing a 144-to-zero kill ratio during “Northern Edge” air-to-air exercises held in Alaska, Sony VPCZ11 battery


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the first large-scale exercise in which the Raptor participated. Lieutenant Colonel Wade Tolliver, the squadron commander of the 27th Fighter Squadron commented: “the stealth coatings are not as fragile as they were in earlier stealth aircraft. It isn’t damaged by a rain storm and it can stand the wear and tear of combat without degradation.”[20Sony VPCZ11X9E battery


Sony VPCZ12Z9E/B battery5] However, rain has caused “shorts and failures in sophisticated electrical components” when the Raptors were briefly posted to Guam.[247]

In its 2012 budget request, the USAF cut F-22 flight training hours by one-third to reduce the operating costs of flying the aircraft.[24Sony VPCZ11X9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12X9E/B battery] The F-22 was to continue in its role as an airshow demonstration aircraft and be the only USAF solo aircraft demonstrator in 2012.[249] DoD budget cuts led to the 2013 flights of the Raptor demonstration team being stopped so that USAF operational funds could be used by combat aircraft.[250] Sony VPCZ11Z9E battery

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The manpower required to maintain each F-22A’s stealth coatings has increased as the aircraft have gotten older.[251] Part of this work involves removing and reapplying the stealth coatings in order to maintain a consistent mold line or outside shape of the aircraft.[252]

Operational issues[edit] Sony VPCZ12C7E/B battery


The F-22 has had a number of operational issues which have resulted in the fleet being grounded. The primary concerns regarding the aircraft revolve around pilots experiencing a decreased mental status, to the point of losing consciousness. Sony VPCZ12M9E battery

Sony VPCZ12V9E battery There have been eight crashes involving the aircraft, two of which resulted in pilot fatalities. In addition, a number of instances have been reported where the pilot landed successfully but was found to be in a decreased level of alertness. Some pilots experienced memory loss, Sony VPCZ12M9E/B battery

where they could not recall landing the aircraft. One pilot flew his aircraft through some treetops near the runway, but did not recall the event.[2Sony PCG-6P2M Battery
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53] In addition, pilots that have flown the aircraft have experienced lingering respiratory problems and a chronic cough. They have also experienced irritability, emotional lability and neurologic changes.[253Sony PCG-6R1M Battery
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Sony PCG-791M Battery] A number of possible causative factors have been investigated, including possible exposure to noxious chemical agents from the respiratory tubing, malfunction and over-inflation of the pressure suit, possible side effects from the delivery of oxygen at greater than atmospheric concentrations, Sony PCG-6D1M Battery

Sony PCG-7X1M Battery and possible mid-flight disruption of oxygen delivery to the pilot. Other unrelated operational issues include a number of minor mechanical problems and failures in the aircraft’s navigational software.[254] Sony PCG-6E1M Battery
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It took some time for the problems with the F-22 to be recognized and understood. The Raptor Aeromedical Working Group, a USAF expert panel, recommended a number of changes in 2005 to deal with the oxygen supply issues on the F-22.[25Sony PCG-6H1M Battery

Sony PCG-7R1M Battery5] These recommendations were not initially accepted. In light of ongoing reports of uncharacteristic pilot errors, Lockheed Martin was awarded a $24M contract in late October 2011 to find the cause of the breathing difficulties.[25Sony PCG-6G2M Battery

Sony PCG-7N2M Battery6] In July 2012, the Pentagon concluded that a pressure valve on flight vests worn during high-altitude flights and a carbon air filter were the likely sources of at least some hypoxia-like symptoms. Sony PCG-6J1M Battery

Sony PCG-7N1M BatteryLong distance flights of the aircraft, which had been restricted, were resumed, but the flights were limited to lower altitudes until the problems with the vest could be corrected. The carbon filters were also changed to a different model to reduce exposure of the pilot’s lungs to carbon particulates.[257][ Sony PCG-6J2M Battery
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Sony PCG-7M1M Battery258] The valve involved was the breathing regulator/anti-G (BRAG) valve used to inflate the vest when the aircraft is under high Gs. It was found the valve inflated the vest before the aircraft reached high Gs, resulting in the pilots breathing more shallow and rapidly.[259Sony PCG-6L2M Battery

Sony PCG-7H2M Battery] Further investigations revealed the on-board oxygen generating system (OBOGS) unexpectedly reduced oxygen levels when the aircraft performed high-G maneuvers.[260] Sony PCG-7Y1M Battery
Lockheed was awarded contracts in late 2012 to install a supplemental automatic oxygen backup system, in addition to the primary system and manual backup.[261] Sony PCG-8V1M Battery

Sony PCG-7H1M Battery The changes recommended by the Raptor Aeromedical Working Group in 2005 received further consideration in 2012.[2Sony PCG-8V2M Battery

Sony PCG-7G1M Battery62] The USAF reported in December 2012 to be considering installing EEG brain wave monitors in the helmets of F-22 pilots to measure brain functioning under flight conditions, making it clear the issue has not entirely been put to rest.[263][264Sony PCG-8W1M Battery

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The Air Force has since changed the filters and installed new backup oxygen generators on the aircraft. The coughing symptoms are currently attributed to acceleration atelectasis, which may be partly exacerbated by the F-22′s high performance, Sony PCG-8W2M Battery
Sony PCG-7A1M Battery though there is no present solution to the condition. The presence of toxins and particles in some F-22 ground crews is currently deemed to be unrelated to the aircraft.[265]

On 4 April 2013, the distance and altitude flight restrictions were lifted for all F-22s, Sony PCG-8X1M Battery


sony VPCF12Z1E/BI batteryafter the F-22 Combined Test Force and 412th Aerospace Medicine Squadron determined that the problem had been restrictions on the pilot’s ability to breathe rather than some issue with the quality or quantity of the oxygen the aircraft provided


sony VPCF12S1E/B batteryYF-22A – pre-production version used for ATF testing and evaluation. Two were built.

F-22A – single-seat production version. Was designated “F/A-22A” in early 2000s.

F-22B – planned two-seat variant, but was dropped in 1996 to save development costs.[269]

Naval F-22 variant – a carrier-borne variant of the F-22 with swing-wings for the U.S. Navy’s Navy Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF) program to replace the F-14 Tomcat. Program was canceled in 1993.[269] Former SoAF Donald Rice has called the possibility of the naval variant the deciding factor for his choice of the YF-22 over the YF-23.[270] sony VPCF11C4E/B battery

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The FB-22 was a proposed medium-range bomber for the USAF.[271] The FB-22 was projected to carry up to 30 Small Diameter Bombs to about twice the range of the F-22A, while maintaining the F-22′s stealth and supersonic speed.[27sony VPCF11D4E battery

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sony VPCF13Z8E battery2] However, the FB-22 in its planned form appears to have been canceled with the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review and subsequent developments, in lieu of a larger subsonic bomber with a much greater range.[273][274] sony VPCF2 battery

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The X-44 MANTA, or multi-axis, no-tail aircraft, was a planned experimental aircraft based on the F-22 with enhanced thrust vectoring controls and no aerodynamic surface backup.[2sony VPCF22J1E battery


sony VPCF13M1E/B battery 75] The aircraft was to be solely controlled by thrust vectoring, without featuring any rudders, ailerons, or elevators. Funding for this program was halted in 2000.[276]

In April 1992, the second YF-22 crashed while landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The test pilot, Tom Morgenfeld, sony VPCF22L1E battery


sony VPCF1318E/H batteryescaped without injury. The cause of the crash was found to be a flight control software error that failed to prevent a pilot-induced oscillation.[290]

The first crash of a production F-22 occurred during takeoff at Nellis Air Force Base on 20 December 2004, in which the pilot ejected safely before impact.[291sony VPCF22M1E battery


sony VPCF13J0E/H battery][292] The crash investigation revealed that a brief interruption in power during an engine shutdown prior to flight caused a malfunction in the flight-control system;[293] consequently the aircraft design was corrected to avoid the problem. sony VPCF22S1E battery

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sony VPCF13E8E battery All F-22s were grounded after the crash; operations resumed following a review.[294]

On 25 March 2009, a pre-production[citation needed] test F-22 crashed 35 miles (56 km) northeast of Edwards Air Force Base during a test flight,[295] resulting in the death of Lockheed test pilot David P. Cooley.[46] sony VPCF23M1E battery


sony VPCF13E4E battery [296] An Air Force Materiel Command investigation found that Cooley momentarily lost consciousness during a high-G maneuver, then ejected when he found himself too low to recover. Cooley was killed during ejection by blunt-force trauma from the aircraft’s speed and the windblast. sony VPCF23Q1E battery


sony VPCF12M1E/H battery The investigation found no issues with the F-22′s design.[297]

On 16 November 2010, an F-22, based at Elmendorf, Alaska, lost contact with Air Traffic Control.[298] The aircraft was discovered to have crashed; the pilot, Captain Jeffrey Haney, was killed.[299]


sony VPCF12F4E/H battery The F-22 fleet was restricted to flying below 25,000 feet, before being grounded completely, while the accident was investigated.[300] In 2011, more wreckage from the crash site was recovered; sony VPCF231S1E battery


sony VPCF12E1E/H batterythe accident has been attributed to a malfunction in the bleed air system that shut down the aircraft’s Environmental Control System (ECS) and On-Board Oxygen Generating System (OBOGS).[301] sony VPCF23S1E battery

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sony VPCF11Z1E/BI battery The OBOGS, which is fed by engine bleed air, was apparently shut down automatically in response to an engine overheat condition detected by the main computer.[3sony VPCF13M1E/H battery

02] The accident review board ruled the pilot (wearing bulky cold-weather gear and night vision goggles) was to blame for the accident, as he did not react properly and did not engage the emergency oxygen system.[302] sony VPCF11S1E battery

sony VPCF11C4E/B battery [303] Gen. Schwartz USAF, has called the Pentagon Office of the Inspector General investigation of the report “routine”,[304][305] but did not assign blame to the pilot.[306] The pilot’s widow sued, claiming the aircraft has defective equipment.[307] sony VPCF21Z1E/BI battery


sony VPCF13M0E/B battery [308] In response to the accident investigation results, the engagement handle for the emergency oxygen system was redesigned to improve location and grasping, and the emergency oxygen system should engage automatically when OBOGS is shut down due to an engine failure.[309]


sony VPCF13Z0E/B batteryThe aircraft’s manufacturers reached a settlement with the pilot’s family.[310] On 11 February 2013, the DoD’s Inspector General released its report on its investigation, sony VPCF24Q1E battery


sony VPCF13M8E/B battery finding that the USAF had erred in assigning blame to Haney for the crash and stated that the USAF’s conclusions were contradictory, incomplete, or “not supported by facts.” In response,


sony VPCF12M0E/B battery the USAF stated that it stood by its accident investigation conclusions.[311]

On 31 May 2012, during a touch-and-go exercise, an F-22 did not gain sufficient thrust on takeoff and crashed, resulting in it skidding on the runway, and causing approximately $35 million worth of damage. Pilot error was cited as the cause of the crash.[312sony VPCF23P1E battery

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sony VPCF12S1E/B battery][313]

On 15 November 2012, an F-22 crashed near Tyndall Air Force Base, just south of Panama City, Florida. The pilot ejected safely and no injuries were reported on the ground.[314] The investigation determined that a “chafed” electrical wire ignited the fluid in a hydraulic line leading to the crash.[315] sony VPCY21S1E/L battery


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On 7 December 2012, an F-22 from the 199th Fighter Squadron sustained $1.8 million in damage to its horizontal stabilizers while landing at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam. The aircraft was returning from participating in a missing-man formation at a memorial event commemorating the attack on Pearl Harbor.[316][31sony VPCY21S1E/G battery


sony VPCF13S0E/B battery7]

Aircraft on display[edit]


In April 2007, the National Museum of the United States Air Force announced it had added EMD F-22A 91-4003 to its collection. It would later be put on display[318] in the space being occupied by a Lockheed YF-22. The museum publicly unveiled its F-22 display on 18 January 2008.[319sony VPCF22M0E battery

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The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, fifth-generation multirole fighters under development to perform ground attack, reconnaissance, and air defense missions with stealth capability.[7][8] Sony VPCZ21L9E/B battery
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The F-35 has three main models; the F-35A is a conventional takeoff and landing variant, the F-35B is a short take-off and vertical-landing variant, and the F-35C is a carrier-based variant.

The F-35 is descended from the X-35, Sony VPCZ21S9E/B battery

Sony VPCZ11E7E batterythe product of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. It is being designed and built by an aerospace industry team led by Lockheed Martin. The F-35 took its first flight on 15 December 2006. The United States plans to buy 2,443 aircraft. Sony VPCZ21V9E/B battery
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Sony VPCZ11D7E battery The F-35 variants are intended to provide the bulk of its tactical airpower for the U.S. Air Force, Marine Corps and Navy over the coming decades.

JSF development is being principally funded by the United States with additional funding from partners. The partner nations are either NATO members or close U.S. allies. Sony VPCZ13A7E battery
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Sony VPCZ11C7E battery The United Kingdom, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, Australia, Canada, Norway, Denmark, and Turkey are part of the active development program; Japan has ordered the F-35, while Singapore may also equip their air force with the F-35. Sony VPCZ13C7E battery

Sony VPCZ11C5E batteryGeorge Standridge of Lockheed Martin predicted in 2006 that the F-35 will be four times more effective than legacy fighters in air-to-air combat, eight times more effective in air-to-ground combat, Sony VPCZ13D7E battery
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Sony VPCZ11A7R battery and three times more effective in reconnaissance and suppression of air defenses – while having better range and requiring less logistics support and having around the same procurement costs Sony VPCZ13F7E battery
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Sony VPCZ12D7E battery (if development costs are ignored) as legacy fighters.[16] The design goals call for the F-35 to be the premier strike aircraft through 2040 and be second only to the F-22 Raptor in air superiority.[17] Sony VPCZ12S9R/B battery
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The JSF development contract was signed on 16 November 1996, and the contract for System Development and Demonstration (SDD) was awarded on 26 October 2001 to Lockheed Martin, whose X-35 beat the Boeing X-32. Sony VPCZ12V9R/X battery
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Sony VPCZ12C5E batteryAlthough both aircraft met or exceeded requirements, the X-35 design was considered to have less risk and more growth potential.[18] The designation of the new fighter as “F-35″ is out-of-sequence with standard DoD aircraft numbering,[ Sony VPCZ12E7E battery

Sony VPCZ12B7E battery19] by which it should have been “F-24″. It came as a surprise even to the company, which had been referring to the aircraft in-house by this expected designation.[20] Sony VPCZ12F7E battery

The development of the F-35 is unusual for a fighter aircraft in that no two-seat trainer versions have been built for any of the variants; advanced flight simulators mean that no trainer versions were deemed necessary.[2Sony VPCZ12G7E battery
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Sony VPCZ12A7E battery1] Instead F-16s have been used as bridge trainers between the T-38 and the F-35. The T-X was intended to be used to train future F-35 pilots, but this might succumb to budget pressures in the USAF.[22] Sony VPCZ12L7E battery

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Design phase[edit]

Based on wind tunnel testing, Lockheed Martin slightly enlarged its X-35 design into the F-35. The forward fuselage is 5 inches (130 mm) longer to make room for avionics. Correspondingly, the horizontal stabilators were moved 2 inches (51 mm) Sony VPCZ12J7E battery

Sony VPCZ11X9R/B batteryrearward to retain balance and control. The top surface of the fuselage was raised by 1 inch (25 mm) along the center line. Also, it was decided to increase the size of the F-35B STOVL variant’s weapons bay to be common with the other two variants.[18] Sony VPCZ12L9E/B battery
Manufacturing of parts for the first F-35 prototype airframe began in November 2003.[23] Because the X-35 did not have weapons bays, their addition in the F-35 would cause design changes which would lead to later weight problems.[24][25] Sony VPCZ12X9R/B battery

The F-35B STOVL variant was in danger of missing performance requirements in 2004 because it weighed too much; reportedly, by 2,200 lb (1,000 kg) or 8 percent. In response, Lockheed Martin added engine thrust and thinned airframe members; reduced the size of the common weapons bay and vertical stabilizers; Sony VPCZ11X9R/S battery

re-routed some thrust from the roll-post outlets to the main nozzle; and redesigned the wing-mate joint, portions of the electrical system, and the portion of the aircraft immediately behind the cockpit.[26] Sony VPCZ11V9R/B battery
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Many of the changes were applied to all three variants to maintain high levels of commonality. By September 2004, the weight reduction effort had reduced the aircraft’s design weight by 2,700 pounds (1,200 kg),[27Sony VGN-NW20ZF Battery

Sony VGN-FW56SR Battery] but the redesign cost $6.2 billion and delayed the project by 18 months.[28]

On 7 July 2006, the U.S. Air Force officially announced the name of the F-35: Lightning II, in honor of Lockheed’s World War II-era twin-prop Lockheed P-38 Lightning and the Cold War-era jet, the English Electric Lightning.[29] Sony VGN-NW24S Battery
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Sony VGN-FW56ZR Battery [N 1][31] English Electric Company’s aircraft division was a predecessor of F-35 partner BAE Systems. Lightning II was also an early company name for the fighter that was later named the F-22 Raptor.[citation needed] Sony VGN-NW20EF Battery
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Lockheed Martin Aeronautics is the prime contractor and performs aircraft final assembly, overall system integration, mission system, and provides forward fuselage, wings and flight controls system.
Sony VGN-SR59XG/H BatteryNorthrop Grumman provides Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar, electro-optical Distributed Aperture System (DAS), Sony VGN-FW4ZTJ/H Battery

Sony VGN-SR59VG/H Battery Communications, Navigation, Identification (CNI), center fuselage, weapons bay, and arrestor gear. BAE Systems provides aft fuselage and empennages, horizontal and vertical tails, crew life support and escape systems, Electronic warfare systems, fuel system, and Flight Control Software (FCS1). Sony VGN-FW51 Battery
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Sony VGN-SR59TH/H BatteryAlenia will perform final assembly for Italy and, according to an Alenia executive, assembly of all European aircraft with the exception of Turkey and the United Kingdom.[32][33] Sony VGN-FW51MF/H Battery
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Sony VGN-SR57X Battery The F-35 program has seen a great deal of investment in automated production facilities. For example, Handling Specialty produced the wing assembly platforms for Lockheed Martin.[34] Sony VGN-FW41M/H Battery

Sony VGN-SR57V Battery In November 2009, Jon Schreiber, head of F-35 international affairs program for the Pentagon, said that the U.S. will not share the software code for the F-35 with its allies.[35]

On 19 December 2008, Lockheed Martin rolled out the first weight-optimized F-35A, designated AF-1. It was the first F-35 built at full production speed, and is structurally identical to the production F-35As that were delivered starting in 2010.[36] On 5 January 2009, six F-35s had been built, including AF-1 and AG-1; another 13 pre-production test aircraft and four production aircraft were being manufactured.[37] On 6 April 2009, U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates proposed speeding up production for the U.S. to buy 2,443 F-35s.[38] In August 2010, Lockheed Martin announced delays in resolving a “wing-at-mate overlap” production problem, which would slow initial production.[39] Sony VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery
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Program cost increases and further delays[edit]

Since 2006, the program has been subject to re-scoping and a number of reassessments. These are summarized below as the history of the program up to December 2012 and current status after January 2013. Sony VGN-NW24S Battery

In 2006, the GAO warned that excessive concurrency between the production of additional F-35 aircraft and testing of their design might result in expensive refits for several hundred aircraft planned to be produced before completion of tests.[ Sony VGN-FW56E Battery
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Sony VGN-SR57S Battery0] In November 2010, the GAO found that “Managing an extensive, still-maturing global network of suppliers adds another layer of complexity to producing aircraft efficiently and on-time” and that “due to the extensive amount of testing still to be completed, Sony VGN-NW24EG Battery

Sony VGN-SR49VN/H Battery
Sony VGN-FW56Z Batterythe program could be required to make alterations to its production processes, changes to its supplier base, and costly retrofits to produced and fielded aircraft, if problems are discovered.”[41] Sony VGN-NW24JG Battery

Sony VGN-FW54M Battery USAF budget data in 2010, along with other sources, projected the F-35 to have a flyaway cost from US$89 million to US$200 million over the planned production run.[42][43Sony VGN-NW24MG Battery

Sony VGN-FW56 Battery][44] In February 2011, the Pentagon put a price of $207.6 million on each of the 32 aircraft to be acquired in FY2012, rising to $304.15 million ($9,732.8/32) if its share of RDT&E spending is included.[45][46] Sony VGN-NW24MR Battery
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On 21 April 2009, media reports, citing Pentagon sources, said that during 2007 and 2008, spies had copied and siphoned off several terabytes of data related to the F-35′s design and electronics systems, Sony VGN-FW46S Battery

Sony VGN-FW54J Batterypotentially compromising the aircraft and aiding the development of defense systems against it.[47] Lockheed Martin rejected suggestions that the project was compromised, stating it “does not believe any classified information had been stolen”.[48Sony VGN-FW46Z Battery
Sony VGN-FW54E Battery] Other sources suggested that the incident caused both hardware and software redesigns to be more resistant to cyber attack.[49] BAE Systems was reported to be the target of cyber espionage.[50] In February 2013, it was feared that China had intercepted telemetry from F-35 test flights.[51] In 2013, a report from Mandiant tracked the hacking to a unit of the People’s Liberation Army.[52] Sony VGN-SR49VT/H Battery


On 9 November 2009, Ashton Carter, under-secretary of defense for acquisition, technology and logistics, acknowledged that the Pentagon “joint estimate team” (JET) had found possible future cost and schedule overruns in the project and that he would be holding meetings to attempt to avoid these.[53] Sony VGN-NW21EF/S battery
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Sony VGN-FW11ZU battery On 1 February 2010, Gates removed the JSF Program Manager, U.S. Marine Corps Major General David Heinz, and withheld $614 million in payments to Lockheed Martin because of program costs and delays.[54][55] Sony VGN-NW21MF/W battery

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On 11 March 2010, a report from the Government Accountability Office to United States Senate Committee on Armed Services projected the overall unit cost of an F-35A to be $112M in today’s money.[56
Sony VGN-FW11M battery] In 2010, Pentagon officials disclosed that the F-35 program has exceeded its original cost estimates by more than 50 percent.[5Sony VGN-NW21MF battery
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Sony VGN-FW11E battery7] An internal Pentagon report critical of the JSF project states that “affordability is no longer embraced as a core pillar”. In 2010, Lockheed Martin expected to reduce government cost estimates by 20%.[58Sony VGN-NW31EF/W battery
Sony VGN-NW31JF battery
] On 24 March 2010, Gates termed the cost overruns and delays as “unacceptable” in a testimony before the U.S. Congress; and characterized previous cost and schedule estimates as “overly rosy”. Gates insisted the F-35 would become “the backbone of U.S. Sony VGN-FW21E battery

Sony VGN-FW21Z batteryair combat for the next generation” and informed the Congress that he had expanded the development period by an additional 13 months and budgeted $3 billion more for the testing program while slowing down production.[59] Sony VGN-FW21J battery
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In November 2010, as part of a cost-cutting measure, the co-chairs of the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform suggested cancelling the F-35B and halving orders of F-35As and F-35Cs.[60] Sony VGN-FW21L battery
[61][62] Air Force Magazine reported that “Pentagon officials” were considering canceling the F-35B because its short range meant that the bases or ships it would operate from would be in range of hostile tactical ballistic missiles.[63Sony PCG-6Z2M battery

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] Lockheed Martin consultant Loren B. Thompson said that this rumor was a result of the usual tensions between the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, and there was no alternative to the F-35B as an AV-8B Harrier II replacement.[6Sony PCG-6X2M battery,

Sony PCG-4Q2M battery,


Sony PCG-71315M battery4] He also confirmed further delays and cost increases because of technical problems with the aircraft and software, blaming most of the delays and extra costs on redundant flight tests.[65] Sony PCG-4R1M battery

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In November 2010, the Center for Defense Information estimated that the program would be restructured with an additional year of delay and $5 billion in additional costs.[66] On 5 November 2010, Sony PCG-71C11M battery


Sony PCG-91112M batterythe Block 1 software flew for the first time on BF-4.[67] As of the end of 2010, only 15% of the software remained to be written, but this was reported to include the most difficult sections such as data fusion.[6Sony PCG-71D14M battery

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8] In 2011, it was revealed that 50% of the eight million lines of code had been written and that it would take another six years to complete the software to the new schedule.[69] By 2012, the total estimated lines of code for the entire program (onboard and offboard) had grown from 15 million lines to 24 million lines.[70] Sony PCG-61611M battery

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In 2011, program head Vice Adm. David Venlet confirmed that the concurrency built into the program “was a miscalculation”.[71] This was during a contract dispute where the Pentagon insisted that Lockheed Martin help cover the costs of applying fixes found during testing to aircraft already produced.[72] Sony PCG-61712M battery

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Lockheed Martin objected that the cost sharing posed an uninsurable unbounded risk that the company could not cover, and later responded that the “concurrency costs for F-35 continue to reduce”.[73Sony PCG-71411M battery


Sony PCG-61813M battery][74] The Senate Armed Services Committee strongly backed the Pentagon position.[75] In December 2011, Lockheed Martin accepted a cost sharing agreement.[76] The Aerospace Industries Association warned that such changes would force them to anticipate cost overruns in future contract bids.[ Sony PCG-71511M battery

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Sony PCG-61712M battery77] As of 2012, problems found in flight testing were expected to continue to lead to higher levels of engineering changes through 2019.[78] The total additional cost for concurrency in the program is around $1.3 billion.[79] By the next year the cost had grown to $1.7 billion.[80] Sony PCG-91311M battery


Sony PCG-61611M battery

In January 2011, Defense Secretary Robert Gates expressed the Pentagon’s frustration with the rising costs of the F-35 program when he said “The culture of endless money that has taken hold must be replaced by a culture of restraint. Sony PCG-71315M battery

Sony PCG-71316M battery


Sony PCG-61511M battery” Focusing his attention on the troubled F-35B, Gates ordered “a two-year probation”, saying it “should be canceled” if corrections are unsuccessful.[81] Gates has stated his support for the program.[8Sony PCG-71318M battery

Sony PCG-6Z2M battery,

2] Some private analysts, such as Richard Aboulafia, of the Teal Group state that the F-35 program is becoming a money pit.[83] Gates’ successor, Leon Panetta, ended the F-35B’s probation on 20 January 2012, stating “The STOVL variant has made — I believe and all of us believe — sufficient progress.”[84]


Sony PCG-71D14M battery

Former Pentagon manager Paul G. Kaminski has said that the lack of a complete test plan has added five years to the JSF program.[8Sony PCG-6X4M battery,


Sony PCG-71C11M battery5] Initial operating capability (IOC) will be determined by software development rather than by hardware production or pilot training.[86] As of May 2013 the USMC plan an IOC in “mid-2015″[Sony PCG-6X2M battery,


Sony PCG-4Q1M battery2] for the F-35B with Block 2B software which gives basic air-to-air and air-to-ground capability.[2Sony PCG-4Q2M battery

Sony PCG-4R1M battery] It has been reported that the USAF is planning to bring forward IOC for the F-35A to the Block 3I software in mid-2016 rather than waiting for the full-capability Block 3F in mid-2017;[2] the F-35C will not enter service with the USN until mid-2018.[ Sony SVE1513A1ES battery


Sony SVE1512Q1EW battery

2] The $56.4 billion development project for the aircraft should be completed in 2018 when the block five configuration is expected to be delivered, several years late and considerably over budget.[87] Sony SVE1513A1ESI battery


Delays in the F-35 program may lead to a “fighter gap” where America and other countries will lack sufficient fighters to cover their requirements.[88Sony SVE1513B1EW battery

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Sony SVE1512N1ESI battery] Israel may seek to buy second-hand F-15s,[89] while Australia also sought additional Super Hornets in the face of F-35 delays.[90]

In May 2011, the Pentagon’s top weapons buyer Ashton Carter said that its new $133 million unit price was not affordable.[9Sony SVE151C11M battery


Sony SVE1512N1ES battery1] In 2011, The Economist warned that the F-35 was in danger of slipping into a “death spiral” where increasing per-aircraft costs would lead to cuts in number of aircraft ordered, leading to further cost increases and further order cuts.[92Sony SVE151G11M battery


Sony SVE1512N1EB battery] Later that year, four aircraft were cut from the fifth LRIP order to pay for cost overruns;[93] in 2012, a further two aircraft were cut.[94] Lockheed Martin acknowledged that the slowing of purchases would increase costs.[95] Sony SVE1513C1EW battery

Sony SVE1513G1EB battery


Sony SVE1512I1ESI battery David Van Buren, U.S. Air Force acquisition chief, said that Lockheed Martin needed to cut infrastructure to match the reduced market for their aircraft.[96] The company said that the slowdown in American orders will free up capacity to meet the urgent short term needs of foreign partners for replacement fighters.[97Sony SVE1513H4EB battery

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Sony SVE1512Y1ES battery] Air Force Secretary Michael Donley said that no more money was available and that future price increases would be matched with cuts in the number of aircraft ordered.[98] Later that month, the Pentagon reported that costs had risen another 4.3 percent, partially resulting from production delays.[ Sony SVE1513J1EW battery

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99] In 2012, the purchase of six out of 31 aircraft was tied to performance metrics of the program.[100] In 2013 Bogdan repeated that no more money was available, but that he hoped to avoid the death spiral.[101] Sony SVE1513P1EW battery

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Japan has warned that it may halt their purchase if unit costs increase, and Canada has indicated it is not committed to a purchase yet.[102][ Sony SVE1513Q1ESI battery

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Sony SVE171B11M battery103] The United States is projected to spend an estimated US$323 billion for development and procurement on the program, making it the most expensive defense program ever.[104Sony SVE1513U1ESI battery


Sony SVE151G13M battery] Testifying before a Canadian parliamentary committee in 2011, Rear Admiral Arne Røksund of Norway estimated that his country’s 52 F-35 fighter jets will cost $769 million each over their operational lifetime.[105] Sony SVE1513Y1ES battery

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Recent program cost increases and delays[edit]

The total life-cycle cost for the entire American fleet is estimated to be US$1.51 trillion over its 50-year life, or $618 million per plane.[106] In order to reduce the estimated $1 trillion cost of the F-35 over its 50-year lifetime, Sony SVE1513Z1EB battery


Sony SVE1512I1ES battery the USAF is considering reducing Lockheed Martin’s role in Contractor Logistics Support.[107] The company has responded that the trillion dollar estimate relies on future costs beyond its control such as USAF reorganizations and yet to be specified upgrades.[1Sony SVE1512H6EB battery

Sony SVE1512H6EW battery08] Delays have negatively affected the program’s worldwide supply chain and partner organisations.[109]

In 2012, General Norton A. Schwartz decried the “foolishness” of reliance on computer models to settle the final design of the aircraft before flight testing found the issues that needed redesign.[110] Sony SVE1512T1ES battery

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In 2013, JSF project team leader USAF Lieutenant General Chris Bogdan said that “A large amount of concurrency, that is, beginning production long before your design is stable and long before you’ve found problems in test, Sony SVE171G11M battery

creates downstream issues where now you have to go back and retrofit airplanes and make sure the production line has those fixes in them. And that drives complexity and cost”.[111Sony SVE171A11M battery

Sony SVE1713W1EB battery

Sony SVE1713X1EB battery] Bogdan did however praise the improvement in the program ever since Lockheed Martin was forced to assume some of the financial risks.[112]

In 2012, in order to avoid further redesign delays, the U.S. DoD accepted a reduced combat radius for the F-35A and a longer takeoff run for the F-35B.[113][114] Sony SVE1512Y1ESI battery

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The F-35B’s estimated radius has also decreased by 15 percent.[115] In a meeting in Sydney in March, the United States pledged to eight partner nations that there would be no more program delays.[116] Sony SVE1512C4EB battery


Sony SVE1713S1EW battery

In May 2012, Lockheed Martin Chief Executive Bob Stevens complained that the Defense Department’s requirements for cost data were driving up program cost.[117] Stevens also admitted that a strike might cause a production shortfall of the target of 29 F-35s that year.[11Sony SVE1512C6EB battery


Sony SVE1713L1EB battery8] Striking workers questioned the standards of replacement workers, as even their own work had been cited for “inattention to production quality” with a 16% rework rate.[1Sony SVE1512C6EW battery

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Sony SVE1713H1EW battery19] The workers went on strike to protect pensions whose costs have been the subject of negotiations with the Department of Defense over the next batch of aircraft.[120] These same pension costs were cited by Fitch in their downgrade of the outlook for Lockheed Martin’s stock price.[1Sony SVE1512E6EB battery


Sony SVE1713H1EB battery21] Stevens said that while he hoped to bring down program costs, the industrial base was not capable of meeting the government’s expectations of affordability.[122][123] Sony SVE1512E6EW battery

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According to a June 2012 Government Accountability Office report, the F-35′s unit cost has almost doubled, Sony SVE1511B1E battery


Sony SVE1713F1EW batteryan increase of 93% over the program’s 2001 baseline cost estimates.[124] In 2012, Lockheed Martin reportedly feared that the tighter policies for award fees of the Obama administration would reduce their profits by $500 million over the following five years.[ Sony SVE1511B1EB battery


Sony SVE1713F1EB battery125] This was demonstrated in 2012 when the Pentagon withheld the maximum $47 million allowed for the company’s failure to certify its program to track project costs and schedules.[1Sony SVE1511D1E battery


Sony SVE1511Y1E battery26] The GAO has also faulted the USAF and USN for not fully planning the costs of extending legacy F-16 and F-18 fleets to cover for the delayed F-35.[ Sony SVE151E11M battery


Sony SVE1511X1EB battery127] Due to cost cutting measures, the U.S. Government and the GAO have stated that the flyaway cost (including engines) has been dropping. The U.S. Government estimates that in 2020 a “F-35 will cost some $85m each or less than half of the 2009 initial examples cost. Adjusted to today’s dollars the 2020 price would be $75m each.”[128] Sony SVE1511J1E battery

Sony SVE1511X1E battery

In 2013 Lockheed Martin began to lay off workers at the Fort Worth plant where the F-35s were assembled.[12Sony SVE1713Z1EB battery


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9] They said that the currently estimated concurrency costs of refitting the 187 aircraft built by the time testing concludes in 2016 are now less than previously feared.[1Sony SVE1712F1EB battery

Sony SVE1712F1EW battery

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Sony SVE1513Z1EB battery30] The GAO’s Michael Sullivan said that the company had failed to get an early start on the systems engineering and had not understood the requirements or the technologies involved at the program’s start.[131Sony SVE1712H1EWbattery


Sony SVE17A1M6E battery] The Pentagon vowed to continue funding the program during budget sequestration if possible.[132] The United States Congress responded with the Budget Control Act of 2011, which may derail the software needed to complete the F-35 program.[ Sony SVE1712L1EB battery


Sony SVE1712C1EB battery133]

In June 2013, Frank Kendall, Pentagon acquisition, technology and logistics chief, declared “major advances” had been made in the F-35 program over the last three years; and that he intended approve production rate increases in September. Air Force Lt. Gen. Sony SVE1712L1EW battery

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Sony SVE1712B4EW battery Christopher Bogdan, program executive officer, reported far better communications between government and vendor managers, and that negotiations over Lot 6 and 7 talks were moving fast. Sony SVE1712Q1EW battery

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Sony SVE1711W1E battery It was also stated that operating costs had been better understood since training started, and he predicted “we can make a substantial dent in projections” of operating costs.[134] Sony SVE1712T1EB battery


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In July 2013, further doubt was cast on the latest (long delayed) schedule, with further software delays, and sensor, display and wing buffet problems continuing.[135] In August it was revealed that the Pentagon was weighing cancellation of the program as one possible response to the Budget sequestration in 2013Sony SVE1712V1EB battery

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,[136][137] and the United States Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense voted to cut advanced procurement for the fighter.[138] Sony SVE1712Z1EB battery

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On 21 August 2013 C-Span reported that Congressional Quarterly and the Government Accountability Office were indicating the “Total estimated program cost now $400B–nearly twice initial cost.” Sony SVE1713D1EW battery


Sony SVE1711R1EB batteryThe Current investment was documented as approximately fifty (50) billion dollars. The Projected $316 billion dollar cost in development and procurement spending was estimated through 2037 at an average of $12.6 billion dollars per year. Sony SVE1712C1EW battery

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Sony SVE1711Q1E batteryThese were confirmed by Steve O’Bryan, Vice President of Lockheed Martin on the same date.[139]

Concerns over performance and safety[edit]

Considerable criticism followed in the wake of U.S. Ambassador Tom Schieffer’s confirmation to the Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs (JSCFADT) Sony SVE1711G1E battery

Sony SVE1711G1EW battery


Sony SVE1711P1EW batteryon 21 June 2004: “With regard to the stealth technology, the airplane that Australia will get will be the stealthiest airplane that anybody outside the United States can acquire. Sony SVE1711L1E battery

Sony SVE1711P1E batteryWe have given assurances to Australia that we will give you the absolute maximum that we can with regard to that technology. Having said that, the airplane will not be exactly the same airplane as the United States will have. But it will be a stealth fighter; it will have stealth capabilities; and it will be at the highest level that anyone in the world has outside the United States.”[140][141][ Sony SVE151D11M battery

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Sony SVE14AA11M battery142] Lockheed Martin’s Tom Burbage stated in a 2006 article that export of key technologies such as stealth would be limited by U.S. national disclosure policy.[143] A Jane’s article in 2004 gave a hint that US$1B, Sony SVE171A11M battery


Sony SVE14AJ15M battery spent on several contracts, would serve to protect stealth technology and probably provide for a less stealthy export configuration of the fighter.[144] Sony SVE171E13M battery

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In 2006, the F-35 was downgraded from “very low observable” to “low observable”, a change former RAAF flight test engineer Peter Goon likened to increasing the radar cross-section from a marble to a beach ball.[145] Sony SVE151G11M battery

A Parliamentary Inquiry asked what was the re-categorization of the terminology in the United States such that the rating was changed from “very low observable” to “low observable”. The Department of Defence said that the change in categorization by the U.S. Sony SVE151G13M battery

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Sony SVE14AE15M battery was due to a revision in procedures for discussing stealth platforms in a public document. Decision to re-categorize in the public domain has now been reversed; subsequent publicly released material has categorized the JSF as very low observable (VLO).[14Sony SVE171C11M battery


Sony SVE14AG18M battery6]

Andrew Krepinevich has questioned the reliance on “short range” aircraft like the F-35 or F-22 to “manage” China in a future conflict and has suggested reducing the number of F-35s ordered in favor of a longer range platform like the Next-Generation Bomber, Sony SVE171E11M battery

Sony SVE14AG15M batterybut Michael Wynne, then United States Secretary of the Air Force rejected this plan of action in 2007.[147][148][149] By 2012, Wynne had conceded that America’s short ranged fifth-generation fighters would need drop tanks in order to be effective.[15Sony SVE151E11M battery

0] In 2011, the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (CSBA) pointed to the restructuring of the F-35 program and the return of the bomber project as a sign of their effectiveness, while Rebecca Grant said that the restructuring was a “vote of confidence” in the F-35 and “there is no other stealthy, Sony VGN-FW21E Battery


Sony VGN-FW51MF/H Batterysurvivable new fighter program out there”.[151] Lockheed Martin has also said that the F-35 is designed to launch internally carried bombs at supersonic speed and internal missiles at maximum supersonic speed.[152] Sony VGN-FW21L Battery


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In 2008, it was reported that RAND Corporation conducted simulated war games in which Russian Sukhoi Su-35 fighters defeated the F-35.[15Sony VGN-FW21Z Battery

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Sony VGN-FW51 Battery3][154] During a formal briefing by the Australian Department of Defence to the Australian defence minister Joel Fitzgibbon, it was stated that reports of the simulation were inaccurate and did not compare the F-35′sSony VGN-FW31M Battery


Sony VGN-FW46M Battery flight performance against other aircraft.[155] The Pentagon and Lockheed Martin also stated that these simulations did not address air-to-air combat.[156][157] A Lockheed Martin press release points to USAF simulations regarding the F-35′s Sony VGN-FW11J Battery

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Sony VGN-FW41ZJ/H Batteryair-to-air performance against adversaries described as “4th generation” fighters, in which it claims the F-35 is “400 percent” more effective. Major General Charles R. Davis, USAF, the F-35 program executive officer, has stated that the Sony VGN-FW11ZU Battery

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Sony VGN-FW41M/H Battery“F-35 enjoys a significant Combat Loss Exchange Ratio advantage over the current and future air-to-air threats, to include Sukhois”.[157]

In September 2008, in reference to the original plan to fit the F-35 with only two air-to-air missiles (internally), Major Richard Koch, chief of USAF Air Combat Command’s advanced air dominance branch is reported to have said that Sony VGN-FW21ZR Battery


Sony VGN-FW41J/H Battery“I wake up in a cold sweat at the thought of the F-35 going in with only two air-dominance weapons.”[158] The Norwegians have been briefed on a plan to equip the F-35 with six AIM-120D missiles by 2019.[15Sony VGN-FW3ZJ Battery

Sony VGN-FW41E/H Battery9] Former RAND author John Stillion has written of the F-35A’s air-to-air combat performance that it “can’t turn, can’t climb, can’t run”; Lockheed Martin test pilot Jon Beesley has stated that in an air-to-air configuration the F-35 has almost as much thrust as weight Sony VGN-FW56M Battery


Sony VGN-FW56Z Battery

and a flight control system that allows it to be fully maneuverable even at a 50-degree angle of attack.[160][161][162] Consultant to Lockheed Martin Loren B. Thompson has said that the “electronic edge F-35 enjoys over every other tactical aircraft in the world may prove to be more important in future missions than maneuverability”.[163Sony VGN-FW56E Battery

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In an April 2009 interview with the state-run[164] Global Times, Chen Hu, editor-in-chief of World Military Affairs magazine has said that the F-35 is too costly because it attempts to provide the capabilities needed for all three American services in a common airframe.[16Sony VGN-FW31E Battery


Sony VGN-FW54S Battery5] U.S. defense specialist Winslow T. Wheeler and aircraft designer Pierre Sprey have commented of the F-35 being “heavy and sluggish” and possessing “pitifully small load for all that money”, further criticizing the value for money of the stealth measures as well as lacking fire safety measures; Sony VGN-FW31J Battery

Sony VGN-FW44MR Battery


Sony VGN-FW54J Battery his final conclusion was that any air force would be better off maintaining its fleets of F-16s and F/A-18s compared to buying into the F-35 program.[166] A senior U.S. defense official was quoted as saying that the F-35 will be “the most stealthy, Sony VGN-FW11MR Battery

Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

sophisticated and lethal tactical fighter in the sky,” and added “Quite simply, the F-15 will be no match for the F-35.”[167] After piloting the aircraft, RAF Squadron Leader Steve Long said that, over its existing aircraft, the F-35 will give “the RAF and Navy a quantum leap in airborne capability.”[168] Sony VGN-FW11SR Battery


Sony VGN-FW56ZR Battery

In 2011, Canadian politicians raised the issue of the safety of the F-35′s reliance on a single engine (as opposed to a twin-engine configuration, which provides a backup in case of an engine failure). Canada, and other operators, Sony VGN-FW11Z Battery

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Sony VGN-FW51E/H Batteryhad previous experience with a high-accident rate with the single-engine Lockheed CF-104 Starfighter with many accidents related to engine failures. Defence Minister Peter MacKay, when asked what would happen if the F-35′s single engine fails in the Far North, stated “It won’t”.[169] Sony VGN-FW21SR Battery


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In December 2011, the Pentagon and Lockheed Martin came to an agreement to assure funding and delivery for a fifth order of early F-35 aircraft of yet undefined type.[1Sony VGN-FW21ZR Battery

Sony VGN-FW46Z Battery72] On 22 February 2013, the fledgling F-35 fleet was grounded after a routine inspection of a F-35A at Edwards Air Force Base found a crack in an engine turbine blade.[173][174] Sony VGN-FW46S Battery


In March 2012, Tom Burbage, and Gary Liberson, of Lockheed Martin addressed an Australian Parliamentary Committee about earlier assessments, stating “Our current assessment that we speak of is greater than 6 to 1 relative loss exchange ratio against, in 4 versus 8 engagement scenarios—4 blue F-35s versus 8 advanced red threats in the 2015 to 2020 time frame. Sony VGN-NW26M Battery


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And it is very important to note that is without the pilot in the loop and are the lowest number that we talk about, the greater than 6 to 1 is when we include the pilot in the loop [simulator] activities”. Sony VGN-NW20EF Battery


Sony VGN-NS20EF/P Battery

Sony VGN-NS20EF/S BatteryThey said: “we actually have a fifth-gen airplane flying today. The F22 has been in many exercises and is much better than the simulations forecast. We have F35 flying today; it has not been put into that scenario yet, Sony VGN-NW20SF Battery

Sony VGN-NW24EG Battery


Sony VGN-NS30Z/S Batterybut we have very high quality information on the capability of the sensors and the capability of the airplane, and we have represented the airplane fairly and appropriately in these large-scale campaign models that we are using. But it is not just us—it is our air force; it is your air force; Sony VGN-NW24JG Battery


Sony VGN-NS30E/S Batteryit is all the other participating nations that do this; it is our navy and our marine corps that do these exercises. It is not Lockheed in a closet gleaning up some sort of result.”[175] Sony VGN-NW24MG Battery

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In May 2012, Michael Auslin of the American Enterprise Institute has questioned the capability of the F-35 to engage modern air defenses.[176] In July 2012, the Pentagon awarded Lockheed Martin $450 million to improve the F-35 electronic warfare systems and incorporate Israeli systems.[177Sony VGN-NW26EG Battery

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Sony VGN-NS20J/P Battery]

In June 2012, Australia’s Air Vice Marshal Osley responded to Air Power Australia’s criticisms by saying “Air Power Australia (Kopp and Goon) claim that the F-35 will not be competitive in 2020 and that


Sony VGN-NS20E/P BatteryAir Power Australia’s criticisms mainly center around F-35′s aerodynamic performance and stealth capabilities.” Osley continued with, “these are inconsistent with years of detailed analysis that has been undertaken by Defence, Sony VGN-NW20SF Battery

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Sony VGN-NS11J/S Batterythe JSF program office, Lockheed Martin, the U.S. services and the eight other partner nations. While aircraft developments such as the Russian PAK-FA or the Chinese J20, as argued by Airpower Australia, show that threats we could potentially face are becoming increasingly sophisticated, Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery


Sony VGN-NS10L/S Battery there is nothing new regarding development of these aircraft to change Defence’s assessment.” He then said that he thinks that the Air Power Australia’s “analysis is basically flawed through incorrect assumptions and a lack of knowledge of the classified F-35 performance information.”[178] Sony VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery

In a report released in 2013 it was stated that flaws in the fuel tank and fueldraulic (fuel-based hydraulic) systems have left it considerably more vulnerable to lightning strikes and other fire sources including enemy fire than previously revealed, Sony VGN-NS10E/S Battery

especially at lower altitudes.[179] This report updated a separate report from 2010, in which Lockheed Martin spokesman John Kent said that adding fire-suppression systems would offer “very small” improvement to survivability.[180Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery

Sony VPCF11C5E Battery


Sony VPCF13E4E Battery] The same 2010 report also noted performance degradation of the three variants, the sustained turn rates had been reduced to 4.6 g for the F-35A, 4.5 g for the F-35B, and 5.0 g for the F-35C. The acceleration performance of all three variants was also downgraded, with the F-35C taking 43 seconds longer than an F-16 to accelerate from Mach 0.8 to Mach 1.2;


Sony VPCF12M1E/H Batterythis was judged by several fighter pilots to be a lower performance level than expected from a fourth generation fighter.[181] On 30 August 2013, it was reported that the F-35B and F-35C models take several complex maneuvers in order to “accelerate” to their top speed of Mach 1.6, which consumed almost all of the onboard fuel.[18Sony VPCF11D4E Battery

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Sony VPCF12F4E/H Battery2] The F-35 program office is reconsidering addition of previously removed safety equipment.[183] In 2012, Lockheed Martin program manager Tom Burbage said that while the relatively large cross-sectional area of the fighter that was required by the internal weapons Sony VPCF11S1E/B Battery


Sony VPCF12E1E/H Battery bays gave it a disadvantage against fourth generation fighters that were operating in a clear configuration, once both fighters were armed the F-35 had the advantage.[184] Sony VPC-F2 Battery


Sony VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery

In March 2013 USAF test pilots noted a lack of visibility from the F-35 cockpit during evaluation flights and said that this will get them consistently shot down in combat. Defense spending analyst Winslow Wheeler concluded from the flight evaluation reports that the F-35A “is flawed beyond redemption”;[18Sony VPC-F21Z1E Battery


Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery5] in response, program manager Bogdan suggested that pilots worried about being shot down should fly cargo aircraft instead.[186] The same report found (in addition to the usual problems with the aircraft listed above): Sony VPCF22J1E Battery


Sony VPCF11S1E Battery

In September 2012, the Pentagon criticized, quite publicly, Lockheed Martin’s performance on the F-35 program and stated that it would not bail out the program again if problems with the plane’s systems, Sony VPCF22L1E Battery


Sony VPCF24M1E Batteryparticularly the helmet-mounted display, were not resolved. The deputy F-35 program manager said that the government’s relationship with the company was the “worst I’ve ever seen” in many years of working on complex acquisition programs. Sony VPCF22M1E Battery

Sony VPCF22S1E Battery


Sony VPCF23S1E BatteryAir Force Secretary Michael Donley told reporters the Pentagon had no more money to pour into the program after three costly restructurings in recent years. He said the department was done with major restructuring and that there was no further flexibility or tolerance for that approach. Sony VPCF22S8E Battery


Sony VPCF231S1E BatteryThis criticism followed a “very painful” 7 September review that focused on an array of ongoing program challenges. Lockheed Martin responded with a brief statement saying it would continue to work with the F-35 program office to deliver the new fighter.[190]

Sony VPCF23Q1E Battery

On 28 September 2012, the Pentagon announced that the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter support program would become an open competition. Sony VPCF23M1E Battery

They invited companies to participate in a two-day forum on 14–15 November for possible opportunities to compete for work managing the supply chain of the aircraft. Their reason is to reduce F-35 life-cycle costs by creating Sony VPCF13E8E Battery

Sony VPCF13M0E/B Battery competition within the program and to refine its acquisition strategy and evaluate alternatives that will deliver the best value, long-term F-35 sustainment solution. This could be hazardous to Lockheed Martin, the current prime contractor for sustainment of all three variants, and selection of another company could reduce their revenues.[19Sony VPCF13J0E/H Battery

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In 2013, the officer in charge of the program blamed Lockheed Martin and Pratt & Whitney for gouging the government on costs, instead of focusing on the long term future of the program.[192] Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery

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Lockheed Martin’s development roadmap extends until 2021, including a block 6 engine improvement in 2019. The aircraft are expected to be upgraded throughout their operational lives.[193] Sony VPCF13Z8E Battery

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On 12 September 2013, Northrop Grumman revealed they were developing a company-funded Directional Infrared Counter Measures system in anticipation of a requirement to protect the F-35 from heat-seeking air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles. A DIRCM is not a requirement for the F-35 Block 3 currently in development, Sony VPCF12S1E/B Battery

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but a laser jammer is expected to be part of the Block 5 upgrade. The system must meet low-observability (LO) requirements to fit in the restricted space in the F-35. Called the Threat Nullification Defensive Resource (ThNDR), Sony VPCF21Z1E/BI Battery


Sony VPCF13M8E/B Battery it will have a smaller, more powerful laser, beam steering and LO window, and require liquid cooling. It can fit alongside sensors for the aircraft’s distributed aperture system (DAS). There would be two jam heads, Sony VPCF24Q1E Battery

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Sony VPCF12S1E/B Battery

Sony VPCF12M0E/B Batteryone on top and one underneath, to provide spherical coverage with minimal change to the outer mold line. The DAS’s six infrared sensors would provide missile warning and cue the jam head. ThNDR could also be used on the F-22 Raptor, and an air-cooled version in a self-contained pod could be used on the F-15 and F-16.[194Sony VPCF23N1E Battery


Sony VPCF12Z1E Battery]


F-35B’s thrust vectoring nozzle and lift fan

The F-35 appears to be a smaller, single-engine sibling of the twin-engine Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor, and indeed drew elements from it. The exhaust duct design was inspired by the General Dynamics Model 200 design, Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery

Sony VPCY21S1E/G Battery


Sony VPCF13S0E/B Batterywhich was proposed for a 1972 supersonic VTOL fighter requirement for the Sea Control Ship.[195] Lockheed consulted with the Yakovlev Design Bureau in the development of the F-35B STOVL variant, purchasing design data from their development of the Yakovlev Yak-141 “Freestyle”.[19Sony VPCF22M0E Battery

Sony VPCF13S1E/B Battery6][197] Although several experimental designs have been developed since the 1960s, such as the unsuccessful Rockwell XFV-12, the F-35B is to be the first operational supersonic, STOVL stealth fighter.[198] Sony VGN-AR61ZRU Battery

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Acquisition deputy to the assistant secretary of the Air Force, Lt. Gen. Mark D. “Shack” Shackelford has said that the F-35 is designed to be America’s “premier surface-to-air missile killer and is uniquely equipped for this mission with cutting edge processing power, synthetic aperture radar integration techniques, and advanced target recognition.”[199Sony VGN-AR71E Battery


Sony VGN-AR31MR Battery][200] Lockheed Martin states the F-35 is intended to have close- and long-range air-to-air capability second only to that of the F-22 Raptor.[7] Lockheed Martin has said that the F-35 has the advantage over the F-22 in basing flexibility and “advanced sensors and information fusion”.[2Sony VGN-AR71J Battery

Sony VGN-AR71L Battery


Sony VGN-AR31M Battery01] Lockheed Martin has suggested that the F-35 could replace the USAF’s F-15C/D fighters in the air superiority role and the F-15E Strike Eagle in the ground attack role, although the F-35 lacks the range or payload of the F-15.[2Sony VGN-AR71M Battery

Sony VGN-AR71MR Battery


Sony VGN-AR31E Battery02] The F-35A carries a similar air-to-air armament as the conceptual Boeing F-15SE Silent Eagle when both aircraft are configured for low observable operations, having roughly 80 percent of the F-15SE’s combat radius under those conditions.[203] Sony VGN-AR51MR Battery


Sony VGN-AR21MR Battery

Some improvements over current-generation fighter aircraft are:

Durable, low-maintenance stealth technology, using structural fiber mat instead of the high-maintenance coatings of legacy stealth platforms;[204] Sony VGN-AR51SRU Battery

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Integrated avionics and sensor fusion that combine information from off- and on-board sensors to increase the pilot’s situational awareness and improve target identification and weapon delivery, and to relay information quickly to other command and control (C2) nodes; Sony VGN-AR61E Battery


Sony VGN-AR41S Battery

High speed data networking including IEEE 1394b[205] and Fibre Channel.[206] (Fibre Channel is also used on Boeing’s Super Hornet.[207])

The Autonomic Logistics Global Sustainment (ALGS), Sony VGN-AR61MR Battery

Sony VGN-AR61MR Battery


Sony VGN-AR41MR BatteryAutonomic Logistics Information System (ALIS) and Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) are to help ensure aircraft uptime with minimal maintenance manpower.[208] The Pentagon has moved to open up the competitive bidding by other companies.[2Sony VGN-AR61S Battery


Sony VGN-AR41L Battery

Sony VGN-AR41M Battery09] This was after Lockheed Martin stated that instead of costing twenty percent less than the F-16 per flight hour, the F-35 would actually cost twelve percent more.[210] Though the ALGS is intended to reduce maintenance costs, the company disagrees with including the cost of this system in the aircraft ownership calculations.[ Sony VGN-AR31SR Battery

Sony VGN-AR41E Battery211] The USMC have implemented a workaround for a cyber vulnerability in the system.[212]

Electrohydrostatic actuators run by a power-by-wire flight-control system.[213]

A modern and updated flight simulator, which may be used for a greater fraction of pilot training in order to reduce the costly flight hours of the actual aircraft.[214] Sony VGN-FE11SR battery

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Lightweight, powerful and volatile Lithium-ion batteries similar to those that have grounded the Boeing 787 Dreamliner fleet.[215] These are required to provide power to run the control surfaces in an emergency,[216] and have been strenuously tested.[217]

Sony VGN-FE21H battery




Structural composites in the F-35 are 35% of the airframe weight (up from 25% in the F-22).[218] The majority of these are bismaleimide (BMI) and composite epoxy material.[219] The F-35 will be the first mass produced aircraft to include structural nanocomposites, namely carbon nanotube reinforced epoxy.[ Sony VGN-FE21M battery

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Sony VGN-FE21SR battery

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Sony PCG-81412M battery220] Experience of the F-22′s problems with corrosion lead to the F-35 using a gap filler that causes less galvanic corrosion to the airframe’s skin, designed with fewer gaps requiring filler and implementing better drainage.[22Sony VGN-FE31Z battery


Sony PCG-81411M battery1] The relatively short 35-foot wingspan of the A and B variants is set by the F-35B’s requirement to fit inside the Navy’s current amphibious assault ship elevators; the F-35C’s longer wing is considered to be more fuel efficient.[222] Sony VGN-FE31ZR battery

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A United States Navy study found that the F-35 will cost 30 to 40 percent more to maintain than current jet fighters;[223] not accounting for inflation over the F-35′s operational lifetime. A Pentagon study concluded a $1 trillion maintenance cost for the entire fleet over its lifespan.[224] Sony VGN-FE41M battery


Sony PCG-81312M battery


The engine used on the F-35 is the Pratt & Whitney F135. An alternative engine, the General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136, was under development until December 2011 when the manufacturers canceled the project.[225Sony VGN-FE41MR battery

Sony VGN-FE41S battery


Sony PCG-81311M battery][226] Neither the F135 or F136 engines are designed to supercruise in the F-35,[227] however the F-35 can achieve a limited supercruise of Mach 1.2 for 150 miles.[228] The F135 is the second (radar) stealthy afterburning jet engine and, like the Pratt & Whitney F119 Sony VGN-FE41Z battery


Sony PCG-81213M batteryfrom which it was derived, has suffered from pressure pulsations in the afterburner at low altitude and high speed or “screech” during development.[229] Turbine bearing health will be monitored with thermoelectric-powered sensors.[230]

The F-35 has a maximum speed of over Mach 1.6. With a maximum takeoff weight of 60,000 lb (27,000 kg),[N 2][232] Sony VGN-FE48E battery


Sony PCG-81212M battery the Lightning II is considerably heavier than the lightweight fighters it replaces. In empty and maximum gross weights, it more closely resembles the single-seat, single-engine Republic F-105 Thunderchief, Sony VGN-FE48M battery

Sony VGN-FE49VN battery

which was the largest single-engine fighter of the Vietnam war era. The F-35′s modern engine delivers over 60 percent more thrust in an aircraft of the same weight so that in thrust to weight and wing loading it is much closer to a comparably equipped F-16.[N 3]

Sony PCG-81113M battery


The Pratt & Whitney F135 engine with Rolls-Royce LiftSystem, including roll posts, and rear vectoring nozzle, as designed for the F-35B, at the 2007 Paris Air Show

The STOVL F-35B is outfitted with the Rolls-Royce LiftSystem, designed by Lockheed Martin and developed by Rolls-Royce. Sony PCG-81112M battery

This system more resembles the Russian Yak-141 and German VJ 101D/E than the preceding STOVL Harrier Jump Jet and the Rolls-Royce Pegasus engine.[234][235][236] The Lift System is composed of a lift fan, drive shaft, two roll posts and a “Three Bearing Swivel Module” (3BSM).[23Sony VGN-FE11S battery

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Sony PCG-81412M battery7] The 3BSM is a thrust vectoring nozzle which allows the main engine exhaust to be deflected downward at the tail of the aircraft. The lift fan is near the front of the aircraft and provides a counterbalancing thrust using Sony VGN-FE21M battery

Sony VGN-FE21S battery


Sony PCG-81411M battery two counter-rotating blisks.[238] It is powered by the engine’s low-pressure (LP) turbine via a drive shaft and gearbox. Roll control during slow flight is achieved by diverting unheated engine bypass air through wing-mounted thrust nozzles called Roll Posts.[239]


Sony PCG-81313M battery [240]

F136 funding came at the expense of other parts of the program, impacting on unit costs.[241] The F136 team has claimed that their engine has a greater temperature margin which may prove critical for VTOL operations in hot, high altitude conditions.[24Sony VGN-FE21SR battery

Sony VGN-FE31B battery

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2] Pratt & Whitney has tested higher thrust versions of the F135, partly in response to GE’s claims that the F136 is capable of producing more thrust than the 43,000 lbf (190 kN) of early F135s. The F135 has demonstrated a maximum thrust of over 50,000 lbf (220 Sony VGN-FE31HR battery

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Sony PCG-81312M batterykN) during testing;[243] making it the most powerful engine ever installed in a fighter aircraft as of 2010.[244]


F-35B, internal bay test release of a GBU-12 500lb Paveway II bomb. Also visible is an external AIM-9 Sidewinder and an AIM-120 AMRAAM, 2012

The F-35 features two internal weapons bays, and external hardpoints for mounting up to four underwing pylons and two near wingtip pylons. The two outer hardpoints can carry pylons for the AIM-9X Sidewinder and AIM-132 ASRAAM short-range air-to-air missiles (AAM) only.[245Sony VGN-FE31Z battery

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] The other pylons can carry the AIM-120 AMRAAM BVR AAM, Storm Shadow cruise missile, AGM-158 Joint Air to Surface Stand-off Missile (JASSM) cruise missile, and guided bombs. The external pylons can carry missiles, bombs, and fuel tanks at the expense of reduced stealth.[24


Sony PCG-81311M battery] An air-to-air load of eight AIM-120s and two AIM-9s is possible using internal and external weapons stations; a configuration of six 2,000 lb (910 kg) bombs, two AIM-120s and two AIM-9s can also be arranged.[247][248]

6Sony VGN-FE41E battery


There are a total of four weapons stations between the two internal bays. Two of these can carry air-to-ground bombs up to 2,000 lb (910 kg) in A and C models, or two bombs up to 1,000 lb (450 kg) in the B model; the other two stations are for smaller weapons such as air-to-air missiles.[247][ Sony VGN-FE41M battery


Sony PCG-81213M battery249] The weapon bays can carry AIM-120 AMRAAM, AIM-132 ASRAAM, the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), Paveway series of bombs, the Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW), Brimstone anti-armor missiles, Sony VGN-FE41MR battery

Sony VGN-FE41S battery


Sony PCG-81212M battery and Cluster Munitions (WCMD).[247] The F-35A includes a GAU-22/A, a four-barrel version of the GAU-12 Equalizer 25 mm cannon.[250] The cannon is mounted internally with 182 rounds for the F-35A or in an external pod with 220 rounds for the F-35B and F-35C;[251


Sony PCG-81113M battery][252] the gun pod has stealth features. The Terma A/S multi-mission pod (MMP) could be used for different equipment and purposes, such as electronic warfare, reconnaissance, or rear-facing tactical radar.[253][254] Sony VGN-FE41Z battery

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Lockheed Martin states that the weapons load can be configured as all-air-to-ground or all-air-to-air, and has suggested that a Block 5 version will carry three weapons per bay instead of two, replacing the heavy bomb with two smaller weapons such as AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles.[15Sony VGN-FE48M battery

Sony VGN-FE49VN battery3] Upgrades are to allow each weapons bay to carry four GBU-39 Small Diameter Bombs (SDB) for A and C models, or three in F-35B.[255] Another option is four GBU-53/B Small Diameter Bomb IIs in each bay on all F-35 variants.[2Sony PCG-6P2M Battery

Sony PCG-6Q2M Battery


56] One F-35 has been outfitted with four SDB II bombs and an AMRAAM missile to test adequate bay door clearance.[257] The MBDA Meteor air-to-air missile may be adapted for the F-35, a modified Meteor with smaller tailfins for the F-35 was revealed in September 2010; plans call for the carriage of four Meteors internally.[258Sony PCG-6R1M Battery

Sony PCG-6C1M Battery

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] The United Kingdom planned to use up to four AIM-132 ASRAAM missiles internally, later plans call for the carriage of two internal and two external ASRAAMs.[259] The external ASRAAMs are planned to be carried on “stealthy” pylons; the missile allows attacks to slightly beyond visual range without employing radar.[245][260] Sony PCG-6E1M Battery

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Norway and Australia are funding an adaption of the Naval Strike Missile (NSM) for the F-35. Under the designation Joint Strike Missile (JSM), it is to be the only cruise missile to fit the F-35′s internal bays; according to studies two JSMs can be carried internally with an additional four externally.[2Sony PCG-6H1M Battery


Sony PCG-7X1M Battery61] The F-35 is expected to take on the Wild Weasel mission, though there are no planned anti-radiation missiles for internal carriage.[262] The B61 nuclear bomb was initially scheduled for deployment in 2017;[263] as of 2012 it is expected to be in the early 2020s.[264] Sony PCG-6G2M Battery

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Sony PCG-7T2M Battery

According to reports in 2002, solid-state lasers were being developed as optional weapons for the F-35.[265][266][267] The F-35 is also one of the target platforms for the High Speed Strike Weapon, assuming that hypersonic missile is successful.[268]

Stealth and signatures[edit] Sony PCG-6J2M Battery


Sony PCG-7R1M Battery



Landing gear door of the F-35, showing its stealthy sawtooth design



F-35A front profile inflight. Note the opened doors to expose the aerial refueling inlet valve.

The F-35 has been designed to have a low radar cross-section primarily due to the shape of the aircraft and the use of stealthy materials in its construction, including fiber-mat.[204] Unlike the previous generation of fighters, Sony PCG-6L1M Battery

Sony PCG-6L2M Battery


Sony PCG-7N2M Batterythe F-35 was designed for very-low-observable characteristics.[269] Besides radar stealth measures, the F-35 incorporates infrared and visual signature reduction measures.[270][271] Sony PCG-7Y1M Battery

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The Fighter Teen Series (F-15, F-16, F/A-18) carried large external fuel tanks, but in order to avoid negating its stealth characteristics the F-35 must fly most missions without them. Unlike the F-16 and F/A-18, the F-35 lacks leading edge extensions and instead uses stealth-friendly chines for vortex lift in the same fashion as the SR-71 Blackbird.[2Sony PCG-8V2M Battery

Sony PCG-8W1M Battery


Sony PCG-7N1M Battery53] The small bumps just forward of the engine air intakes form part of the diverterless supersonic inlet (DSI) which is a simpler, lighter means to ensure high-quality airflow to the engine over a wide range of conditions. These inlets also crucially improve the aircraft’s very-low-observable characteristics.[27Sony PCG-8W2M Battery


Sony PCG-7M1M Battery2]

In spite of being smaller than the F-22, the F-35 has a larger radar cross-section; said to be roughly equal to a metal golf ball rather than the F-22′s metal marble.[27Sony PCG-7A1M Battery

Sony PCG-7D1M Battery


Sony PCG-7H2M Battery3] The F-22 was designed to be difficult to detect by all types of radars and from all directions.[274] The F-35 on the other hand manifests its lowest radar signature from the frontal aspect due to design compromises. Sony PCG-7G1M Battery

Sony PCG-7H1M Battery Its surfaces are shaped to best defeat radars operating in the X and upper S band, which are typically found on fighters, surface-to-air missiles and their tracking radars; the F-35 would be easier to detect using other radar frequencies.[2Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

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74] Because the aircraft’s shape is important to the radar cross-section (RCS), special care must be taken to maintain the “outer mold line” during production.[275] Ground crews require Repair Verification Radar (RVR) test sets to verify the RCS after performing repairs, which is not a concern upon non-stealth aircraft.[276][2Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery

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Sony VGP-BPS21 battery77]

In late 2008 the air force revealed that the F-35 would be about twice as loud at takeoff as the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle and up to four times as loud during landing.[278] As a result, residents near Luke Air Force Base, Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery


Sony VGP-BPL21 battery Arizona and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, possible home bases for the jet, requested that the air force conduct environmental impact studies concerning the F-35′s noise levels.[2


Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery78] The city of Valparaiso, Florida, adjacent to Eglin AFB, threatened in February 2009 to sue over the impending arrival of the F-35s, but this lawsuit was settled in March 2010.[279][28Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery


Sony VGP-BPS13B battery0][281] It was reported in March 2009 that testing by Lockheed Martin and the Royal Australian Air Force revealed that the F-35 was not as loud as first reported, being “only about as noisy as an F-16 fitted with a Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-200 engine” and “Sony VGP-BPS13A battery


Sony VGP-BPS13AB batteryquieter than the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor and the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.”[282] According to an acoustics study done by Lockheed Martin and the U.S. Air Force, the noise levels of the F-35 are found to be comparable to the F-22 Raptor and F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.[28Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

3] A USAF environmental impact study found that replacing F-16s with F-35s at Tucson International Airport would subject more than 21 times as many residents to extreme noise levels.[284] Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery

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F-35 cockpit mock-up

The F-35 features a full-panel-width glass cockpit touch screen[285] “panoramic cockpit display” (PCD), with dimensions of 20 by 8 inches (50 by 20 centimeters).[286] A cockpit speech-recognition system (DVI) provided by Adacel has been adopted on the F-35, Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery

added to the pilot’s ability to interact with the aircraft and operate its systems. The F-35 will be the first operational U.S. fixed-wing aircraft to employ this DVI system, although similar systems have been used on the AV-8B Harrier II and trialled in previous aircraft, such as the F-16 VISTA.[287] Sony VGP-BPS13 battery


A helmet-mounted display system (HMDS) will be fitted to all models of the F-35.[288] While some fighters have offered HMDS along with a head up display (HUD), this will be the first time in several decades that a front line fighter has been designed without a HUD.[28Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A/B battery9] The F-35 is equipped with a right-hand HOTAS side stick controller. The Martin-Baker US16E ejection seat is used in all F-35 variants.[290] The US16E seat design balances major performance requirements, including safe-terrain-clearance limits, pilot-load limits, and pilot size; Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery

Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

it uses a twin-catapult system housed in side rails.[291] The F-35 employs an oxygen system derived from the F-22′s own system, which has been involved in multiple hypoxia incidents on that aircraft; unlike the F-22, the flight profile of the F-35 is similar to other fighters that routinely use such systems.[292][293] Sony VGP-BPS13A battery


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Sensors and avionics[edit]



Electro-optical target system (EOTS) under the nose of a mockup of the F-35

The F-35′s sensor and communications suite is said to possess situational awareness, command-and-control and network-centric warfare capabilities.[7][294] The main sensor on board is the AN/APG-81 AESA-radar, Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery

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Sony VGP-BPS21A batterydesigned by Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems.[295] It is augmented by the nose-mounted Electro-Optical Targeting System (EOTS);[296] designed by Lockheed Martin, it provides the capabilities of the externally mounted Sniper XR pod while making a reduced radar presence.[297Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery


Sony VGP-BPS21 battery][298] The AN/ASQ-239 (Barracuda) system is an improved version of the AN/ALR-94 EW suite on the F-22. The AN/ASQ-239 provides sensor fusion of RF and IR tracking functions, basic radar warning, Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

Sony VGP-BPS13AB battery


Sony VGP-BPL21 batterymultispectral countermeasures for self-defense against threat missiles, situational awareness and electronic surveillance; employing 10 radio frequency antennae embedded into the edges of the wing and tail.[29Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery


Sony VGP-BPL13 battery9][300]

Six additional passive infrared sensors are distributed over the aircraft as part of Northrop Grumman’s AN/AAQ-37 distributed aperture system (DAS),[3Sony VGP-BPS13B battery


Sony VGP-BPS13S battery2] which acts as a missile warning system, reports missile launch locations, detects and tracks approaching aircraft spherically around the F-35, and replaces traditional night vision goggles for night operations and navigation. All DAS functions are performed simultaneously, in every direction, at all times. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A /B BatteryThe F-35′s Electronic Warfare systems are designed by BAE Systems and include Northrop Grumman components.[301] Some functions such as the Electro-Optical Targeting System and the Electronic Warfare system are not usually integrated on fighters.[302Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery


Sony VGP-BPS21B battery]

The communications, navigation and identification (CNI) suite is designed by Northrop Grumman and includes the Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL), as one of a half dozen different physical links.[303Sony VGP-BPS13S battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A battery] The F-35 will be the first jet fighter with sensor fusion that combines radio frequency and IR tracking for continuous target detection and identification in all directions which is shared via MADL to other platforms without compromising low observability.[2


Sony VGP-BPS21 battery31] The non-stealthy Link 16 is also included for communication with legacy systems.[304] The F-35 has been designed with synergy between sensors as a specific requirement, the aircraft’s “senses”Sony VGP-BPL13 battery

Sony VGP-BPL21 battery being expected to provide a more cohesive picture of the reality around it and be available for use in any possible way and combination with one another; for example, the AN/APG-81 multi-mode radar also acts as a part of the electronic warfare system.[305] Sony VPCSD1S1C battery
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Unlike previous aircraft, such as the F-22, much of the new software for the F-35 is written in C and C++, because of programer availability. Much Ada83 code is reused from the F-22.[306] The Integrity DO-178B real-time operating system (RTOS) from Green Hills Software runs on COTS Freescale PowerPC processors.[ Sony VPCSA2Z9E battery
Sony SVE151G13M battery307] The final Block 3 software for the F-35 is planned to have 8.6 million lines of software code.[308] The scale of the program has led to a software crisis as officials continue to discover that additional software needs to be written.[30Sony VPCZ11 battery

Sony VPCZ11X9E battery


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9] General Norton Schwartz has said that the software is the biggest factor that might delay the USAF’s initial operational capability.[3Sony VPCZ11X9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12Z9E/B battery10] Michael Gilmore, Director of Operational Test & Evaluation, has written that, “the F-35 mission systems software development and test is tending towards familiar historical patterns of extended development, discovery in flight test, and deferrals to later increments.”[311] Sony VPCZ11Z9E battery


Sony VPCZ12X9E/B battery

The F-35′s electronic warfare systems are intended to detect hostile aircraft, then scan them with the electro-optical system to allow the pilot to engage or evade the opponent before the F-35 is detected.[305] Sony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12V9E/B battery The CATbird avionics testbed for the F-35 program has proved capable of detecting and jamming radars, including those used on the F-22.[312] The F-35 was previously considered a platform for the Next Generation Jammer; however attention has shifted to the use of unmanned aircraft as an alternate platform.[313] Sony VPCZ12C7E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12V9E battery

Several “critical electronic subsystems” of the F-35 depend on Xilinx FPGAs.[314] These COTS components allow for refreshes in supplies from the commercial market and to field upgrade the entire fleet via software for the aircraft’s software-defined radio systems.[315] Sony VPCZ12M9E battery

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Helmet-mounted display system[edit]



VSI Helmet-mounted display system

The F-35 does not need to be physically pointing at its target for weapons to be successful.[247][31Sony VGN-TT1RLN/B battery

Sony VGN-TT1RVN/X battery


Sony VGN-Z11VN/X battery

6] Sensors can track and target a nearby aircraft from any orientation, provide the information to the pilot through his helmet (and therefore visible no matter which way the pilot is looking), and provide the seeker-head of a missile with sufficient information. Sony VGN-TT1RWN/X battery

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Sony VGN-Z51XG/B batteryRecent missile types provide a much greater ability to pursue a target regardless of the launch orientation, called “High Off-Boresight” capability. Sensors use combined radio frequency and infra red (SAIRST) Sony VGN-TT11M/N battery

Sony VGN-TT11RM/N battery

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Sony VGN-Z51WG/B battery to continually track nearby aircraft while the pilot’s helmet-mounted display system (HMDS) displays and selects targets; the helmet system replaces the display-suite-mounted head-up display used in earlier fighters.[317] Sony VGN-TT11VN/X battery


Sony VGN-Z51MG/B battery

The F-35′s systems provide the edge in the “observe, orient, decide, and act” OODA loop; stealth and advanced sensors aid in observation (while being difficult to observe), automated target tracking helps in orientation, Sony VGN-TT11WN/B battery

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Sony VGN-Z51XTG/B battery sensor fusion simplifies decision making, and the aircraft’s controls allow the pilot to keep their focus on the targets, rather than the controls of their aircraft.[318][N 4]

Problems with the Vision Systems International helmet-mounted display led Lockheed Martin-Elbit Systems to issue a draft specification for alternative proposals in early 2011, Sony VGN-TT21JN/B battery

Sony VGN-TT21VN/X battery

Sony VGN-Z31XN/B battery to be based around the Anvis-9 night vision goggles.[319] BAE Systems was selected to provide the alternative system in late 2011.[320] The BAE Systems alternative helmet was to include all the features of the VSI system.[3Sony VGN-TT21WN/B battery

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21] Adopting the alternative helmet would have required a cockpit redesign,[322] but in 2013 development on the alternative helmet was halted due to progress on the baseline helmet.[323] Sony SVE14AG15M battery

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In 2011, Lockheed Martin-Elbit granted VSI a contract to fix the vibration, jitter, night-vision and sensor display problems in their helmet-mounted display.[324] A speculated potential improvement is the replacement of Intevac’s ISIE-10 day/night camera with the newer ISIE-11 model.[325] Sony VGN-TT46MG/W battery

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Sony VGN-Z51XG battery

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In October 2012, Lockheed Martin-Elbit stated that progress had been made in resolving the technical issues of the helmet-mounted display, and cited positive reports from night flying tests;
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it had been questioned whether the helmet system allows pilots enough visibility at night to carry out precision tasks.[32Sony SVE14AE15M battery

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6] In 2013, in spite of continuing problems with the helmet display, the F-35B model completed 19 nighttime vertical landings onboard the USS Wasp at sea,[327] by using the DAS instead of the helmet’s built-in night vision capabilities, which offer at best 20/35 vision.[328] Sony SVE14AA11M battery
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The program’s maintenance concept is for any F-35 to be maintained in any F-35 maintenance facility and that all F-35 parts in all bases will be globally tracked and shared as needed.[32
Sony SVE171E13M battery9] The commonality between the different variants has allowed the USMC to create their first aircraft maintenance Field Training Detachment to directly apply the lessons of the USAF to their F-35 maintenance operations.[ Sony SVE151D11M battery
Sony SVE171A11M battery330] The aircraft has been designed for ease of maintenance, with 95% of all field replaceable parts “one deep”Sony SVE171G11M battery
where nothing else has to be removed to get to the part in question. For instance the ejection seat can be replaced without removing the canopy, the use of low-maintenance electro-hydrostatic actuators instead of hydraulic systems and an all-composite skin without the fragile coatings found on earlier stealth aircraft.[331] Sony SVE171C11M battery
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The F-35 has received good reviews from pilots and maintainers, suggesting it is performing better than its predecessors did at a similar stage of development. The stealth type has proved relatively stable from a maintenance standpoint. Sony SVE171E11M battery

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Sony SVS151A12M batteryPart of the improvement is attributed to better maintenance training, as F-35 maintainers have received far more extensive instruction at this early stage of the program than on the F-22 Raptor. Sony SVE171A11M battery

Sony SVS151A11M batteryThe F-35′s stealth coatings are much easier to work with than those used on the Raptor. Cure times for coating repairs are lower and many of the fasteners and access panels are not coated, further reducing Sony SVE151C11M battery

Sony SVS131B12M batterythe workload for maintenance crews. Some of the F-35′s radar-absorbent materials are baked into the jet’s composite skin, which means its stealthy signature is not easily degraded.[332] It is still harder to maintain (due to its stealth) than fourth-generation aircraft.[333] Sony SVE1711T1EB battery

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Operational history[edit]



The first F-35A (designated AA-1) was rolled out in Fort Worth, Texas, on 19 February 2006. In September 2006, the first engine run of the F135 in an airframe took place.[334] On 15 December 2006, the F-35A completed its maiden flight.[33Sony SVE1711K1EW battery
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Sony SVS13A1U9ES battery5] A modified Boeing 737–300, the Lockheed CATBird has been used as an avionics test-bed for the F-35 program, including a duplication of the cockpit.[153]

The first F-35B (designated BF-1) made its maiden flight on 11 June 2008, piloted by BAE Systems’ test pilot Graham Tomlinson. Sony SVE1711X1EB battery

Sony VPCCA2S1E battery Flight testing of the variant’s STOVL propulsion system began on 7 January 2010.[336] The F-35B’s first hover was on 17 March 2010, followed by its first vertical landing the next day.[3Sony SVE1511G1EW battery

Sony VPCCA3S1E battery37] During a test flight on 10 June 2010, the F-35B became the second STOVL aircraft to achieve supersonic speeds[338] after the X-35B.[339] In January 2011, Lockheed Martin reported that a solution had been found for the cracking of an aluminum bulkhead during ground testing of the F-35B.[34Sony SVE1511G1ESI battery
Sony SVE1511G1EB battery

Sony VPCCB3M1E battery0] However, in 2013, the F-35B had suffered another incident involving bulkhead cracking.[341]



The first delivered USAF F-35 on its delivery flight to Eglin Air Force Base in July 2011.

External video

F-35B tests on USS Wasp in 2011

Short TakeOff

BF-04 vertical landing

By June 2009, many of the initial flight test targets had been accomplished but the program was behind schedule.[342] During 2008, Sony SVE1511S1EW battery

Sony VPCCA4S1E battery a Pentagon Joint Estimate Team (JET) estimated that the program was two years behind the public schedule, a revised estimate in 2009 predicted a 30-month delay.[343] Delays reduced planned production numbers by 122 aircraft through 2015 Sony SVE1511S1ESI battery

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Sony SVE1511J1EW battery to provide an addition 2.8 billion for development; internal memos suggested that the official timeline would be extended by 13 months.[343][344] The success of the JET led Ashton
Sony SVE1511H1EW batteryCarter calling for more such teams for other poorly performing projects.[345]

Nearly 30 percent of test flights required more than routine maintenance to make the aircraft flightworthy again.[346] As of March 2010, the F-35 program had used a million more man-hours than predicted.[3Sony SVE1511S1EB battery
Sony SVE1511B1EW battery47] The United States Navy projected that lifecycle costs over a 65-year fleet life for all American F-35s to be $442 billion higher than U.S. Air Force projections.[348] F-35 delays have led to shortfall of up to 100 jet fighters in the Navy/Marines team, Sony VPCSE2F1E battery
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although measures have been taken using existing assets to manage and reduce this shortfall.[349]

The F-35C’s maiden flight took place on 7 June 2010, at NAS Fort Worth JRB. A total of 11 U.S. Air Force F-35s arrived in fiscal year 2011.[350] Sony PCG-4121DM battery
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Dell XPS M1730 battery On 9 March 2011, all F-35s were grounded after a dual generator failure and oil leak in flight;[351] the cause of the incident was discovered to have been the result of faulty maintenance.[35
Dell XPS M1530 battery2] In 2012, Navy Commander Erik Etz of the F-35 JSF Program Office commented that rigorous testing of the F-35′s sensors had taken place during exercise Northern Edge 2011, and had served as a significant risk-reduction step.[353][354] Sony PCG-41211M battery
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From 3–18 August 2011, the F-35 fleet was grounded while the Joint Program Office investigated an electrical system failure. On 2 August 2011, the Honeywell-built integrated power package (IPP) of an F-35 had failed during a standard engine test at Edwards Air Force Base.[355][356] On 10 August 201
Dell XPS M1330 batteryground operations for the F-35 Program were re-instituted while the investigation continued. Preliminary inquiries indicated that a control valve did not function properly, leading to the IPP failure.[357][ 1, Sony PCG-41218M battery

Dell XPS M1210 battery358] On 18 August 2011, the flight ban was lifted for 18 of the 20 fighters; two aircraft remained grounded due to a lack of monitoring systems.[ Sony PCG-41414M battery
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Dell XPS L702X battery359] The IPP suffered another software-related incident in 2013, this caused no additional disruption as the fleet was already grounded due to separate issues experienced with the engine.[360] Sony PCG-4121GM battery

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On 25 October 2011, the F-35A reached its designed top speed of Mach 1.6 for the first time.[361] Further testing demonstrated Mach 1.61 and 9.9g.[362] During testing in 2011, all eight landing tests of the F-35C tail hook failed to catch the arresting wire; as a result the design of the hook underwent alteration.[363] In October 2011, Dell XPS 14 battery
two F-35B VTOL aircraft conducted three weeks of initial sea trials aboard USS Wasp.[364] On 15 August 2012, an F-35B completed air start tests, which involved shutting down and restarting the engine while in flight; the F-35A had previously completed these tests.[365] Dell XPS 15 battery
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During the fourth quarter of 2012, weapons separation tests were performed. On 6 October 2012, the F-35A dropped its first bomb,[366] followed three days later by an AIM-120 AMRAAM.[367] On 28 November 2012, Dell XPS L401X battery
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Dell XPS L502X battery an F-35C performed a total of eleven weapon releases, ejecting a GBU-31 JDAM and GBU-12 Paveway from its weapons bay in the first ground weapons ejections for the F-35C.[368] Dell Latitude E5400 battery
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On 16 November 2012, the U.S. Marines received the first F-35B at MCAS Yuma, and the VMFA(AW)-121 unit is to be redesignated from a Boeing F/A-18 Hornet unit to an F-35B squadron.[369Dell Latitude E5510 battery
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] A February 2013 Time article revealed that Marine pilots are not allowed to perform a vertical landing – the maneuver is deemed too dangerous, and it is reserved only for Lockheed test pilots.[370] Dell Latitude E5500 battery
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On 18 January 2013, the F-35B variant was grounded after the failure of a fueldraulic line in the aircraft’s propulsion system on 16 January prior to a conventional takeoff.[371] The problem was traced to an “improperly crimped” fluid line manufactured by Stratoflex.[372][3Dell Latitude E6400 battery
Dell Latitude E6430s battery73] The Pentagon cleared all 25 F-35B aircraft to resume flight tests on 12 February 2013.[374] On 22 February 2013, the U.S. Department of Defense grounded the entire fleet of 51 F-35s after the discovery of a cracked turbine blade in a U.S. Air Force F-35A at Edwards Air Force Base.[375][37Dell Latitude E6400 ATG battery
Dell Latitude E6430 battery6] On 28 February 2013, the Defense Department lifted the grounding after an investigation concluded that the cracks in that particular engine resulted from stressful testing, including excessive heat for a prolonged period during flight, and did not reflect a fleetwide problem.[377][378Dell Latitude E6500 battery
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On 11 February 2013, an F-35A completed its final test mission for clean wing flutter, reporting to be clear of flutter at speeds up to Mach 1.6.[379] On 10 May 2013, the F-35B completed its first vertical takeoff test.[380Dell Latitude E4310 battery

] On 5 June 2013, an F-35A completed the first in-flight missile launch of an AIM-120 C5 AAVI (AMRAAM Air Vehicle Instrumented) over the Point Mugu Sea Test Range. The missile was launched from the internal weapons bay of the F-35.[381] Dell Latitude E4320 battery
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On 3 August 2013, the F-35B completed its 500th vertical landing. The aircraft, BF-1, was the same aircraft that made the F-35B’s first vertical landing at Naval Air Station Patuxent River in March 2010.[382] Dell Latitude E6410 battery
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In 2011, the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation warned that the USAF’s plan to start unmonitored flight training “risks the occurrence of a serious mishap”.[383] The leaders of the United States Senate Committee on Armed Services called on Defense Secretary Leon Panetta to address the issue.[38Dell Latitude E6500 battery

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Dell Latitude E6320 battery4] Despite the objections, expanded trial flights began in September 2012.[385]

The F-35A and F-35B were cleared for flight training in early 2012.[386] A military flight release for the F-35A was issued on 28 February 2012.[387] The aircraft were restricted to basic maneuvers with no tactical training allowed.[388Dell Latitude E6510 battery

Dell Latitude E6220 battery] On 24 August 2012, an F-35 flew its 200th sortie while at Eglin Air Force Base, flown by a Marine pilot. The pilot said, “The aircraft have matured dramatically since the early days. The aircraft are predictable and seem to be maintainable, which is good for the sortie production rate. Currently, Dell Latitude E6120 battery
Dell Latitude E6210 battery the flight envelope for the F-35 is very, very restricted, but there are signs of improvement there too.” The F-35s at the base no longer need to fly with a chase aircraft and are operating in a normal two-ship element.[389] Sony PCG-41212M battery


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On 21 August 2012, J. Michael Gilmore wrote that he would not approve the Operational Test and Evaluation master plan until his concerns about electronic warfare testing, budget and concurrency were addressed.[39Sony PCG-41215M battery

Sony VPCZ21Q9E battery0] On 7 September 2012, the Pentagon failed to approve a comprehensive operational testing plan for the F-35.[3Sony PCG-41216M battery

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91] Instead, on 10 September 2012, the USAF began an operational utility evaluation (OUE) of the F-35A entire system, including logistical support and maintenance, maintenance training, pilot training, and pilot execution.[39Sony VGN-TT battery


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Sony VGN-Z51WG battery2] By 1 October, the OUE was reported as “proceeding smoothly”, pilots started on simulators prior to flying on 26 October.[393] The OUE was completed on Sony VGN-Z11WN/B battery


Sony VGN-Z51 battery14 November with the 24th flight, the four pilots involved having completing six flights each.[394]

During the Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) phase of the aircraft, the U.S. had taken a tri-service approach to developing tactics and procedures for the F-35 using flight simulators prior to the type entering service. Sony VGN-Z11XN/X battery


Sony VGN-Z31ZN/B batterySimulated flights had tested the flight control’s effectiveness, helping to discover technical problems and refine aircraft design.[395] Maintenance personnel have discovered that it is possible to correct deficiencies in the F-35, Sony VGN-Z21 battery

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Sony VGN-Z31VN/X battery

Sony VGN-Z31WN/B batterywhich is a software-defined aircraft, simply by rebooting the aircraft’s software and onboard systems.[396]

Air Force pilot training F-35A started in January 2013 at Eglin Air Force Base; the program currently has a maximum capacity of 100 military pilots and 2,100 maintainer students.[397]

Basing strategy for U.S. F-35s[edit] Sony VGN-Z21WN/B battery


Sony VGN-Z31MN/B battery

On 9 December 2010 Associated Press reported (supplemented with Alert5 on 10 December 2010) that the “USMC will base 216 F-35Bs on the East Coast and 184 of them on the West Coast, documents showed.”


Sony VGN-Z31 battery This report continued to state that, “Cherry Point will get 128 jets to form eight squadrons; Beaufort will have three squadrons and a pilot training center using 88 aircraft; Miramar will form six operational squadrons with 96 jets and 88 F-35s will go to Yuma for five operational squadrons with an additional test and evaluation unit.”[398] Sony VGN-Z21XN battery

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In 2011, the USMC and USN signed an agreement that the USMC will purchase 340 F-35B and 80 F-35C fighters. The five squadrons of USMC F-35Cs would be assigned to Navy carriers while F-35Bs would be used ashore.[399][400][401]

Procurement and international participation[edit]


Main article: Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II procurement

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While the United States is the primary customer and financial backer, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Canada, Turkey, Australia, Norway, and Denmark have agreed to contribute US$4.375 billion towards development costs.[40Sony PCG-41218M battery

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Sony VPCZ13M9E/B battery2] Total development costs are estimated at more than US$40 billion (underwritten largely by the United States), the purchase of an estimated 2,400 aircraft is expected to cost an additional US$200 billion.[403] The initial plan was that the nine major partner nations would acquire over 3,100 F-35s through 2035.[404] Sales to partner nations are made through the Pentagon’s Foreign Military Sales program.[405] Sony PCG-31114M battery



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There are three levels of international participation.[406] The levels generally reflect financial stake in the program, the amount of technology transfer and subcontracts open for bid by national companies, and the order in which countries Sony PCG-41311M battery

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can obtain production aircraft. The United Kingdom is the sole “Level 1″ partner, contributing US$2.5 billion, which was about 10% of the planned development costs[407] under the 1995 Memorandum Sony PCG-41314M battery

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Sony PCG-6124M batteryof Understanding that brought the UK into the project.[408] Level 2 partners are Italy, which is contributing US$1 billion; and the Netherlands, US$800 million. Level 3 partners are Turkey, Sony PCG-4R2M battery


Sony PCG-6123M battery US$195 million; Canada, US$160 million; Australia, US$144 million; Norway, US$122 million and Denmark, US$110 million. Israel and Singapore have joined as Security Cooperative Participants (SCP).[409][410][411] Sony PCG-4R2M battery

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Sony PCG-6122M battery Japan announced on 20 December 2011 its intent to purchase 42 F-35s with deliveries beginning in 2016 to replace the F-4 Phantom II; Japan seeks for 38 of the F-35s to be assembled domestically.[13Sony PCG-6Z4M battery


By 2012, many changes had occurred in the order book. Italy became the first country to announce a reduction of its overall fleet procurement, cutting its buy from 131 to 90 aircraft. Other nations reduced initial purchases or delayed orders while still intending to purchase the same final numbers. Sony PCG-6112M battery

Sony PCG-6121M batteryThe United States canceled the initial purchase of 13 F-35s and postponed orders for another 179. The United Kingdom cut its initial order and delayed a decision on future orders. Sony PCG-4121DL Battery

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Australia decided to buy the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet as an interim measure. Turkey also cut its initial order of four aircraft to two, Sony PCG-4121EL Battery

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but confirmed plans to purchase 100 F-35As.[412][413] Turkey will buy four F-35s to be delivered in 2015 and 2016, while the order may be increased from 100 to 120 aircraft.[414] These changes resulted in increased procurement prices, and increased the likelihood of further cuts.[415][416] Sony PCG-4121GL Battery


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On 3 April 2012, the Auditor General of Canada Michael Ferguson published a report on 3 April 2012 outlining problems with Canada’s procurement of the jet, including misinformation over the final cost. According to the Auditor General, the government knowingly understated the final price of the 65 jets by $10 billion.[41Sony PCG-41211L Battery


Sony PCG-41412L Battery7] Canada’s Conservative government had stated it would not reduce its order, claiming an anticipated $75–80 million unit cost; the procurement was termed a “scandal” and “fiasco” by the media and faced a full review to determine any Canadian F-35 purchase.[418][419][ Sony PCG-41212L Battery


Sony PCG-41411L Battery420] On 13 December 2012, in a scathing editorial published by CBC News, journalist Brian Stewart termed the F-35 project a “global wrecking ball” due to its run-away costs and lack of affordability for many participating nations.[421] Sony PCG-41213L Battery


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In May 2013, Lockheed Martin declared that Turkey is projected to earn $12 billion from licensed production of F-35 components.[422][423]





Configuration of the three original F-35 variants

The F-35 is being built in three different main versions to suit various combat missions.



Sony PCG-41217L Battery

The F-35A is the conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) variant intended for the U.S. Air Force and other air forces. It is the smallest, lightest F-35 version and is the only variant equipped with an internal cannon, the GAU-22/A.

Sony PCG-41216L Battery This 25 mm cannon is a development of the GAU-12 carried by the USMC’s AV-8B Harrier II. It is designed for increased effectiveness against ground targets compared to the 20 mm M61 Vulcan cannon carried by other USAF fighters. Sony PCG-41214L Battery

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The F-35A is expected to match the F-16 in maneuverability and instantaneous and sustained high-g performance, and outperform it in stealth, payload, range on internal fuel, avionics, operational effectiveness, supportability, sony PCG-6X7L battery

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Sony SVE171G112 Battery and survivability.[424] It is expected to match an F-16 that is carrying the usual external fuel tank in acceleration performance.[425] It also has an internal laser designator and infrared sensors, equivalent to the Sniper XR pod carried by the F-16, built in to reduce radar cross-section. sony PCG-6XAL battery

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The A variant is primarily intended to replace the USAF’s F-16 Fighting Falcon. At one point it was also intended to replace the A-10 Thunderbolt II starting in 2028.[426sony PCG-6Z1L battery

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Sony SVE171E11L Battery][427] The F-35A can be outfitted to receive fuel via either of the two main aerial refueling methods; this was a consideration in the Canadian procurement and a deciding factor for the Japanese purchase.[428][429][430]

sony PCG-6Z3L battery

sony PCG-6Z4L battery


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Sony SVE171C11L BatteryThe F-35B is the short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) variant of the aircraft. Similar in size to the A variant, the B sacrifices about a third of the other version’s fuel volume to accommodate the vertical flight system. Vertical takeoffs and landings are riskier due to threats such as foreign object damage.[431][ Sony SVS131C1DL Battery

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Sony SVE151J11L Battery432] Whereas the F-35A is stressed to 9 g, the F-35B is stressed to 7 g.[433][434] The first test flight of the F-35B was conducted on 11 June 2008.[435]

Unlike other variants, the F-35B has no landing hook. The “STOVL/HOOK” control instead engages conversion between normal and vertical flight.[43Sony SVS131G1DL Battery

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Sony SVE151G13L Battery6] Jet thrust is sent directly downwards during vertical flight; the nozzle is being redesigned to spread the output across an oval rather than circular shape in order to limit damage to asphalt and ship decks.[4Sony SVS151C2DL Battery

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Sony SVE151G11L Battery7] The variant’s three-bearing swivel nozzle that directs the full thrust of the engine is moved by a “fueldraulic” actuator using pressurized fuel.[438]

The United States Marine Corps plans to purchase 340 F-35Bs,[86] to replace current inventories of both the F/A-18 Hornet (A, B, Sony PCG-61A11L Battery

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Sony SVE151E11L Battery C and D-models), and the AV-8B Harrier II, in the fighter, and attack roles.[439] The Marines plan to use the F-35B from “unimproved surfaces at austere bases”, but with “special, high-temperature concrete designed to handle the heat”.[440][4Sony PCG-61A14L Battery


Sony SVE141L11L Battery41] The USMC intends to declare Initial Operational Capability with about 50 F-35s running interim Block 2B software in the 2014 to 2015 timeframe.[442] The USAF had considered replacing the A-10 with the F-35B, but will not do so due to the F-35B inability to generate enough sorties.[443] Sony PCG-71C11L Battery

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The Royal Air Force and Royal Navy plan for the F-35B is to replace the Harrier GR9s, which were retired in 2010. One of the Royal Navy requirements for the F-35B design was a Shipborne Rolling and Vertical Landing (SRVL) Sony PCG-61714L Battery


Sony SVE141C11L Battery mode to increase maximum landing weight to bring back unused ordnance by using wing lift during landing.[444][445] In October 2010, the UK announced plans to order to the CATOBAR F-35C instead,[44Sony PCG-61813L Battery

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Sony PCG-91311L Battery6] but in May 2012 the UK reverted back to purchasing the F-35B, citing the cost of equipping the UK’s new aircraft carriers for the F-35C.[447Sony PCG-61913L Battery


Sony PCG-91211L Battery][448] In July 2013, Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Dalton announced that 617 Squadron would be the first Royal Air Force squadron to receive the F-35.[449][450] The second squadron will be the Fleet Air Arm’s 809 NAS.[451] Sony PCG-71614L Battery


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The Italian Navy is preparing Grottaglie Air Station for future operations with the F-35B. The Italian Navy is to receive 22 aircraft between 2014 and 2021, with its Cavour aircraft carrier set to be modified to operate them by 2016.[452] Sony PCG-71713L Battery

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Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps, General James Amos has said that, in spite of increasing costs and schedule delays, there is no plan B to the F-35B.[453] The F-35B is larger than the aircraft it replaces, which required USS America to be designed without well deck capabilities.[45Sony PCG-71911L Battery

Sony PCG-71912L Battery4] In 2011, the USMC and USN signed an agreement that the USMC will purchase 340 F-35B and 80 F-35C fighters while the USN will purchase 260 F-35C fighters. The five squadrons of USMC F-35Cs will be assigned to Navy carriers while F-35Bs will be used on amphibious ships and ashore. Sony PCG-61713L Battery


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On 6 January 2011, Gates said that the 2012 budget would call for a two-year pause in F-35B production during which the aircraft faced redesign, or cancellation if unsuccessful.[81][4


Sony PCG-61316L Battery55] In 2011, Lockheed Martin executive vice president Tom Burbage and former Pentagon director of operational testing Tom Christie stated that most program delays were due to the F-35B, Sony PCG-91111L Battery


Sony PCG-61315L Batterywhich forced massive redesigns of other versions.[456] Lockheed Martin Vice President Steve O’Bryan has said that most F-35B landings will be conventional to reduce stress on vertical lift components.[45Sony PCG-91112L Battery

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Sony PCG-61312L Battery7] However these conventional mode takeoffs and landings cause “an unacceptable wear rate” to the aircraft’s poorly designed tires.[458] USMC Lt. Gen. Robert Schmidle has said that the vertical lift components would only be used “a small percentage of the time” to transfer the aircraft from carriers to land bases.[45Sony PCG-71311L Battery

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Sony PCG-61311L Battery] On 3 October 2011, the F-35B began its initial sea-trials by performing a vertical landing on the deck of the amphibious assault ship USS Wasp.[460] Probation status was reportedly ended by Defense Secretary Leon Panetta in January 2012 due to progress made.[84]



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F-35C launching from an electromagnetic catapult during testing, November 2011.

Compared to the F-35A, the F-35C carrier variant features larger wings with foldable wingtip sections, larger wing and tail control surfaces for improved low-speed control, stronger landing gear for the stresses of carrier arrested landings, Sony PCG-71217L Battery


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Sony PCG-61211L Battery a twin-wheel nose gear, and a stronger tailhook for use with carrier arrestor cables. The larger wing area allows for decreased landing speed while increasing both range and payload. Sony PCG-71313L Battery


The United States Navy will use the F-35C carrier variant. It intends to buy 480 F-35Cs to replace the F/A-18A, B, C, and D Hornets and complement the existing Super Hornet fleet.[461] On 27 June 2007, the carrier variant completed its Air System Critical Design Review (CDR), allowing the production of the first two functional prototype F-35Cs.[462] The C variant is expected to be available beginning in 2014.[4Sony PCG-71315L Battery

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63] The first F-35C was rolled out on 29 July 2009.[464] The United States Marine Corps will also purchase 80 F-35Cs, enough for five marine fighter-attack squadrons, for use with navy carrier air wings in a joint service agreement signed on 14 March 2011.[399][400][401Sony PCG-71317L Battery


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On 6 November 2010, the first F-35C arrived at Naval Air Station Patuxent River. At the time, it was determined that the replacement engines for at-sea repair are too large to be transported by current underway replenishment systems.[4Sony PCG-71318L Battery

Sony PCG-71212L Battery65] In 2011, the F-35Cs were grounded for six days because of a software error intended to keep the wings from folding in mid-flight.[466] On 27 July 2011, the F-35C test aircraft CF-3 completed its first steam catapult launch during a test flight in Naval Air Engineering Station Lakehurst; the TC-13 Mod 2 test steam catapult, Sony PCG-71211L Battery

representative of current fleet technology, was used. In addition to catapult launches at varying power levels, a three-week test plan included dual-aircraft jet blast deflector testing and catapult launches using a degraded catapult configuration to measure the effects of steam ingestion on the aircraft.[467] Sony PCG-7152L Battery

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On 13 August 2011, the F-35 integrated test force successfully completed jet blast deflector (JBD) testing at the Lakehurst facility, with a round of two-aircraft testing. F-35C test aircraft CF-1 along with an F/A-18E tested a combined JBD cooling panel configuration to assess Sony PCG-7154L Battery

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the integration of F-35s in aircraft carrier launch operations. The tests measured temperatures, pressures, sound levels, velocities, and other environmental data; the combined JBD model will enable carrier deck crews to operate all air wing aircraft, including the F-35C, as per operational requirements. Further carrier suitability testing continued, Sony PCG-7162L Battery

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Sony VPCF11FGX batteryincluding catapult and arrestment testing in preparation for initial ship trials in 2013.[468] On 18 November 2011, the U.S. Navy used its new Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) to catapult an F-35C into the air for the first time.[469] Sony PCG-7172L Battery

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On 22 June 2013, The U.S. Navy’s Strike Fighter Squadron VFA-101 received the Navy’s first F-35C Lightning II carrier variant aircraft from Lockheed Martin at the squadron’s home at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.[470] Sony PCG-7174L Battery


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The F-35I is an F-35A with Israeli modifications. A senior Israel Air Force official stated “the aircraft will be designated F-35I, as there will be unique Israeli features installed in them”. Despite an initial refusal to allow such modifications, Sony PCG-7181L Battery


Sony PCG-81411L Battery the U.S. has agreed to let Israel integrate its own electronic warfare systems into the aircraft’s built-in electronic suite. That would let Israel gradually add indigenously produced EW sensors and countermeasures once it receives its first squadron. Sony PCG-7182L Battery


Sony PCG-81314L Battery In addition, a plug-and-play feature added to the main computer will allow for the use of Israeli electronics in an add-on fashion. Israel will be able to fit its own external jamming pod and plans to install its own air-to-air missiles and guided bombs in the F-35’s internal weapon bays.[47Sony PCG-7183L Battery

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Sony PCG-81313L Battery2][473] A contract was issued for this in 2012.[177] Israeli pilots are scheduled to start training in F-35s in December 2016 with the first squadron activated about a year later.[474] Sony PCG-7185L Battery

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Israel Aerospace Industries has considered playing a role in the development of a proposed two-seat F-35. An IAI executive stated, “There is a known demand for two seats not only from Israel but from other air forces. Advanced aircraft are usually two seats rather than single seats.”[4Sony PCG-8141L Battery


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Sony PCG-81312L Battery75] IAI also plans to produce conformal fuel tanks to extend the range.[476]

A senior IAF official has said that elements of the stealth on the F-35 may be overcome in 5 to 10 years, while the aircraft will be in service for 30 to 40 years, Sony PCG-8151L Battery


Sony PCG-81214L Battery which is why Israel has insisted on the ability to install their own electronic warfare systems. “The basic F-35 design is OK. We can make do with adding integrated software.”[477] Israel is interested in purchasing as many as 75 F-35 fighters.[478]

CF-35[edit] Sony PCG-21313L Battery

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Main article: Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II Canadian procurement

The Canadian CF-35 is a proposed variant that would differ from the F-35A through the addition of a drag chute and may include an F-35B/C-style refueling probe.[479][480] Norway may also use the drag chute option, as they also have icy runways.[ Sony PCG-31311L Battery

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270] However, in 2012 it was revealed that the CF-35 would employ the same boom refueling system as the F-35A.[481]

One alternative proposal would have been the adoption of the F-35C for its probe refueling and lower landing speed; the Parliamentary Budget Officer’s report cited the F-35C’s limited performance and payload as being too high a price to pay.[4Sony PCG-51111L Battery


Sony PCG-81112L Battery82] The heavier F-35C airframe reduces the maximum G-level as compared to the F-35A. The F-35C will have the largest internal fuel capacity and longest range out of the three F-35 variants, and is likely to be more expensive than the F-35A.

Philippines and Manila

Philippines and Manila

The Philippines officially known as the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan; west across the South China Sea sits Vietnam; southwest is the island of Borneo across the Sulu Sea, and to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other islands of Indonesia; Sony SVS13AA11L Battery

while to the east it is bounded by the Philippine Sea. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator make the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world’s greatest biodiversity. Sony SVS131A11L Battery
At 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi), the Philippines is the 73rd-largest country in the world,[12] consisting of an archipelago of 7,107 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions: Sony SVS131B11L Battery

Sony PCG-41414L BatteryLuzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Its capital city is Manila while its most populous city is Quezon City.

With a population of more than 98 million people,[13] the Philippines is the seventh-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. An additional 12 million Filipinos live overseas,
Sony PCG-41413L Batterycomprising one of the world’s largest and most influential diasporas.[14] Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago’s earliest inhabitants. Sony SVS151A11L Battery

Sony PCG-41412L BatteryThey were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples who brought with them influences from Malay, Hindu, and Islamic societies. Various nations were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sony SVS151B11L Battery

Sony PCG-41411L BatterySultans or Lakans. Trade with China also introduced Chinese culture and settlement, which remain present to this day. Sony SVS151G1GL Battery

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The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 marked the beginning of an era of Spanish interest and eventual colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. Sony PCG-4121DL Battery

Sony PCG-41217L BatteryThe Spanish Empire began to settle with the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from New Spain (present day-Mexico) in 1565 who established the first Spanish settlement in the archipelago, which remained a Spanish colony for more than 300 years.
Sony PCG-41216L Battery During this time, Manila became the Asian hub of the Manila–Acapulco galleon fleet.

As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, there followed in quick succession the Philippine Revolution, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic; the Spanish–American War; and the Philippine–American War. Sony PCG-4121EL Battery
In the aftermath, the United States emerged as the dominant power; aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands. After World War II,[15
Sony PCG-41215L Battery] the Treaty of Manila established the Philippine Republic as an independent nation.[16] Since then, the Philippines has had an often tumultuous experience with democracy, with popular “people power” movements overthrowing a dictatorship in one instance, Sony PCG-4121FL Battery
but also underlining the institutional weaknesses of its constitutional republic in others. The nation’s large size and economic potential have led it to be classified as a middle power.[17]

The name Philippines is named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Sony PCG-4121GL Battery

Sony PCG-41214L BatterySpanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos during his expedition in 1542 named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, Sony PCG-41213L Battery other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan’s name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands. Sony PCG-41211L Battery
The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of the country’s history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. Sony PCG-41212L Battery
From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–46), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, sony PCG-4R2L battery

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sony PCG-6124L battery a translation of the Spanish name. During the American period,[clarification needed When?] the name Philippines began to appear and it has since become the country’s common name.[23] Since independence, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. sony PCG-4Q4L battery

A Tagalog couple of the Maginoo caste depicted on a page of the 16th century Boxer Codex.

The metatarsal of Callao Man is reported to have been reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago[24sony PCG-4Q3L battery

] thereby replacing the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 24,000 years ago,[25][26] as the oldest human remains found in the archipelago. Negritos were among the archipelago’s earliest inhabitants, sony PCG-4Q1L battery


sony PCG-6123L batterybut their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.[27] There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes that the ancestors of the Filipinos evolved locally. sony PCG-6X1L battery


sony PCG-6122L battery Wilhelm Solheim’s Island Origin Theory[28] postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the antediluvian Sundaland area around 48000 to 5000 BCE rather than by wide-scale migration. sony PCG-6X2L battery

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sony PCG-6121L battery The Austronesian Expansion Theory states that Malayo-Polynesians coming from Taiwan began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BCE, displacing earlier arrivals.[29][30] Whatever the case, sony PCG-6X7L battery

by 1000 BCE the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gathering tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and maritime-centered harbor principalities.[31] sony PCG-6X8L battery


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Tantric Period

The 1st millennium saw the rise of the harbor principalities and their growth into Maritime states composed of autonomous barangays independent of, or allied with, larger nations which were either Malay thalassocracies led by Datus or Indianized Kingdoms led by Rajahs. The chief among which were the Rajahnate of Butuan, sony PCG-6XAL battery


sony PCG-6Z3L batterywhich attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri Bata Shaja,[32] the Kingdom of Tondo, ruled over by the Lakandula dynasty[33][34] and the Rajahnate of Cebu[35] which was led by Rajamuda Sri Lumay. sony PCG-6XBL battery

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sony PCG-6Z2L battery Other nations in this era include the State of Ma-i and the Confederation of Madja-as. Sulu, before its Islamization was also an Indianized Kingdom under its first ruler, Rajah Sipad the Older.[36] The great epics; the Hinilawod, Darangan, Biag Ni Lam-Ang and etc. trace their origins to this era.[37] Sony SVS13AB1GL Battery

Islamic Period

The 1300s heralded the arrival and eventual spread of the Islamic religion in the Philippine archipelago. In 1380, Karim ul’ Makdum and Shari’ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab trader born in Johore, arrived in Sulu from Malacca and established the Sultanate of Sulu by converting Sulu’s Rajah and marrying his daughter.[38] Sony SVS131C1DL Battery

Sony PCG-61913L Battery [39] Also, at the end of the 15th century, Shariff Mohammed Kabungsuwan of Johor introduced Islam in the island of Mindanao and he subsequently married Paramisuli, an Iranun Princess from Mindanao, Sony SVS131C24L Battery

Sony PCG-61911L Batteryand established the Sultanate of Maguindanao. The sultanate system even extended itself further and the Confederation of sultanates in Lanao was a logical extension of this.[40] Eventually, Sony SVS131E1DL Battery
Islam had begun to spread out from the southern Philippines into the north. Even Manila itself was nominally islamized since the reign of Sultan Bolkiah in 1485 to 1521, wherein, the Sultanate of Brunei subjugated Tondo by installing the Muslim, Rajah Suleiman to the throne. Sony SVS131G1DL Battery

The rivalries between the disparate Datus, Rajahs, Sultans and Lakans together with their respective states competing over the limited territory and people of the islands eventually simplified Spanish colonization by allowing its conquistadors to effectively employ a strategy of divide and conquer for rapid conquest.[45] Sony SVS151C1GL Battery

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Colonial Period

Fort Santiago in Manila, built by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1590

José Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, and Mariano Ponce: leaders of the Propaganda Movement

In 1521,
Sony PCG-61714L BatteryPortuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines and claimed the islands for Spain.[46Sony SVS151C2DL Battery

Sony PCG-71C12L Battery] Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. In 1571, after dealing with the local royal families in the wake of the Tondo Conspiracy and defeating the Chinese pirate warlord Limahong,
Sony PCG-71C11L Batterythe Spanish established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies.[47][48]

Spanish rule contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican War of Independence. Sony SVS151E1GL Battery
The Manila galleons and its large naval fleet linking Manila to Acapulco traveled once or twice a year between the 16th and 19th centuries. Sony PCG-61A11L Battery
Trade introduced foods such as corn, tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, and pineapples from the Americas.[48] Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools, Sony PCG-61A13L Battery
Sony PCG-61A14L Batterya university, and hospitals. While a Spanish decree introduced free public schooling in 1863, efforts in mass public education mainly came to fruition during the American period.[49]

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Sony PCG-71315L BatterySpanish galleon bombarding the Muslim pirates of the southern Philippines in 1848

During its rule, the Spanish fought off various indigenous revolts and several external colonial challenges from Chinese pirates, the Dutch, and the Portuguese. In an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years’ War, British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764. Sony PCG-71713L Battery

Sony PCG-71313L Battery They found local allies like Diego and Gabriela Silang who took the opportunity to lead a revolt, but Spanish rule was eventually restored following the 1763 Treaty of Paris.[45][50][51] Sony PCG-71811L Battery

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In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Philippine society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines (criollos) and those of mixed ancestry (mestizos) became wealthy. The influx of Spanish and Latino settlers secularized churches and opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula (peninsulares). Sony PCG-71911L Battery
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Sony PCG-71218L Battery The ideals of revolution also began to spread through the islands. Criollo dissatisfaction resulted in the revolt in Cavite El Viejo in 1872 that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution. Sony PCG-71913L Battery

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Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three priests — Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (collectively known as Gomburza) — were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed.[52Sony PCG-71914L Battery

Sony PCG-71312L Battery][53] This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, Sony PCG-91211L Battery

Sony PCG-91112L Battery1896, on charges of rebellion.[56] As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the secret society called the Katipunan, a society along the lines of the freemasons, Sony PCG-91311L Battery
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which sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.[54] Bonifacio and the Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo of Cavite province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio’s position as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo took over. Sony SVE141D11L Battery

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American Occupational Period

In 1898, the Spanish-American War began in Cuba and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898, and the insurgent First Philippine Republic was established Sony SVE141L11L Battery

Sony PCG-61713L Battery the following year. Meanwhile, the islands were ceded by Spain to the United States for 20 million US dollars in the 1898 Treaty of Paris.[57] As it became increasingly clear the United States Sony SVE151E11L Battery

Sony SVE171G112 Battery would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out. The Americans then destroyed the first Philippine Republic, nevertheless, it was survived by three cantonal republics: Sony SVE151G11L Battery

Sony SVE171E12L BatteryThe Republic of Zamboanga, The Republic of Negros and The Tagalog Republic. Yet, these too were crushed and total American control was expanded over the entirety of the archipelago which was administered as an insular area.[58] Sony SVE151G13L Battery
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In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and established a puppet government. Sony SVE171C11L Battery
Sony SVE171E11L BatteryMany atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war such as the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre that culminated during the Battle of Manila.[59] Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated over a million Filipinos had died.[60] Sony PCG-71316L Battery
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Lowering of the American flag on July 4, 1946

On July 4, 1946, the Philippines attained its independence.[5] Immediately after World War II, the Philippines faced a number of challenges. Sony PCG-71318L Battery
The country had to be rebuilt from the ravages of war. It also had to come to terms with Japanese collaborators. Sony PCG-71211L Battery
Meanwhile, disgruntled remnants of the Hukbalahap communist rebel army that had previously fought against and resisted the Japanese continued to roam the rural regions. This threat to the government was dealt with by Secretary of National Defense and later President Ramon Magsaysay, Sony PCG-71212L Battery

Sony PCG-61316L Batterybut sporadic cases of communist insurgency continued to flare up long afterward.[61][62] In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Nearing the end of his second term and constitutionally barred from seeking a third, he declared martial law on September 21, 1972. Sony PCG-71215L Battery

Sony PCG-61315L Battery By using political divisions, the tension of the Cold War, and the specter of communist rebellion and Islamic insurgency as justifications, he governed by decree.[63] Sony PCG-71216L Battery
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On August 21, 1983, Marcos’ chief rival opposition leader Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, Jr. ignored warnings and returned from exile in the United States. He was assassinated as he was taken off the plane at the Manila International Airport

Sony PCG-61311L Battery (now called the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in his memory). With political pressure building, Marcos eventually called for snap presidential elections in 1986.[61] Corazon Aquino, Benigno’s widow, Sony PCG-61211L Battery
Sony PCG-61215L Batterywas persuaded to become the presidential candidate and standard bearer of the opposition. The elections were widely considered rigged when Marcos was proclaimed the winner. This led to the People Power Revolution, Sony PCG-3B1L Battery

instigated when two long-time Marcos allies – Armed Forces of the Philippines Vice Chief-of-Staff Fidel V. Ramos and Secretary of National Defense Juan Ponce Enrile –Sony PCG-3B2L Battery
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Sony PCG-3H4L Battery  resigned and barricaded themselves in Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame. Exhorted by the Cardinal Archbishop of Manila Jaime Sin, people gathered in support of the rebel leaders and protested on Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). In the face of mass protests and military defections, Sony PCG-3B4L Battery

Sony PCG-3H3L Battery Marcos and his allies fled to Hawaii and into exile. Corazon Aquino was recognized as president.[62][64] Sony PCG-3C2L Battery

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The return of democracy and government reforms after the events of 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, a persistent communist insurgency, and military conflict with Islamic separatists. Sony PCG-3C3L Battery
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Sony PCG-3H1L Battery The economy improved during the administration of Fidel V. Ramos, who was elected president in 1992.[65] However, the economic improvements were negated with the onset of the East Asian financial crisis in 1997. Sony PCG-3D4L Battery

Sony PCG-3G5L Battery In 2001, amid charges of corruption and a stalled impeachment process, Ramos’ successor Joseph Estrada was ousted from the presidency by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and replaced by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Sony PCG-3E3L Battery

Sony PCG-3G3L Battery Her administration that lasted 9 years was tied with graft and corruption and numerous political scandals.[66][67][68] As a result of the May 2010 elections, Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III was elected president. Sony PCG-3F1L Battery
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Politics and government




Benigno S. Aquino III, the current and 15th president of the Republic of the Philippines

Main articles: Politics of the Philippines, President of the Philippines, and Constitution of the Philippines Sony PCG-3F3L Battery
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The Philippines has a democratic government.[69] It is a constitutional republic with a presidential system. It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao which is largely free from the national government. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.[70][71] Sony PCG-9Z1L Battery

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