The Lockheed Martin F-22 and F-35—- Air Superiority Fighter

The Lockheed Martin F-22 and F-35—- Air Superiority Fighter

The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a single-seat, twin-engine fifth-generation super maneuverable fighter aircraft that uses stealth technology. It was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but has additional capabilities that include ground attack, electronic warfare, and signals intelligence roles.[ Sony SVS13AA11L Battery

5] Lockheed Martin Aeronautics is the prime contractor and is responsible for the majority of the airframe, weapon systems and final assembly of the F-22. Sony SVS131A11L Battery
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Sony PCG-41414L Battery Program partner Boeing Defense, Space & Security provides the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and training systems.

The aircraft was variously designated F-22 and F/A-22 during the years prior to formally entering USAF service in December 2005 as the F-22A. Sony SVS151A11L Battery

Sony PCG-41413L Battery Despite a protracted and costly development period, the United States Air Force considers the F-22 a critical component of U.S. tactical air power, and claims that the aircraft is unmatched by any known or projected fighter.[6] Lockheed Martin claims that the Raptor’s combination of stealth, speed, Sony SVS151B11L Battery

Sony PCG-41412L Battery agility, precision and situational awareness, combined with air-to-air and air-to-ground combat capabilities, makes it the best overall fighter in the world today.[7] Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston, Sony SVS151G1GL Battery

Sony PCG-41411L Battery former Chief of the Australian Defence Force, said in 2004 that the “F-22 will be the most outstanding fighter plane ever built.”[ Sony PCG-4121DL Battery

Sony PCG-41218L Battery8] Hostage of USAF Air Combat Command has said that upgrades will keep the Raptor the “pre-eminent airplane in the world into the 2030s”.[9]

The high cost of the aircraft, a lack of clear air-to-air combat missions because of delays in the Russian and Chinese fifth-generation fighter programs, Sony PCG-4121EL Battery

Sony PCG-41217L Batterya U.S. ban on Raptor exports, and the ongoing development of the planned cheaper and more versatile F-35 resulted in calls to end F-22 production.[N 1] In April 2009, the U.S. Department of Defense proposed to cease placing new orders, subject to Congressional approval, for a final procurement tally of 187 operational aircraft. Sony PCG-4121FL Battery

Sony PCG-41216L Battery [11] The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 lacked funding for further F-22 production. The final F-22 rolled off the assembly line on 13 December 2011 during a ceremony at Dobbins Air Reserve Base.[12] Sony PCG-4121GL Battery

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Starting in 2010, the F-22 was plagued by problems with its pilot oxygen systems which contributed to one crash and death of a pilot. In 2011 the fleet was grounded for four months before resuming flight operations, Sony PCG-41211L Battery

Sony PCG-41214L Battery but reports of oxygen systems issues have continued.[13] In July 2012, the Air Force announced that the hypoxia-like symptoms experienced were caused by a faulty valve in the pilots’ pressure vest; the valve was replaced and changes to the filtration system were also made. Sony PCG-41212L Battery

An F-22 during takeoff, at Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska

In 1981 the U.S. Air Force developed a requirement for an Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) as a new air superiority fighter to replace the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon. Sony PCG-41213L Battery

This was influenced by the emerging worldwide threats, including development and proliferation of Soviet Su-27 “Flanker”- and MiG-29 “Fulcrum”-class fighter aircraft. It would take advantage of the new technologies in fighter design on the horizon, sony PCG-6Z1L battery

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including composite materials, lightweight alloys, advanced flight-control systems, more powerful propulsion systems, and stealth technology. A request for proposals (RFP) was issued in July 1986 and two contractor teams, sony PCG-6Z3L battery
Sony SVS151E1GL Battery Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics and Northrop/McDonnell Douglas, were selected on 31 October 1986 to undertake a 50-month demonstration phase, culminating in the flight test of two prototypes, the YF-22 and the YF-23.[14][15][16] sony PCG-6Z4L battery

sony PCG-6121L battery
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Each design team produced two prototypes, one for each of the two engine options. The Lockheed-led team chose to employ thrust vectoring for enhanced pitch performance, a useful capability in dogfights. sony PCG-6122L battery
Sony SVS151C1GL BatteryThe ATF’s increasing weight and cost drove out some features during development. A dedicated infra-red search and track (IRST) system was downgraded from multi-color to single color and then deleted, sony PCG-6123L battery

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Sony SVS131G1DL Battery the side-looking radars were deleted and the ejection seat requirement was downgraded from a fresh design to the existing McDonnell Douglas ACES II.[17]

After a 90-day flight test validation of the prototype air vehicles, on 23 April 1991, Secretary of the U.S. Air Force Donald Rice announced the YF-22 was the winner of the ATF competition.[1
Sony SVS131E1DL Battery8] The YF-23 design was more stealthy and faster, but the YF-22 was more agile.[19] The aviation press speculated that the YF-22 was also more adaptable to the Navy’s Navalized Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF), Sony SVS13AB1GL Battery
Sony SVS131C24L Batterybut by 1992, the U.S. Navy had abandoned NATF.[20] In 1991, the USAF planned to buy 650 aircraft.[21]

Production and procurement[edit]

F-22 being painted. Workers wearing white apparel standing on the aircraft’s top applying a gray and black coat over the F-22. Temporary construction equipment surrounds its leading edges and nose sections. Sony SVS131C1DL Battery


The first operational F-22 Raptor is painted at the Lockheed Martin assembly plant at Marietta, Georgia

On 9 April 1997, the production F-22 model was unveiled at Lockheed Georgia Co., Marietta, Georgia. It first flew on 7 September 1997. Sony PCG-61A11L Battery
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The first production F-22 was delivered to Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, on 7 January 2003.[22] In 2006, the Raptor’s development team, composed of Lockheed Martin and over 1,000 other companies, plus the United States Air Force, won the Collier Trophy, American aviation’s most prestigious award.[23Sony PCG-61A14L Battery

Sony SVE151G11L Battery] In 2006, the USAF sought to acquire 381 F-22s, to be divided among seven active duty combat squadrons and three integrated Air Force Reserve Command and Air National Guard squadrons.[24] Sony PCG-71C11L Battery

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Several design changes were made from the YF-22 for production. The swept-back angle on the wing’s leading edge was decreased from 48° to 42°, while the vertical stabilizer area was decreased by 20%.Sony PCG-71C12L Battery

Sony SVE141L11L Battery To improve pilot visibility, the canopy was moved forward 7 inches (178 mm), and the engine intakes were moved rearward 14 inches (356 mm). The shape of the wing and stabilator trailing edges was refined to improve aerodynamics, strength, and stealth characteristics.[25][2Sony PCG-61714L Battery

Sony SVE141D11L Battery6] Also, the vertical stabilizer was shifted rearward.[27]

During the development process the aircraft continued to gain weight at the cost of range and aerodynamic performance, even as capabilities were deleted or delayed in the name of affordability.[28] Sony PCG-61813L Battery

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F-22 production was split up over many subcontractors across 46 states, in a strategy to increase Congressional support for the program.[29][30] However the production split, along with the implementation of several new technologies were likely responsible for increased costs and delays.[3Sony PCG-61911L Battery

Sony PCG-91311L Battery1] Many capabilities were deferred to post-service upgrades, reducing the initial cost but increasing total project cost.[32] Each aircraft required “1,000 subcontractors and suppliers and 95,000 workers” to build.[ Sony PCG-61913L Battery
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Sony PCG-91211L Battery33] The F-22 was in production for 15 years, at a rate of roughly two per month.[34]

Two F-22s overflying snow-capped mountains.


Two F-22s during flight testing, the upper one being the first EMD F-22, “Raptor 01″

The United States Air Force originally planned to order 750 ATFs at a cost of $26.2 billion,[35] with production beginning in 1994; however, Sony PCG-71713L Battery

Sony PCG-71913L Battery
Sony PCG-71914L Battery the 1990 Major Aircraft Review led by Defense Secretary Dick Cheney altered the plan to 648 aircraft beginning in 1996. The goal changed again in 1994, when it became 438 aircraft entering service in 2003 or 2004, but a 1997 Department of Defense report put the purchase at 339.[ Sony PCG-71811L Battery
Sony PCG-71912L Battery35] In 2003, the Air Force said that the existing congressional cost cap limited the purchase to 277. In December 2004, the Department of Defense reduced procurement funding so only 183 aircraft could be bought.[ Sony PCG-71911L Battery
36] The Pentagon stated the reduction to 183 fighters would save $15 billion but raise the cost of each aircraft; this was implemented in the form of a multi-year procurement plan, which allowed for further orders later. The total cost of the program by 2006 was $62 billion.[24] Sony SVE151J11L Battery

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In April 2006, the cost of the F-22 was assessed by the Government Accountability Office to be $361 million per aircraft. By April 2006, $28 billion had been invested in F-22 development and testing; while the Unit Procurement Cost was estimated at $177.6 million in 2006, based on a production run of 181 aircraft.[37Sony SVE171C11L Battery
Sony SVE171E11L Battery][38] It was estimated by the end of production, $34 billion will have been spent on procurement, resulting in a total program cost of $62 billion, around $339 million per aircraft. The incremental cost for an additional F-22 was estimated at about $138 million.[24][3Sony SVE171E12L Battery

Sony PCG-61211L Battery9] In March 2012, the GAO increased the estimated cost to $412 million per aircraft.[40][41]



Two F-22 Raptors line up for refueling during their first official deployment, October 2005

On 31 July 2007, Lockheed Martin received a multi-year contract for 60 F-22s worth a total of $7.3 billion.[42][ Sony SVE171G112 Battery

Sony PCG-71216L Battery43] The contract brought the number of F-22s on order to 183 and extended production through 2011.[42] If production were restarted the cost for another 75 aircraft was estimated in 2009 to be an extra $70 million per unit.[44] Sony PCG-61713L Battery
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Ban on exports[edit]

No opportunity for export currently exists because the export sale of the F-22 is barred by American federal law.[45] Current customers for U.S. fighters are either acquiring earlier designs such as the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, Sony PCG-91112L Battery
Sony PCG-71312L Battery
General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, and Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, or are waiting to acquire the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II (Joint Strike Fighter), which contains technology from the F-22 but is designed to be cheaper, more flexible, Sony PCG-71311L Battery

Sony PCG-71215L Batteryand available for export.[46] The F-35 will not be as agile as the F-22 or fly as high or as fast, but its radar and avionics will be more advanced.[47] On 27 September 2006, Congress upheld the ban on foreign sales of the F-22; Sony PCG-71218L Battery
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Sony PCG-71212L Battery [48] and confirmed this in December 2006.[49]

The Japanese government showed interest in the F-22 for its Replacement-Fighter program.[50] However, a sale would need approval from the Pentagon, State Department and Congress. It was stated that the F-22 would decrease the number of fighters needed by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF), Sony PCG-71313L Battery

Sony PCG-71211L Batteryreducing engineering and staffing costs. In August 2009, it was reported that the F-22 would require increases to the military budget beyond the historic 1 percent of GDP.[51] In June 2009, Japanese Defense Minister Yasukazu Hamada said Japan still sought the F-22.[52Sony PCG-71315L Battery

Sony PCG-71318L Battery]

Some Australian politicians and defense commentators have proposed that Australia should purchase F-22s instead of the F-35.[53][ Sony PCG-71316L Battery
Sony PCG-71317L Battery54] In 2006, Kim Beazley, leader of the Australian Labor Party supported this proposal on the grounds that the F-22 is a proven, highly capable aircraft, while the F-35 is still under development.[5Sony PCG-61311L Battery

Sony PCG-61317L Battery5] However, Australia’s Howard government ruled out purchase of the F-22, as its release for export is unlikely, and lacks sufficient ground/maritime strike capacity.[56] The following year, Sony PCG-61312L Battery
the newly elected Rudd Government ordered a review of plans to procure the F-35 and F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, including an evaluation of the F-22′s suitability. The then Defence Minister Joel Fitzgibbon stated: Sony PCG-61315L Battery
Sony PCG-61316L Battery “I intend to pursue American politicians for access to the Raptor”.[57] In February 2008, U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates said he had no objection to F-22 sales to Australia.[58] However, the RAAF found that the “F-22 Raptor cannot perform the strike or close air support roles planned for the JSF.”[59] Sony PCG-3B1L Battery
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“The IAF would be happy to equip itself with 24 F-22s, but the problem at this time is the U.S. refusal to sell the aircraft, and its $200 million price tag.”
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Israeli Air Force (IAF) chief procurement officer Brigadier-General Ze’ev Snir.[60]

Thomas Crimmins of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy speculated in 2009 that the F-22 could be a strong diplomatic tool for Israel, strengthening the capability to strike Iranian nuclear facilities.[6Sony PCG-3B3L Battery
1] Crimmins also stated the F-22 may be the only aircraft able to evade Russian S-300 air defense systems, which Russia may sell to Iran.[62] However, Lockheed Martin has stated that the F-35 can handle the S-300, additionally Russia has stated they support and voted for United Nations sanctions on Iran preventing sales of the S-300.[63][ Sony PCG-3B4L Battery

Sony PCG-3F3L Battery64]

The 2010 defense authorization bill included provisions that required the DoD to prepare a report on the costs and feasibility for an F-22 export variant and another report on the impact of F-22 export sales on the U.S. aerospace industry.[65][66Sony PCG-3C2L Battery

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Production termination[edit]

In 2006, David M. Walker, Comptroller General of the United States at the time, found that “the DoD has not demonstrated the need or value for making further investments in the F-22A program.”[6
Sony PCG-3F1L Battery7] During the two-month grounding of nearly 700 older F-15s in 2007, some U.S. Senators demanded Deputy Secretary of Defense Gordon R. England release three government reports supporting additional F-22s beyond the planned 183 jets.[6Sony PCG-3C3L Battery

Sony PCG-3E3L Battery8] In December 2007, the USAF requested continued production beyond the planned 183 F-22s.[69]



Two F-22A Raptors in close trail formation

In January 2008, the Pentagon announced that it would ask Congress to fund additional F-22s to replace other aircraft lost in combat, Sony PCG-3D3L Battery
Sony PCG-3D4L Battery and proposed that $497 million that would have been used to shut down the F-22 line be instead used to buy four extra F-22s, leaving the production line open beyond 2011 and allowing the next administration an option to buy more F-22s.[70] Funds earmarked for line shutdown were redirected to repairs upon the F-15 fleet, delaying the end of F-22 production.[71] Sony PCG-9Z1L Battery

On 24 September 2008, Congress passed a defense spending bill funding continued production of the F-22.[72] On 12 November 2008, the Pentagon released $50 million of the $140 million approved by Congress to buy parts for an additional four aircraft, thus leaving the Raptor program in the hands of the incoming Obama Administration.[73Sony PCG-9Z2L Battery
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] On 6 April 2009, Secretary of Defense Gates called for the phasing out of F-22 production in fiscal year 2011, leaving the USAF with a production run of 187 fighters, minus losses.[11] F-35 acquisition would be accelerated.[74] Sony PCG-7142L Battery
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[75] On 17 June 2009 the House Armed Services Committee inserted $368.8 million in the budget towards a further 12 F-22s in FY 2011.[76]

On 9 July 2009, General James Cartwright, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, explained to the U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services his reasons for supporting termination of F-22 Sony PCG-7152L Battery

Sony PCG-8131L Battery production. He stated that fifth-generation fighters need to be proliferated to all three services by shifting resources to the multirole F-35. He noted that commanders had concerns regarding electronic warfare (EW) Sony PCG-7153L Battery

Sony PCG-7185L Battery capabilities, and that keeping the F/A-18 production line “hot” offered a fallback option to the F-35 in the EA-18G Growler.[7Sony PCG-7154L Battery

Sony PCG-7184L Battery7] By mid-2009, leaked reports from the Pentagon to The Washington Post made it apparent that the F-22 was suffering from poor reliability and availability performance, specifically an average of one critical failure for every 1.7 flying hours and 30 hours of maintenance for every hour of flight.[46] Sony PCG-7161L Battery

“The Pentagon cannot continue with business as usual when it comes to the F-22 or any other program in excess of our needs.”


Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, speaking on the cancellation.[78][79]

On 21 July 2009, President Obama threatened to veto further F-22 production.[80][81] On 21 July 2009, the Senate voted in favor of ending F-22 production. Secretary Gates said that the decision to end production was taken in light of the F-35′s capabilities.[8Sony PCG-7162L Battery
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Sony PCG-7182L Battery
Sony PCG-7183L Battery2] On 29 July 2009, the Air National Guard’s director asked for “60 to 70″ F-22s for air sovereignty missions, noting that these could lack capabilities such as ground attack.[83] On 30 July 2009, the House agreed to remove funds for an additional 12 aircraft and abide by the 187 cap.[8Sony PCG-7172L Battery

Sony PCG-7181L Battery4] In mid-2010, Gates reduced the F-22 requirement from 243 to 187 aircraft, by lowering the preparations for two major regional conflicts to one.[8Sony PCG-7174L Battery

5] President Obama signed the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 in October 2009, without F-22 funding.[86][87] Sony PCG-7173L Battery

In 2010, RAND estimated that restarting production and building an additional 75 Raptors would cost a total of $17 billion or $227 million per aircraft; shutting down and restarting production two years later would add $54 million to the average cost.[ Sony PCG-21313L Battery

Sony PCG-81411L Battery88] Lockheed Martin stated that restarting the production line itself would cost about $200 million.[89] The RAND paper was produced as part of an USAF study to determine the costs of retaining F-22 tooling for a future Service Life Extension Program (SLEP).[90Sony PCG-31311L Battery

Sony PCG-81314L Battery] The tooling for F-22 production will be documented in illustrated electronic manuals stored at the Sierra Army Depot.[91]

Russian and Chinese fighter developments have fueled concern; General John Corley, head of Air Combat Command, Sony PCG-41112L Battery

Sony PCG-81313L Batterywrote in a 2009 letter to a senator, “In my opinion, a fleet of 187 F-22s puts execution of our current national military strategy at high risk in the near- to mid-term”. But Gates replied “Nonsense”.[9Sony PCG-51111L Battery

Sony PCG-81312L Battery2] On 8 January 2011, Gates clarified that Chinese fifth-generation fighter developments had been accounted when the number of F-22s was set, and that the United States would have a considerable advantage in stealth aircraft in 2025, Sony PCG-51113L Battery

Sony PCG-81214L Battery
Sony PCG-81311L Battery even with F-35 delays.[93][94] On 11 January 2011, China’s J-20 stealth aircraft made its first flight,[95] leading to speculation on the reactivation of F-22 production;[96][97][98] Sony PCG-51211L Battery

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In December 2011, the 195th and final F-22 was completed (out of 8 test and 187 combat aircraft produced).[99]

Because of the limited production run, there are zero attrition reserve aircraft and extra care is given at the Hill Air Force Base F-22 maintenance center to keep the entire fleet operational. Lockheed’s retained tooling will be used to produce additional parts, if needed.[100] Sony PCG-51311L Battery

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On 5 January 2001, Raptor 4005 flew with the Block 3.0 software, which was the first combat-capable avionics version.[1Sony PCG-51312L Battery

Sony PCG-81112L Battery01] In June 2009, Increment 3.1 was tested at Edwards Air Force Base. This provided a basic ground-attack capability through synthetic-aperture radar mapping, electronic attack and the GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb. Sony PCG-51411L Battery
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Sony PCG-81111L Battery The Increment 3.1 Modification Team with the 412th Test Wing received the Chief of Staff Team Excellence Award for upgrading 149 Raptors.[102][103] The fleet upgrade should start at the end of 2011. Sony PCG-51511L Battery

Sony PCG-71111L Battery [104] An additional $808 million will be spent in 2013 to implement the 3.1 upgrade.[105] The first upgraded aircraft were delivered in early 2012.[106]

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F-22 Raptor, Andrews Air Force Base

Increment 3.2 was to add an improved SDB capability, an automatic ground collision avoidance system for low level operations (no longer planned) and enable use of the AIM-9X Sidewinder and AIM-120D AMRAAM missiles. Sony PCG-61412L Battery

However, a helmet mounted cueing system has been deferred by technical issues.[107][108] Increment 3.2 was expected to be fielded in FY15,[109] possibly including the Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL).[110][111Sony VPCF115FM battery
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] In July 2009, the USAF announced the modification of three business jets with the interim Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN) to allow communication between F-22s and other platforms until MADL is installed.[11Sony VPCF11MFX battery

Sony VPCF119HX battery2] In March 2010, the USAF accelerated software portions of the Increment 3.2 upgrades to be completed in FY 2013, Sony VPCF11FGX battery

Sony VPCF114FX batteryother upgrades will be completed later.[113] Upgrading the first 183 aircraft to the 3.2 upgrade is estimated to cost $8 billion.[114] In May 2009, General Norton Schwartz and Air Force Secretary Michael B. Donley gave testimony to Congress that this would be paid for through the early retirement of legacy fighters.[1Sony VPCF113FX battery
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Sony VPCF11PFX battery15] A total of 249 fourth-generation fighters were retired during Fiscal Year 2010.[116] On 16 September 2009, Gates said “Our commitment to this aircraft is underscored by the 6 and-a half billion dollars… to upgrade the existing F-22 fleet to be fully mission-capable.”[117] Sony VPCF11DGX battery

The USAF opened the Raptor enhancement, development and integration (REDI) contract to other bidders in January 2011 with a total budget of $16 billion.[118] On 18 November 2011, the upgrade contract with Lockheed Martin was increased bySony VPCF117FX battery

Sony VPCF11HGX battery  $1.4 billion to a maximum value of $7.4 billion. This increment opens the way for further upgrades in 2012.[119][120Sony VPCF112FX battery
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Sony VPCF11BFX battery][121] The $11.7 billion allocated for the planned upgrades to the 3.2B level (of which $5.5 billion has been spent) includes almost $2 billion for structural repairs and reliability issues, Sony VPCF11CGX battery

Sony VPCF11AFX battery but does not include related infrastructure costs. One of the goals of the reliability costs is to raise the fleet availability rate from its current level of 55.5% to 70.6% by 2015. The 3.2C level upgrades will be bid out as a separate project.[122] Sony VPCF116FX battery

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Lockheed Martin has proposed upgrades to add capabilities from the newer F-35.[123] Elements such as MADL are delayed until the F-35 program is completed to reduce risk.[124] One upgrade from the F-35 is new high-durability stealth coatings to lower maintenance.[1Sony VPCF111FX battery

Sony VPCF119GX battery25] The Ada software language was blamed for slow progress and increased costs on the program, leading to a reorganization in 2011.[126] Increment 3.2A in 2014 focuses on electronic warfare,
Sony VPCF11NFX batterycommunications and identification. Increment 3.2B in 2017 will support the AIM-9X and AIM-120D missiles. Increment 3.2C in 2019 may migrate some avionics to an open platform, allowing features to be added by various companies.[127] Sony VPCF11GGX battery Lockheed Martin is working on upgrading the AN/AAR-56 Missile Launch Detector (MLD) to provide situational awareness and defensive Infrared Search and Track similar to the F-35′s SAIRST.[128] sony VPCEB3AFM battery


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The current upgrade schedule is:

Increment 3.1 now entering service adds capabilities for SDB, SAR, and electronic attack.

Update 4 in 2012 will add a rudimentary capability for the AIM-120D.

Increment 3.2A will be fielded in 2014 with Link 16 and electronic warfare improvements. (The Link 16 receive capability has been moved up to 2013.)[129] sony VPCEB42FM battery


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Also by May 30, 2015 an automatic backup oxygen supply will be installed on all aircraft.[130][131]

Update 5 in 2015 will add an initial capability for the AIM-9X.

In 2016 the fleet will be upgraded to 36 Block 20 training aircraft and 149 Block 30/35 operational aircraft.


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Increment 3.2B in 2018 will add full capability for the air-to-air missiles, and “significantly improved ground threat geolocation”. This schedule has slipped seven years because of “requirements and funding instability”.[13sony VPCEA24FM battery


sony VPCEB17FX battery2] Because of this delay the upgrade will be applied to fielded aircraft that have already consumed a significant fraction of their useful airframe lifespan.[133][134]

Increment 3.2C was renamed 3.3 and while it is still being defined,[135] it will include air traffic control updates.[136sony VPCEA46FM battery


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Features not currently planned for addition or upgrades include:

The previously planned side-mounted AESA radar arrays

Infrared search and track (IRST) sony VPCEA36FM battery


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Helmet-mounted sight

Powered air to surface missiles, the GBU-53 Small Diameter Bomb II, or other systems capable of engaging moving ground targets[137]

Because of these limitations, the Raptor will be unable to use the off-boresite and lock-on after launch features of its missiles.[138] sony VPCEB33FMbattery


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The Raptor were designed with a lifespan of 30 years and 8000 flight hours, but to achieve this goal required a $100 million “structures retrofit program”.[139] Investigations are being made for upgrades to extend their useful lives further.[140][141sony VPCEB32FMbattery


sony VPCEB11GX battery The F-22 is expected to eventually be replaced by the fighter from the Next Generation Air Dominance program.[142]

While no definitive, single cause has been found for the frequent oxygen deprivation issues that has resulted in several incidents, including a fatal crash, sony VPCEB11FM battery

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sony VPCEB13FX batterythe F-22 will be upgraded with a 10 pound backup oxygen system, software upgrades and oxygen sensors to allow the pilots to operate normally in spite of the problem.[143] Due to frequent stand downs during the investigation, the F-22 fleet averaged less than eight flight hours per month over 2011.[1sony VPCEH14FM battery

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sony VPCEB14FX battery44] In early 2013 the faulty flight vest valves will be replaced in the field, lifting the altitude restrictions, and once a backup oxygen system is installed the distance restrictions will be lifted, allowing F-22s to resume their air sovereignty missions over Alaska.[145]


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In February 2013 Lockheed’s upgrade contract was modified to include the 3.2B features. This brought the total upgrade cost for the fleet to $6.9 billion (including work already done) and the upgrade work is expected to be completed by 2023. sony VPCEH3BFM battery

sony VPCEH35FM battery The 3.2C features were moved to a 3.3 upgrade to be decided later.[146]

The USAF was to evaluate the Visionix Scorpion helmet-mounted cueing system (HMCS) for use on the F-22 in order to enable the use of high off-boresight missile launches,[14sony SVE1513MCXS battery


sony SVE1511HFXW battery7] however this was canceled when the US House failed to find the needed revenues to offset sequestration.[148]


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Rear view of jet aircraft in-flight at dawn/dusk above mountains. Its engines are in full afterburner, evident through the presence of shock diamonds.

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F-22 Raptor flying with its F119-PW-100 engines on full afterburner

The F-22 Raptor is a fifth generation fighter that is considered a fourth-generation stealth aircraft by the USAF.[1sony SVE15138CXS battery


sony SVE1511CFXS battery49] Its dual afterburning Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 turbofans incorporate pitch axis thrust vectoring, with a range of ±20 degrees. The maximum thrust is classified, though most sources place it at about 35,000 lbf (156 kN) sony SVE15132CXS battery

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sony SVE1511BGXS battery per engine.[150] Maximum speed, without external weapons, is estimated to be Mach 1.82 in supercruise mode,[151] as demonstrated by General John P. Jumper, former U.S. Air Force Chief of Staff, when his Raptor exceeded Mach 1.7 without afterburners on 13 January 2005.[152sony SVE15125CXS battery


sony SVE1511AFXS battery] With afterburners, it is “greater than Mach 2.0″ (greater than 1,327 mph, 2,135 km/h). Former Lockheed chief test pilot Paul Metz stated that the Raptor has a fixed inlet, as opposed to variable intake ramps, and that the F-22 has a greater climb rate than the F-15, despite the F-15′s higher thrust-to-weight ratio of 1.2:1sony SVE15115MFXS battery

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sony SVE15135CXS battery  (the F-22 has a ratio closer to 1:1).[153] The U.S. Air Force claims that the Raptor cannot be matched by any known or projected fighter types,[6] and Lockheed Martin claims: “the F-22 is the only aircraft that blends supercruise speed, super-agility, stealth and sensor fusion into a single air dominance platform.”[154] sony SVE15126CXS battery

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File:F-22 Raptor.ogg


F-22 Raptor flight demonstration video

The ability of airframes to withstand both stress and heat is a major design factor, thus the F-22 makes use of various materials. High strength titanium and composites are used much more extensively than previous fighters at 39% and 24% respectively.[ sony SVE15112FXS battery

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155] The use of internal weapons bays allows the aircraft to maintain a comparatively higher performance while carrying a heavy payload over many other aircraft due to a lack of drag from external stores. It is one of only a few aircraft that can supercruisesony SVE15115FXS battery


sony SVE1522CX battery  or sustain supersonic flight without the use of afterburners, which consume vastly more fuel. The F-22 can intercept time-critical or rapidly moving targets that a subsonic aircraft would not have the speed to follow and an afterburner-dependent aircraft would lack fuel to reach.[156] sony SVE151190X battery


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The F-22 is highly maneuverable, at both supersonic and subsonic speeds. It is extremely departure-resistant,[15sony SVE1511NFXS battery

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sony SVE151290X battery7] enabling it to remain controllable at extreme pilot inputs. The Raptor’s thrust vectoring nozzles allow the aircraft to turn tightly, and perform extremely high alpha (angle of attack) maneuvers such as the Herbst maneuver (or J-turn), Pugachev’s Cobra,[153] and the Kulbit.[15sony SVE1512JCXW battery


sony SVE15128CXS battery3] The F-22 is also capable of maintaining a constant angle of attack of over 60° while maintaining some control of roll.[153sony SVE1512KCXS battery


sony SVE1513JCXW battery][158] During June 2006 exercises in Alaska, F-22 pilots demonstrated that cruise altitude has a significant effect on combat performance, and routinely attributed their altitude advantage as a major factor in achieving an unblemished kill ratio against other U.S. fighters and 4th/4.5th generation fighters.[159] sony SVE1513APXS battery

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The F-22 has a unique combination of speed, altitude, agility, sensor fusion and stealth that all work together to increase its effectiveness. sony SVE1713ACXB battery

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Altitude plus advanced active and passive electronic warfare systems allow the F-22 to spot targets for its own weapons at considerable ranges. Altitude plus speed increases the reach of the F-22′s own weapons. Altitude naturally increases the range from ground based defenses, sony SVE1713CCXB battery


sony SVE171290X batterywhich increases the effectiveness of stealth, and when combined with speed reduces the time defensive systems have to react to the F-22′s attacks.[160][161][162][163]

Avionics[edit] sony SVE1713DCXB battery


The F-22′s avionics include BAE Systems E&IS radar warning receiver (RWR) AN/ALR-94,[164] AN/AAR 56 Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet MAWS (Missile Approach Warning System) and the Northrop Grumman AN/APG-77 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar. sony SVE1713ECXB battery


sony SVE17135CXB battery The AN/ALR-94 is a passive receiver system to detect radar signals; composed of more than 30 antennas blended into the wings and fuselage that provide all around coverage. It was described by Tom Burbage, sony SVE1712ACXB battery

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former F-22 program head at Lockheed Martin, as “the most technically complex piece of equipment on the aircraft.” It has a greater range (250+ nmi) than the radar, allowing the F-22 to limit its own radar emissions to maximise stealth. sony SVE17122CXB battery

As a target approaches, the receiver can cue the AN/APG-77 radar to track the target with a narrow beam, which can be as focused down to 2° by 2° in azimuth and elevation.[165]

Two personnel in white apparel handing a radar

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The AN/APG-77 AESA radar

The AN/APG-77 radar, designed for air superiority and strike operations, features a low-observable, active-aperture, electronically-scanned array that can track multiple targets in any weather. sony SVE17125CXB battery

The AN/APG-77 changes frequencies more than 1,000 times per second to lower interception probability. Additionally, radar emissions can be focused in an electronic-attack capability to overload enemy sensors.[166][167] Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery

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The radar’s information is processed by two Raytheon Common Integrated Processor (CIP)s. Each CIP can process 10.5 billion instructions per second and has 300 megabytes of memory. Information can be gathered from the radar and other onboard and offboard systems, filtered by the CIP, and offered in easy-to-digest ways on several cockpit displays, enabling the pilot to remain on top of complicated situations. Sony VGP-BPL14/B Battery


Sony VGP-BPL26 BatteryThe F-22′s avionics software has some 1.7 million lines of code, the majority involving processing data from the radar.[168] The radar has an estimated range of 125–150 miles, though planned upgrades will allow a range of 250 miles (400 km) or more in narrow beams.[15Sony VGP-BPL14B Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS26A Battery9] In 2007, tests by Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, and L-3 Communications enabled the AESA system of a Raptor to act like a WiFi access point, able to transmit data at 548 megabits per second and receive at gigabit speed; Sony VGP-BPL21 Battery

this is far faster than the Link 16 system used by U.S. and allied aircraft, which transfers data at just over 1 Mbit/s.[169] Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

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The F-22 has a threat detection and identification capability comparative with the RC-135 Rivet Joint.[159] The F-22′s stealth allows it to safely operate far closer to the battlefield, compensating for the reduced capability.[15Sony VGP-BPS10 Battery

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Sony VGP-BPL22 Battery9] The F-22 is capable of functioning as a “mini-AWACS”, however the radar is less powerful than dedicated platforms such as the E-3 Sentry.[153] The F-22 allows its pilot to designate targets for cooperating F-15s and F-16s, and determine whether two friendly aircraft are targeting the same aircraft.[153][1Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery59] This radar system can sometimes identify targets “many times quicker than the AWACS”.[159] The radar is capable of high-bandwidth data transmission; conventional radio “chatter” can be reduced via these alternative means.[159] Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS22 Battery The IEEE-1394B data bus developed for the F-22 was derived from the commercial IEEE-1394 “FireWire” bus system.[170] Sensor fusion combines data from all onboard and offboard sensors into a common view to prevent the pilot from being overwhelmed.[171]

In a critical article former Navy Secretary John Lehman wrote “[a]t least [the F-22s] are safe from cyberattack. Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS21A/B BatteryNo one in China knows how to program the ’83 vintage IBM software that runs them.”[172] Former Secretary of the USAF Michael Wynne blamed the use of the DoD’s Ada as a reason for cost overruns and schedule slippages on many major military projects, including the F-22 Raptor.[17Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

3] The F-22 uses the INTEGRITY-178B operating system from Green Hills Software, which is also used on the F-35, several commercial airliners and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle.[174]


Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery However cyberattacks on Lockheed Martin’s subcontractors have raised doubts about the security of the F-22′s systems and its usefulness in combat as a result.[175]

Herbert J. Carlisle has said that the F-22 can datalink with the Tomahawk (missile).[176]

Cockpit[edit] Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery

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Cockpit of the F-22, showing instruments, head up display and throttle top (lower left)

The F-22 features a glass cockpit with no analog flight instruments.[177] The primary flight controls are a force-sensitive side-stick controller and a pair of throttles. Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS21A BatteryThe monochrome head-up display offers a wide field of view and serves as a primary flight instrument for the pilot; information is also displayed upon six color liquid crystal display (LCD) panels.[17Sony VGP-BSP13/S Battery


Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery7] The canopy’s dimensions are approximately 140 inches long, 45 inches wide, and 27 inches tall (355 cm x 115 cm x 69 cm) and weighs 360 pounds.[1Sony VGP-BPS14/B Battery


Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery78] In August 2006, the Air Force Packaging Technology Engineering Facility (AFPTEF) was tasked with the design of a new shipping and storage container for the fragile F-22 Canopy.[17Sony VGP-BPS14 Battery


Sony VGP-BPS15/S Battery9]

The Raptor has integrated radio functionality for communicating on standard frequencies, the signal processing systems are virtualised rather than a separated hardware module.[180] Radio functions are inactive during the strictest emissions control protocols Sony VGP-BPS14B Battery

Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery (EMCON level) to maintain stealth; at lower EMCON levels the pilot may use the radio at will.[citation needed] There has been several media reports on the F-22′s inability to communicate with other aircraft and funding cuts on integrating the new datalinking standard, MADL.[181][1Sony VGP-BPS14/S Battery

82] Voice communication is possible, but not data transfer yet.[183] However, the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS), the software-defined radio project, was cancelled in October 2011 (before delivery to the F-22).[184] Sony VGP-BPL14 battery

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The integrated control panel (ICP) is a keypad system for entering communications, navigation, and autopilot data. Two 3 × 4 in (7.6 × 10 cm) up-front displays located around the ICP are used to display integrated caution advisory/warning data, communications, navigation and identification (CNI) data[185Sony VGP-BPL14/S battery

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Sony VGP-BPS14/B battery] and also serve as the stand-by flight instrumentation group and fuel quantity indicator.[186] The stand-by flight group displays an artificial horizon, for basic instrument meteorological conditions. The 8 × 8 in (20 × 20 cm) primary multi-function display (PMFD) is located under the ICP, Sony VGP-BPS14/B battery

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Sony VGP-BPS14 battery and is used for navigation and situation assessment.[186] Three 6.25 × 6.25 in (15.9 × 15.9 cm) secondary multi-function displays are located around the PMFD for tactical information and stores management.[186] Sony VGP-BPL12 battery

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The ejection seat is a version of the ACES II (Advanced Concept Ejection Seat) commonly used in USAF aircraft, with a center-mounted ejection control.[187] The F-22 has a complex life support system. Components include the on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS), Sony VGP-BPS12/Q battery

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protective pilot garments, and a breathing regulator/anti-g valve controlling flow and pressure to the pilot’s mask and garments. The protective garments are designed to protect against chemical/biological hazards and cold-water immersion, Sony vgp-bpsc24 battery

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Sony VGP-BPL14/B battery to counter g-forces and low pressure at high altitudes, and to provide thermal relief. It was developed under the Advanced Technology Anti-G Suit (ATAGS) project.[188] Suspicions regarding the performance of the OBOGS and life support equipment have been raised by several mishaps, including a fatal crash.[189] Sony VGP-BPS12 battery


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The USAF initially wanted the aircraft to use direct voice input (DVI) controls. This was finally judged too technically risky and was abandoned.[190] Sony PCG-51113L Battery

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ArmamentThe Raptor has three internal weapons bays: a large bay on the bottom of the fuselage, and two smaller bays on the sides of the fuselage, aft of the engine intakes.[191] It can carry six compressed-carriage medium range missiles[19Sony VGP-BPS12/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPS20/B battery2] in the center bay and one short range missile in each of the two side bays. Four of the medium range missiles can be replaced with two bomb racks that can each carry one medium-size bomb or four small diameter bombs.[16Sony VGP-BPS20 battery

Sony VGP-BPL20 battery1] Carrying missiles and bombs internally maintains its stealth capability and maintains lower drag resulting in higher top speeds and longer combat ranges. Sony PCG-51311L Battery


Sony PCG-71111L Battery Launching missiles requires opening the weapons bay doors for less than a second, while the missiles are pushed clear of the airframe by hydraulic arms. Sony VGP-BPS26 battery


Sony VGP-BPS22A batteryThis reduces the Raptor’s chance of detection by enemy radar systems due to launched ordnance and also allows the F-22 to launch long range missiles while maintaining supercruise.[19Sony VGP-BPL26 battery


Sony VGP-BPL22 battery3] The F-22 can also carry air-to-surface weapons such as bombs with Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) guidance and the Small-Diameter Bomb, but cannot self-designate for laser-guided weapons.[13Sony VGP-BPS26A battery

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Sony VGP-BPS22 battery7] Air-to-surface ordnance is limited to 2,000 lb (compared to 17,000 lb of F/A-18).[194] The Raptor has an M61A2 Vulcan 20 mm cannon in the right wing root. The M61A2 carries 480 rounds; Sony PCG-51312L Battery

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Sony PCG-61412L Batteryenough ammunition for approximately five seconds of sustained fire. The opening for the cannon’s firing barrel is covered by a door when not in use to maximise stealth.[1Sony VGP-BPL22 battery

95] The F-22 has been able to close to gun range in training dogfights while avoiding detection.[153] The cannon fire is tracked by the aircraft’s radar and displayed on the pilot’s head up display.[196]

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Sony VGP-BPS26A batteryFor stealth, the F-22 carries weapons in internal bays. The doors for the center bay and smaller side bays are open showing the six LAU-142/A AMRAAM Vertical Ejection Launchers (AVEL). Sony VGP-BPS26 battery

The Raptor’s very high sustained cruise speed and operational altitude add significantly to the effective range of both air-to-air and air-to-surface munitions. This gives it a 40% greater employment range for air to air missiles than the F-35.[19Sony VGP-BPL26 battery

7] The USAF plans to procure the AIM-120D AMRAAM, reported to have a 50% increase in range compared to the AIM-120C. Sony PCG-51412L Battery

Sony PCG-51513L Battery While specific figures remain classified, it is expected that JDAMs employed by F-22s will have twice or more the effective range of munitions dropped by legacy

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platforms.[198] In testing, a Raptor dropped a 1,000 lb (450 kg) unpowered, free-fall JDAM from 50,000 feet (15,000 m), while cruising at Mach 1.5, striking a moving target 24 miles (39 km) away.[199]

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This reach advantage of the F-22 has been cited by Robert Gottliebsen as sufficient reason for Australia to reject the F-35 in favor of a F-22 that has been updated with F-35 systems.[200] Sony PCG-51511L Battery

While the F-22 typically carries its weapons internally, the wings include four hardpoints, each rated to handle 5,000 lb (2,300 kg). Sony VPCSA2Z9E battery
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Each hardpoint has a pylon that can carry a detachable 600 gallon fuel tank or a launcher holding two air-air missiles. However, the use of external stores has a detrimental effect on the F-22′s stealth, maneuverability and speed. Sony SVS13AA11M battery

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Sony PCG-41215M battery The two inner hardpoints are “plumbed” for external fuel tanks; the hardpoints can be jettisoned in flight so the fighter can maximize its stealth after exhausting external stores.[201] A stealth ordnance pod and pylon is being developed to carry additional weapons internally.[202] Sony SVS131B12M battery
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The stealth of the F-22 is due to a combination of factors, including the overall shape of the aircraft, the use of radar absorbent material (RAM), and attention to detail such as hinges and pilot helmets that could provide a radar return.[2Sony SVS151A12M battery
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Sony PCG-41214M battery03] However, reduced radar cross section is one of five facets of presence reduction addressed in the designing of the F-22. The F-22 was designed to disguise its infrared emissions, reducing the threat of infrared homing (“heat seeking”) Sony SVS1311P9EB battery

Sony PCG-41414M batterysurface-to-air or air-to-air missiles, including its flat thrust vectoring nozzles.[204] The aircraft was designed to be less visible to the naked eye; radio, heat and noise emissions are equally controlled.[203]

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Sony PCG-41218M batteryF-22 with external weapons pylons.

The F-22 reportedly relies less on maintenance-intensive radar absorbent coatings than previous stealth designs like the F-117. Sony SVS1511M3EW battery

Sony PCG-41213M battery These materials are susceptible to adverse weather conditions.[205] Unlike the B-2, which requires climate-controlled hangars, the F-22 can undergo repairs on the flight line or in a normal hangar.[205Sony SVS1511N3ES battery

Sony PCG-41211M battery] The F-22 features a Signature Assessment System which delivers warnings when the radar signature is degraded and has necessitated repair.[205] The exact radar cross section (RCS) remains classified; Sony SVS1511T9ES battery
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Sony PCG-4121EM battery however, in 2009 Lockheed Martin released information indicating it to have a RCS (from certain angles) of −40 dBsm – the equivalent radar reflection of a “steel marble”.[206] Effectively maintaining the stealth features can decrease the F-22′s mission capable rate to 62–70%.[N 2] Sony SVS1511V9ES battery

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The effectiveness of the stealth characteristics is difficult to gauge. The RCS value is a restrictive measurement of the aircraft’s frontal or side area from the perspective of a static radar. When an aircraft maneuvers it exposes a completely different set of angles and surface area, potentially increasing visibility. Sony SVS1511W9EB battery

Sony VPCSE2V9E batteryFurthermore, stealth contouring and radar absorbent materials are chiefly effective against high-frequency radars, Sony VPCSA3Q9E battery
Sony VPCSE2F1E battery usually found on other aircraft. Low-frequency radars, employed by weather radars and ground warning stations, Sony VPCSB4S9E battery
are alleged to be less affected by stealth technologies and are thus more capable as detection platforms.[208Sony PCG-31114M battery
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][209] Rebecca Grant states that while faint or fleeting radar contacts make defenders aware that a stealth aircraft is present, interception cannot be reliably vectored to attack the aircraft.[210] Sony SVE1511F1E battery
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The F-22 also includes measures designed to minimize its detection by infrared, including special paint and active cooling of leading edges to deal with the heat buildup encountered during supercruise flight.[211]

Operational history[edit]

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Designation and testing[edit]

Rear/starboard view of aerial refueling tanker transferring fuel to a jet fighter via a long boom. The two aircraft are slightly banking left.

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An F-22 refuels from a KC-135 during testing; the attachment on the back top is for a spin recovery chute

The YF-22 was originally given the unofficial name “Lightning II”, after the World War II fighter P-38, by Lockheed, which persisted until the mid-1990s when the USAF officially named the aircraft “Raptor”. Sony SVE1511P1E battery
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The aircraft was also briefly dubbed “SuperStar” and “Rapier”.[212] The F-35 later received the Lightning II name on 7 July 2006.[213] In September 2002, Air Force leaders changed the Raptor’s designation to F/A-22. The new designation, mimicking the Navy’s McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, was intended to highlight plans for a ground-attack capability amid intense debate over Sony SVE1511V1E battery
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Sony SVE1511W1ESI battery the relevance of expensive air-superiority jets. The F-22 designation was reinstated on 12 December 2005, when the aircraft entered service.[6][214]

Flight testing of the F-22 began with Raptor 4001, the first engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) jet, Sony SVE1512B1E battery
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Sony SVE1511V1EW battery in 1997. Nine F-22s would participate in the EMD and flight testing program.[215] Raptor 4001 was retired from flight testing in 2000 and was subsequently subjected to live fire at Wright-Patterson AFB to test the fighter’s survivability.[2Sony SVE1512J1E battery
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Sony SVE1511R9ESI battery16] Other EMD F-22s have since been used as maintenance trainers at Tyndall AFB and Langley AFB.[217]

In May 2006, a released report documented a problem with a forward titanium boom on the aircraft. The problem was caused by a manufacturing defect in the heat-treating, making the boom less ductile than specified and potentially shortening the lives of roughly the first 80 F-22s. Modifications were implemented to restore full life expectancy.[218][ Sony SVE1513C5E battery

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Entering service[edit]

On 15 December 2005 the USAF announced that the Raptor had reached its Initial Operational Capability (IOC).[2Sony SVE1513D1E battery

Sony SVE14A1S1EP battery20] During Exercise Northern Edge in Alaska in June 2006, 12 F-22s of the 94th FS downed 108 adversaries with no losses in simulated combat exercises.[24] Sony SVE1513E9E battery

Sony SVE14A1S1EB battery In two weeks of exercises, the Raptor-led Blue Force amassed 241 kills against two losses in air-to-air combat; neither Blue Force loss was an F-22. Shortly after was Red Flag 07-1 in February 2007. Sony SVE1513H1E battery
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Sony SVE1511A1EB battery Fourteen F-22s of the 94th FS supported Blue Force strikes and undertook close air support sorties themselves. Against superior numbers of Red Force Aggressor F-15s and F-16s, 6–8 F-22s maintained air dominance throughout. No sorties were missed because of maintenance or other failures, and only one Raptor was judged lost against the opposing force’s defeat.[N 3] F-22s also provided airborne electronic surveillance.[221] Sony SVE1711R1E battery
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Aerial port view of two aircraft in flight, one on top of the other. The bottom aircraft is a four-engined propeller-driven aircraft, which is escorted by a jet fighter. The Moon is visible as a tiny spot in the sky.
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An F-22 from Elmendorf AFB, Alaska, intercepting a Russian Tupolev Tu-95 near American airspace


While attempting its first overseas deployment to the Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan, on 11 February 2007, six F-22s of 27th Fighter Squadron flying from Hickam AFB, Hawaii, experienced multiple system failures while crossing the International Date Line (or 180th meridian of longitude) caused by software errors.[222][2Sony SVE1711X1E battery
Sony SVE1712Z1E battery23][224] The fighters were able to return to Hawaii by following tanker aircraft. Within 48 hours, the error was resolved and the journey resumed.[2Sony SVE1712Q1E battery
24] 90th Fighter Squadron performed the first F-22 NORAD interception of two Russian Tu-95MS ‘Bear-H’ bombers over Alaska on 22 November 2007.[225] Since then, F-22s have also escorted probing Tu-160 “Blackjack” strategic bombers.[226] Sony VPCEA3S1R Battery


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On 12 December 2007, General John D.W. Corley, USAF, Commander of Air Combat Command, officially declared the F-22s of the integrated active duty 1st Fighter Wing and Virginia Air National Guard 192d Fighter Wing fully operational, three years after the first Raptor arrived at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia.[2Sony SVE171A11M battery


Sony PCG-41314M battery27] This was followed by an Operational Readiness Inspection (ORI) of the integrated wing from 13 to 19 April 2008; it was rated “excellent” in all categories, with a simulated kill-ratio of 221–0.[22Sony SVE151C11M battery
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Sony PCG-41313M battery8] The first pair of Raptors assigned to the 49th Fighter Wing became operational at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, on 2 June 2008.[229] Sony SVE1711K1EW battery

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In December 2007, Secretary of the Air Force Michael Wynne requested that the F-22 be deployed to the Middle East; Secretary of Defense Gates rejected this option.[230] Time suggested part of the reason for it not being used in the 2011 military intervention in Libya may have been its high unit cost.[231]

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An F-22 observes as an F-15 Eagle banks left. The F-22 is intended to replace the F-15C/D

On 28 August 2008, an unmodified F-22 from the 411th Flight Test Squadron performed in the first ever air-to-air refueling of an aircraft using synthetic jet fuel. Sony SVE1711X1EB battery
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Sony VPCCA2S1E battery The test was a part of a wider USAF effort to qualify aircraft to use the fuel, a 50/50 mix of JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch process-produced, natural gas-based fuel.[232] Then in 2011 a Raptor made a supersonic flight on a 50% mixture of biofuel derived from camelina.[23Sony SVE1511G1ESI battery
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Sony VPCCA3S1E battery3]

In April 2012, the U.S. military deployed several F-22s to an allied base less than 200 miles from Iran.[234] The Iranian defense minister called the deployment of stealth fighters to the UAE a security threat.[235] The F-22s returned to the U.S. in January 2013 after the nine-month deployment.[236]

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On 14 January 2013, 12 F-22 Raptors and 300 staff arrived at Kadena Air Base in Okinawa. It is the seventh deployment since 2007 and will last four months.[237] Sony SVE1511S1EW battery

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On 31 March 2013, a senior U.S. official confirmed F-22 Raptors had been deployed to Osan Air Base in South Korea from Japan to support ongoing U.S.-South Korean military Key Resolve/Foal Eagle drills.[238] Sony SVE1511S1ESI battery

On 17 September 2013, the Air Force revealed that an F-22 Raptor had previously chased off an Iranian fighter over the Persian Gulf. In March 2013, an Iranian F-4 Phantom II flew within 16 miles of an MQ-1 Predator flying off Iran’s coast, Sony SVE1511S1EB battery
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Sony SVE1511J1EW batteryescorted by previously “undisclosed” fighters. The Raptor was flown by Air Force Reservist Lt. Col. Kevin “Showtime” Sutterfield. The Raptor used its stealth to fly under the Phantom to look at its weapons load. Sony SVE1511H1EW battery
Sony SVE1511H1ESI batteryIt then pulled up next to its left wing and told the Iranian “to go home”. The confrontation is the first publicized engagement involving the F-22 and military forces of Iran. Air Force officials have not confirmed the location of a Raptor base, but maintains it has one located in Southwest Asia.[239] Sony PCG-4R2M battery


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In 2008, before the USMC came up with the Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force for Crisis Response, two F-22 pilots met in a bar and outlined the concept that the USAF form their own rapid response airborne package of one C-17 supporting four F-22s that can setup and engage in combat within 24 hours.[240][241][242][243Sony PCG-4R2M battery


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Maintenance and training[edit]

In 2004, the F-22 had a mission ready rate of 62% fleet-wide but this was improved to 70% in 2009, with the mission ready rate being predicted to reach 85% as the fleet reached 100,000 flight hours.[244Sony PCG-4U2M battery

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] In the early years of its service, the F-22 required more than 30 hours of maintenance for every flight hour, with the total cost per flight hour of $44,000, however in 2008 this figure had been lowered to 18.1 hours, Sony PCG-6112M battery


Sony VGP-BPS20/B battery and 10.5 hours by 2009;[244] this is compared to the original Pentagon requirement of 12 maintenance hours per flight hour.[135] At introduction the F-22 also had a Mean Time Between Maintenance (MTBM) of 1.7 hours, Sony PCG-6121M battery

Sony PCG-6122M battery


Sony VGP-BPL20 battery however in the 7 years since this has been improved to 3.2 hours, exceeding the original requirement of 3.0 hours by 2010.[244] But by 2013 the cost per flight hour had grown to $68,362, over three times as much as the F-16.[245] Sony PCG-6123M battery

Sony PCG-6124M battery


Sony VPCZ23K9E battery

Each Raptor requires a month-long packaged maintenance plan (PMP) after every 300 flight hours.[246] The aircraft’s stealth system, including its radar absorbing metallic skin, account for almost one third of all maintenance.[2Sony VPCZ13 battery


Sony VPCZ21Q9E battery44] Another source of maintenance problems is that many components require custom hand-fitting and are not interchangeable.[46] The canopy of the aircraft was required to have a life of 800 hours, Sony VPCZ13M9E/B battery

Sony VPCZ13Z9E/X batteryhowever the original design failed to meet this, averaging at 331 hours.[46] In response to this the canopy was redesigned, and the new canopy has met its requirements of a 800 hour life expectancy.[244] Sony VPCZ13V9E battery


In January 2007, it was reported that the F-22 maintained a 97% sortie rate (flying 102 out of 105 tasked sorties) while amassing a 144-to-zero kill ratio during “Northern Edge” air-to-air exercises held in Alaska, Sony VPCZ11 battery


Sony VPCZ12Z9E/X battery

the first large-scale exercise in which the Raptor participated. Lieutenant Colonel Wade Tolliver, the squadron commander of the 27th Fighter Squadron commented: “the stealth coatings are not as fragile as they were in earlier stealth aircraft. It isn’t damaged by a rain storm and it can stand the wear and tear of combat without degradation.”[20Sony VPCZ11X9E battery


Sony VPCZ12Z9E/B battery5] However, rain has caused “shorts and failures in sophisticated electrical components” when the Raptors were briefly posted to Guam.[247]

In its 2012 budget request, the USAF cut F-22 flight training hours by one-third to reduce the operating costs of flying the aircraft.[24Sony VPCZ11X9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12X9E/B battery] The F-22 was to continue in its role as an airshow demonstration aircraft and be the only USAF solo aircraft demonstrator in 2012.[249] DoD budget cuts led to the 2013 flights of the Raptor demonstration team being stopped so that USAF operational funds could be used by combat aircraft.[250] Sony VPCZ11Z9E battery

Sony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12V9E/B battery

The manpower required to maintain each F-22A’s stealth coatings has increased as the aircraft have gotten older.[251] Part of this work involves removing and reapplying the stealth coatings in order to maintain a consistent mold line or outside shape of the aircraft.[252]

Operational issues[edit] Sony VPCZ12C7E/B battery


The F-22 has had a number of operational issues which have resulted in the fleet being grounded. The primary concerns regarding the aircraft revolve around pilots experiencing a decreased mental status, to the point of losing consciousness. Sony VPCZ12M9E battery

Sony VPCZ12V9E battery There have been eight crashes involving the aircraft, two of which resulted in pilot fatalities. In addition, a number of instances have been reported where the pilot landed successfully but was found to be in a decreased level of alertness. Some pilots experienced memory loss, Sony VPCZ12M9E/B battery

where they could not recall landing the aircraft. One pilot flew his aircraft through some treetops near the runway, but did not recall the event.[2Sony PCG-6P2M Battery
Sony PCG-6Q2M Battery

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53] In addition, pilots that have flown the aircraft have experienced lingering respiratory problems and a chronic cough. They have also experienced irritability, emotional lability and neurologic changes.[253Sony PCG-6R1M Battery
Sony PCG-6C1M Battery

Sony PCG-791M Battery] A number of possible causative factors have been investigated, including possible exposure to noxious chemical agents from the respiratory tubing, malfunction and over-inflation of the pressure suit, possible side effects from the delivery of oxygen at greater than atmospheric concentrations, Sony PCG-6D1M Battery

Sony PCG-7X1M Battery and possible mid-flight disruption of oxygen delivery to the pilot. Other unrelated operational issues include a number of minor mechanical problems and failures in the aircraft’s navigational software.[254] Sony PCG-6E1M Battery
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It took some time for the problems with the F-22 to be recognized and understood. The Raptor Aeromedical Working Group, a USAF expert panel, recommended a number of changes in 2005 to deal with the oxygen supply issues on the F-22.[25Sony PCG-6H1M Battery

Sony PCG-7R1M Battery5] These recommendations were not initially accepted. In light of ongoing reports of uncharacteristic pilot errors, Lockheed Martin was awarded a $24M contract in late October 2011 to find the cause of the breathing difficulties.[25Sony PCG-6G2M Battery

Sony PCG-7N2M Battery6] In July 2012, the Pentagon concluded that a pressure valve on flight vests worn during high-altitude flights and a carbon air filter were the likely sources of at least some hypoxia-like symptoms. Sony PCG-6J1M Battery

Sony PCG-7N1M BatteryLong distance flights of the aircraft, which had been restricted, were resumed, but the flights were limited to lower altitudes until the problems with the vest could be corrected. The carbon filters were also changed to a different model to reduce exposure of the pilot’s lungs to carbon particulates.[257][ Sony PCG-6J2M Battery
Sony PCG-6L1M Battery

Sony PCG-7M1M Battery258] The valve involved was the breathing regulator/anti-G (BRAG) valve used to inflate the vest when the aircraft is under high Gs. It was found the valve inflated the vest before the aircraft reached high Gs, resulting in the pilots breathing more shallow and rapidly.[259Sony PCG-6L2M Battery

Sony PCG-7H2M Battery] Further investigations revealed the on-board oxygen generating system (OBOGS) unexpectedly reduced oxygen levels when the aircraft performed high-G maneuvers.[260] Sony PCG-7Y1M Battery
Lockheed was awarded contracts in late 2012 to install a supplemental automatic oxygen backup system, in addition to the primary system and manual backup.[261] Sony PCG-8V1M Battery

Sony PCG-7H1M Battery The changes recommended by the Raptor Aeromedical Working Group in 2005 received further consideration in 2012.[2Sony PCG-8V2M Battery

Sony PCG-7G1M Battery62] The USAF reported in December 2012 to be considering installing EEG brain wave monitors in the helmets of F-22 pilots to measure brain functioning under flight conditions, making it clear the issue has not entirely been put to rest.[263][264Sony PCG-8W1M Battery

Sony PCG-7D1M Battery]

The Air Force has since changed the filters and installed new backup oxygen generators on the aircraft. The coughing symptoms are currently attributed to acceleration atelectasis, which may be partly exacerbated by the F-22′s high performance, Sony PCG-8W2M Battery
Sony PCG-7A1M Battery though there is no present solution to the condition. The presence of toxins and particles in some F-22 ground crews is currently deemed to be unrelated to the aircraft.[265]

On 4 April 2013, the distance and altitude flight restrictions were lifted for all F-22s, Sony PCG-8X1M Battery


sony VPCF12Z1E/BI batteryafter the F-22 Combined Test Force and 412th Aerospace Medicine Squadron determined that the problem had been restrictions on the pilot’s ability to breathe rather than some issue with the quality or quantity of the oxygen the aircraft provided


sony VPCF12S1E/B batteryYF-22A – pre-production version used for ATF testing and evaluation. Two were built.

F-22A – single-seat production version. Was designated “F/A-22A” in early 2000s.

F-22B – planned two-seat variant, but was dropped in 1996 to save development costs.[269]

Naval F-22 variant – a carrier-borne variant of the F-22 with swing-wings for the U.S. Navy’s Navy Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF) program to replace the F-14 Tomcat. Program was canceled in 1993.[269] Former SoAF Donald Rice has called the possibility of the naval variant the deciding factor for his choice of the YF-22 over the YF-23.[270] sony VPCF11C4E/B battery

sony VPCF11C5E battery


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The FB-22 was a proposed medium-range bomber for the USAF.[271] The FB-22 was projected to carry up to 30 Small Diameter Bombs to about twice the range of the F-22A, while maintaining the F-22′s stealth and supersonic speed.[27sony VPCF11D4E battery

sony VPC-F11M1E/H battery

sony VPCF11S1E/B battery


sony VPCF13Z8E battery2] However, the FB-22 in its planned form appears to have been canceled with the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review and subsequent developments, in lieu of a larger subsonic bomber with a much greater range.[273][274] sony VPCF2 battery

sony VPC-F21Z1E battery


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The X-44 MANTA, or multi-axis, no-tail aircraft, was a planned experimental aircraft based on the F-22 with enhanced thrust vectoring controls and no aerodynamic surface backup.[2sony VPCF22J1E battery


sony VPCF13M1E/B battery 75] The aircraft was to be solely controlled by thrust vectoring, without featuring any rudders, ailerons, or elevators. Funding for this program was halted in 2000.[276]

In April 1992, the second YF-22 crashed while landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The test pilot, Tom Morgenfeld, sony VPCF22L1E battery


sony VPCF1318E/H batteryescaped without injury. The cause of the crash was found to be a flight control software error that failed to prevent a pilot-induced oscillation.[290]

The first crash of a production F-22 occurred during takeoff at Nellis Air Force Base on 20 December 2004, in which the pilot ejected safely before impact.[291sony VPCF22M1E battery


sony VPCF13J0E/H battery][292] The crash investigation revealed that a brief interruption in power during an engine shutdown prior to flight caused a malfunction in the flight-control system;[293] consequently the aircraft design was corrected to avoid the problem. sony VPCF22S1E battery

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sony VPCF13E8E battery All F-22s were grounded after the crash; operations resumed following a review.[294]

On 25 March 2009, a pre-production[citation needed] test F-22 crashed 35 miles (56 km) northeast of Edwards Air Force Base during a test flight,[295] resulting in the death of Lockheed test pilot David P. Cooley.[46] sony VPCF23M1E battery


sony VPCF13E4E battery [296] An Air Force Materiel Command investigation found that Cooley momentarily lost consciousness during a high-G maneuver, then ejected when he found himself too low to recover. Cooley was killed during ejection by blunt-force trauma from the aircraft’s speed and the windblast. sony VPCF23Q1E battery


sony VPCF12M1E/H battery The investigation found no issues with the F-22′s design.[297]

On 16 November 2010, an F-22, based at Elmendorf, Alaska, lost contact with Air Traffic Control.[298] The aircraft was discovered to have crashed; the pilot, Captain Jeffrey Haney, was killed.[299]


sony VPCF12F4E/H battery The F-22 fleet was restricted to flying below 25,000 feet, before being grounded completely, while the accident was investigated.[300] In 2011, more wreckage from the crash site was recovered; sony VPCF231S1E battery


sony VPCF12E1E/H batterythe accident has been attributed to a malfunction in the bleed air system that shut down the aircraft’s Environmental Control System (ECS) and On-Board Oxygen Generating System (OBOGS).[301] sony VPCF23S1E battery

sony VPCF24M1E battery


sony VPCF11Z1E/BI battery The OBOGS, which is fed by engine bleed air, was apparently shut down automatically in response to an engine overheat condition detected by the main computer.[3sony VPCF13M1E/H battery

02] The accident review board ruled the pilot (wearing bulky cold-weather gear and night vision goggles) was to blame for the accident, as he did not react properly and did not engage the emergency oxygen system.[302] sony VPCF11S1E battery

sony VPCF11C4E/B battery [303] Gen. Schwartz USAF, has called the Pentagon Office of the Inspector General investigation of the report “routine”,[304][305] but did not assign blame to the pilot.[306] The pilot’s widow sued, claiming the aircraft has defective equipment.[307] sony VPCF21Z1E/BI battery


sony VPCF13M0E/B battery [308] In response to the accident investigation results, the engagement handle for the emergency oxygen system was redesigned to improve location and grasping, and the emergency oxygen system should engage automatically when OBOGS is shut down due to an engine failure.[309]


sony VPCF13Z0E/B batteryThe aircraft’s manufacturers reached a settlement with the pilot’s family.[310] On 11 February 2013, the DoD’s Inspector General released its report on its investigation, sony VPCF24Q1E battery


sony VPCF13M8E/B battery finding that the USAF had erred in assigning blame to Haney for the crash and stated that the USAF’s conclusions were contradictory, incomplete, or “not supported by facts.” In response,


sony VPCF12M0E/B battery the USAF stated that it stood by its accident investigation conclusions.[311]

On 31 May 2012, during a touch-and-go exercise, an F-22 did not gain sufficient thrust on takeoff and crashed, resulting in it skidding on the runway, and causing approximately $35 million worth of damage. Pilot error was cited as the cause of the crash.[312sony VPCF23P1E battery

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sony VPCF12S1E/B battery][313]

On 15 November 2012, an F-22 crashed near Tyndall Air Force Base, just south of Panama City, Florida. The pilot ejected safely and no injuries were reported on the ground.[314] The investigation determined that a “chafed” electrical wire ignited the fluid in a hydraulic line leading to the crash.[315] sony VPCY21S1E/L battery


sony VPCF12Z1E battery

On 7 December 2012, an F-22 from the 199th Fighter Squadron sustained $1.8 million in damage to its horizontal stabilizers while landing at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam. The aircraft was returning from participating in a missing-man formation at a memorial event commemorating the attack on Pearl Harbor.[316][31sony VPCY21S1E/G battery


sony VPCF13S0E/B battery7]

Aircraft on display[edit]


In April 2007, the National Museum of the United States Air Force announced it had added EMD F-22A 91-4003 to its collection. It would later be put on display[318] in the space being occupied by a Lockheed YF-22. The museum publicly unveiled its F-22 display on 18 January 2008.[319sony VPCF22M0E battery

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The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, fifth-generation multirole fighters under development to perform ground attack, reconnaissance, and air defense missions with stealth capability.[7][8] Sony VPCZ21L9E/B battery
Sony VPCZ21M9E/B battery

The F-35 has three main models; the F-35A is a conventional takeoff and landing variant, the F-35B is a short take-off and vertical-landing variant, and the F-35C is a carrier-based variant.

The F-35 is descended from the X-35, Sony VPCZ21S9E/B battery

Sony VPCZ11E7E batterythe product of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. It is being designed and built by an aerospace industry team led by Lockheed Martin. The F-35 took its first flight on 15 December 2006. The United States plans to buy 2,443 aircraft. Sony VPCZ21V9E/B battery
Sony VPCZ21X9E/B battery

Sony VPCZ11D7E battery The F-35 variants are intended to provide the bulk of its tactical airpower for the U.S. Air Force, Marine Corps and Navy over the coming decades.

JSF development is being principally funded by the United States with additional funding from partners. The partner nations are either NATO members or close U.S. allies. Sony VPCZ13A7E battery
Sony VPCZ13B7E battery

Sony VPCZ11C7E battery The United Kingdom, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, Australia, Canada, Norway, Denmark, and Turkey are part of the active development program; Japan has ordered the F-35, while Singapore may also equip their air force with the F-35. Sony VPCZ13C7E battery

Sony VPCZ11C5E batteryGeorge Standridge of Lockheed Martin predicted in 2006 that the F-35 will be four times more effective than legacy fighters in air-to-air combat, eight times more effective in air-to-ground combat, Sony VPCZ13D7E battery
Sony VPCZ13E7E battery

Sony VPCZ11A7R battery and three times more effective in reconnaissance and suppression of air defenses – while having better range and requiring less logistics support and having around the same procurement costs Sony VPCZ13F7E battery
Sony VPCZ21C5E battery

Sony VPCZ12D7E battery (if development costs are ignored) as legacy fighters.[16] The design goals call for the F-35 to be the premier strike aircraft through 2040 and be second only to the F-22 Raptor in air superiority.[17] Sony VPCZ12S9R/B battery
Sony VPCZ12S9R/S battery
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The JSF development contract was signed on 16 November 1996, and the contract for System Development and Demonstration (SDD) was awarded on 26 October 2001 to Lockheed Martin, whose X-35 beat the Boeing X-32. Sony VPCZ12V9R/X battery
Sony VPCZ12X9E/X battery

Sony VPCZ12C5E batteryAlthough both aircraft met or exceeded requirements, the X-35 design was considered to have less risk and more growth potential.[18] The designation of the new fighter as “F-35″ is out-of-sequence with standard DoD aircraft numbering,[ Sony VPCZ12E7E battery

Sony VPCZ12B7E battery19] by which it should have been “F-24″. It came as a surprise even to the company, which had been referring to the aircraft in-house by this expected designation.[20] Sony VPCZ12F7E battery

The development of the F-35 is unusual for a fighter aircraft in that no two-seat trainer versions have been built for any of the variants; advanced flight simulators mean that no trainer versions were deemed necessary.[2Sony VPCZ12G7E battery
Sony VPCZ12H7E battery

Sony VPCZ12A7E battery1] Instead F-16s have been used as bridge trainers between the T-38 and the F-35. The T-X was intended to be used to train future F-35 pilots, but this might succumb to budget pressures in the USAF.[22] Sony VPCZ12L7E battery

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Design phase[edit]

Based on wind tunnel testing, Lockheed Martin slightly enlarged its X-35 design into the F-35. The forward fuselage is 5 inches (130 mm) longer to make room for avionics. Correspondingly, the horizontal stabilators were moved 2 inches (51 mm) Sony VPCZ12J7E battery

Sony VPCZ11X9R/B batteryrearward to retain balance and control. The top surface of the fuselage was raised by 1 inch (25 mm) along the center line. Also, it was decided to increase the size of the F-35B STOVL variant’s weapons bay to be common with the other two variants.[18] Sony VPCZ12L9E/B battery
Manufacturing of parts for the first F-35 prototype airframe began in November 2003.[23] Because the X-35 did not have weapons bays, their addition in the F-35 would cause design changes which would lead to later weight problems.[24][25] Sony VPCZ12X9R/B battery

The F-35B STOVL variant was in danger of missing performance requirements in 2004 because it weighed too much; reportedly, by 2,200 lb (1,000 kg) or 8 percent. In response, Lockheed Martin added engine thrust and thinned airframe members; reduced the size of the common weapons bay and vertical stabilizers; Sony VPCZ11X9R/S battery

re-routed some thrust from the roll-post outlets to the main nozzle; and redesigned the wing-mate joint, portions of the electrical system, and the portion of the aircraft immediately behind the cockpit.[26] Sony VPCZ11V9R/B battery
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Many of the changes were applied to all three variants to maintain high levels of commonality. By September 2004, the weight reduction effort had reduced the aircraft’s design weight by 2,700 pounds (1,200 kg),[27Sony VGN-NW20ZF Battery

Sony VGN-FW56SR Battery] but the redesign cost $6.2 billion and delayed the project by 18 months.[28]

On 7 July 2006, the U.S. Air Force officially announced the name of the F-35: Lightning II, in honor of Lockheed’s World War II-era twin-prop Lockheed P-38 Lightning and the Cold War-era jet, the English Electric Lightning.[29] Sony VGN-NW24S Battery
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Sony VGN-FW56ZR Battery [N 1][31] English Electric Company’s aircraft division was a predecessor of F-35 partner BAE Systems. Lightning II was also an early company name for the fighter that was later named the F-22 Raptor.[citation needed] Sony VGN-NW20EF Battery
Sony VGN-NW20SF Battery
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Lockheed Martin Aeronautics is the prime contractor and performs aircraft final assembly, overall system integration, mission system, and provides forward fuselage, wings and flight controls system.
Sony VGN-SR59XG/H BatteryNorthrop Grumman provides Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar, electro-optical Distributed Aperture System (DAS), Sony VGN-FW4ZTJ/H Battery

Sony VGN-SR59VG/H Battery Communications, Navigation, Identification (CNI), center fuselage, weapons bay, and arrestor gear. BAE Systems provides aft fuselage and empennages, horizontal and vertical tails, crew life support and escape systems, Electronic warfare systems, fuel system, and Flight Control Software (FCS1). Sony VGN-FW51 Battery
Sony VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery

Sony VGN-SR59TH/H BatteryAlenia will perform final assembly for Italy and, according to an Alenia executive, assembly of all European aircraft with the exception of Turkey and the United Kingdom.[32][33] Sony VGN-FW51MF/H Battery
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Sony VGN-SR57X Battery The F-35 program has seen a great deal of investment in automated production facilities. For example, Handling Specialty produced the wing assembly platforms for Lockheed Martin.[34] Sony VGN-FW41M/H Battery

Sony VGN-SR57V Battery In November 2009, Jon Schreiber, head of F-35 international affairs program for the Pentagon, said that the U.S. will not share the software code for the F-35 with its allies.[35]

On 19 December 2008, Lockheed Martin rolled out the first weight-optimized F-35A, designated AF-1. It was the first F-35 built at full production speed, and is structurally identical to the production F-35As that were delivered starting in 2010.[36] On 5 January 2009, six F-35s had been built, including AF-1 and AG-1; another 13 pre-production test aircraft and four production aircraft were being manufactured.[37] On 6 April 2009, U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates proposed speeding up production for the U.S. to buy 2,443 F-35s.[38] In August 2010, Lockheed Martin announced delays in resolving a “wing-at-mate overlap” production problem, which would slow initial production.[39] Sony VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery
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Program cost increases and further delays[edit]

Since 2006, the program has been subject to re-scoping and a number of reassessments. These are summarized below as the history of the program up to December 2012 and current status after January 2013. Sony VGN-NW24S Battery

In 2006, the GAO warned that excessive concurrency between the production of additional F-35 aircraft and testing of their design might result in expensive refits for several hundred aircraft planned to be produced before completion of tests.[ Sony VGN-FW56E Battery
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Sony VGN-SR57S Battery0] In November 2010, the GAO found that “Managing an extensive, still-maturing global network of suppliers adds another layer of complexity to producing aircraft efficiently and on-time” and that “due to the extensive amount of testing still to be completed, Sony VGN-NW24EG Battery

Sony VGN-SR49VN/H Battery
Sony VGN-FW56Z Batterythe program could be required to make alterations to its production processes, changes to its supplier base, and costly retrofits to produced and fielded aircraft, if problems are discovered.”[41] Sony VGN-NW24JG Battery

Sony VGN-FW54M Battery USAF budget data in 2010, along with other sources, projected the F-35 to have a flyaway cost from US$89 million to US$200 million over the planned production run.[42][43Sony VGN-NW24MG Battery

Sony VGN-FW56 Battery][44] In February 2011, the Pentagon put a price of $207.6 million on each of the 32 aircraft to be acquired in FY2012, rising to $304.15 million ($9,732.8/32) if its share of RDT&E spending is included.[45][46] Sony VGN-NW24MR Battery
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On 21 April 2009, media reports, citing Pentagon sources, said that during 2007 and 2008, spies had copied and siphoned off several terabytes of data related to the F-35′s design and electronics systems, Sony VGN-FW46S Battery

Sony VGN-FW54J Batterypotentially compromising the aircraft and aiding the development of defense systems against it.[47] Lockheed Martin rejected suggestions that the project was compromised, stating it “does not believe any classified information had been stolen”.[48Sony VGN-FW46Z Battery
Sony VGN-FW54E Battery] Other sources suggested that the incident caused both hardware and software redesigns to be more resistant to cyber attack.[49] BAE Systems was reported to be the target of cyber espionage.[50] In February 2013, it was feared that China had intercepted telemetry from F-35 test flights.[51] In 2013, a report from Mandiant tracked the hacking to a unit of the People’s Liberation Army.[52] Sony VGN-SR49VT/H Battery


On 9 November 2009, Ashton Carter, under-secretary of defense for acquisition, technology and logistics, acknowledged that the Pentagon “joint estimate team” (JET) had found possible future cost and schedule overruns in the project and that he would be holding meetings to attempt to avoid these.[53] Sony VGN-NW21EF/S battery
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Sony VGN-FW11ZU battery On 1 February 2010, Gates removed the JSF Program Manager, U.S. Marine Corps Major General David Heinz, and withheld $614 million in payments to Lockheed Martin because of program costs and delays.[54][55] Sony VGN-NW21MF/W battery

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On 11 March 2010, a report from the Government Accountability Office to United States Senate Committee on Armed Services projected the overall unit cost of an F-35A to be $112M in today’s money.[56
Sony VGN-FW11M battery] In 2010, Pentagon officials disclosed that the F-35 program has exceeded its original cost estimates by more than 50 percent.[5Sony VGN-NW21MF battery
Sony VGN-NW21ZF battery

Sony VGN-FW11E battery7] An internal Pentagon report critical of the JSF project states that “affordability is no longer embraced as a core pillar”. In 2010, Lockheed Martin expected to reduce government cost estimates by 20%.[58Sony VGN-NW31EF/W battery
Sony VGN-NW31JF battery
] On 24 March 2010, Gates termed the cost overruns and delays as “unacceptable” in a testimony before the U.S. Congress; and characterized previous cost and schedule estimates as “overly rosy”. Gates insisted the F-35 would become “the backbone of U.S. Sony VGN-FW21E battery

Sony VGN-FW21Z batteryair combat for the next generation” and informed the Congress that he had expanded the development period by an additional 13 months and budgeted $3 billion more for the testing program while slowing down production.[59] Sony VGN-FW21J battery
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In November 2010, as part of a cost-cutting measure, the co-chairs of the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform suggested cancelling the F-35B and halving orders of F-35As and F-35Cs.[60] Sony VGN-FW21L battery
[61][62] Air Force Magazine reported that “Pentagon officials” were considering canceling the F-35B because its short range meant that the bases or ships it would operate from would be in range of hostile tactical ballistic missiles.[63Sony PCG-6Z2M battery

Sony PCG-6X4M battery


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] Lockheed Martin consultant Loren B. Thompson said that this rumor was a result of the usual tensions between the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, and there was no alternative to the F-35B as an AV-8B Harrier II replacement.[6Sony PCG-6X2M battery,

Sony PCG-4Q2M battery,


Sony PCG-71315M battery4] He also confirmed further delays and cost increases because of technical problems with the aircraft and software, blaming most of the delays and extra costs on redundant flight tests.[65] Sony PCG-4R1M battery

Sony PCG-4Q1M battery


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In November 2010, the Center for Defense Information estimated that the program would be restructured with an additional year of delay and $5 billion in additional costs.[66] On 5 November 2010, Sony PCG-71C11M battery


Sony PCG-91112M batterythe Block 1 software flew for the first time on BF-4.[67] As of the end of 2010, only 15% of the software remained to be written, but this was reported to include the most difficult sections such as data fusion.[6Sony PCG-71D14M battery

Sony PCG-61511M battery

8] In 2011, it was revealed that 50% of the eight million lines of code had been written and that it would take another six years to complete the software to the new schedule.[69] By 2012, the total estimated lines of code for the entire program (onboard and offboard) had grown from 15 million lines to 24 million lines.[70] Sony PCG-61611M battery

Sony PCG-71411M battery

Sony PCG-71511M battery

In 2011, program head Vice Adm. David Venlet confirmed that the concurrency built into the program “was a miscalculation”.[71] This was during a contract dispute where the Pentagon insisted that Lockheed Martin help cover the costs of applying fixes found during testing to aircraft already produced.[72] Sony PCG-61712M battery

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Lockheed Martin objected that the cost sharing posed an uninsurable unbounded risk that the company could not cover, and later responded that the “concurrency costs for F-35 continue to reduce”.[73Sony PCG-71411M battery


Sony PCG-61813M battery][74] The Senate Armed Services Committee strongly backed the Pentagon position.[75] In December 2011, Lockheed Martin accepted a cost sharing agreement.[76] The Aerospace Industries Association warned that such changes would force them to anticipate cost overruns in future contract bids.[ Sony PCG-71511M battery

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Sony PCG-61712M battery77] As of 2012, problems found in flight testing were expected to continue to lead to higher levels of engineering changes through 2019.[78] The total additional cost for concurrency in the program is around $1.3 billion.[79] By the next year the cost had grown to $1.7 billion.[80] Sony PCG-91311M battery


Sony PCG-61611M battery

In January 2011, Defense Secretary Robert Gates expressed the Pentagon’s frustration with the rising costs of the F-35 program when he said “The culture of endless money that has taken hold must be replaced by a culture of restraint. Sony PCG-71315M battery

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Sony PCG-61511M battery” Focusing his attention on the troubled F-35B, Gates ordered “a two-year probation”, saying it “should be canceled” if corrections are unsuccessful.[81] Gates has stated his support for the program.[8Sony PCG-71318M battery

Sony PCG-6Z2M battery,

2] Some private analysts, such as Richard Aboulafia, of the Teal Group state that the F-35 program is becoming a money pit.[83] Gates’ successor, Leon Panetta, ended the F-35B’s probation on 20 January 2012, stating “The STOVL variant has made — I believe and all of us believe — sufficient progress.”[84]


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Former Pentagon manager Paul G. Kaminski has said that the lack of a complete test plan has added five years to the JSF program.[8Sony PCG-6X4M battery,


Sony PCG-71C11M battery5] Initial operating capability (IOC) will be determined by software development rather than by hardware production or pilot training.[86] As of May 2013 the USMC plan an IOC in “mid-2015″[Sony PCG-6X2M battery,


Sony PCG-4Q1M battery2] for the F-35B with Block 2B software which gives basic air-to-air and air-to-ground capability.[2Sony PCG-4Q2M battery

Sony PCG-4R1M battery] It has been reported that the USAF is planning to bring forward IOC for the F-35A to the Block 3I software in mid-2016 rather than waiting for the full-capability Block 3F in mid-2017;[2] the F-35C will not enter service with the USN until mid-2018.[ Sony SVE1513A1ES battery


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2] The $56.4 billion development project for the aircraft should be completed in 2018 when the block five configuration is expected to be delivered, several years late and considerably over budget.[87] Sony SVE1513A1ESI battery


Delays in the F-35 program may lead to a “fighter gap” where America and other countries will lack sufficient fighters to cover their requirements.[88Sony SVE1513B1EW battery

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Sony SVE1512N1ESI battery] Israel may seek to buy second-hand F-15s,[89] while Australia also sought additional Super Hornets in the face of F-35 delays.[90]

In May 2011, the Pentagon’s top weapons buyer Ashton Carter said that its new $133 million unit price was not affordable.[9Sony SVE151C11M battery


Sony SVE1512N1ES battery1] In 2011, The Economist warned that the F-35 was in danger of slipping into a “death spiral” where increasing per-aircraft costs would lead to cuts in number of aircraft ordered, leading to further cost increases and further order cuts.[92Sony SVE151G11M battery


Sony SVE1512N1EB battery] Later that year, four aircraft were cut from the fifth LRIP order to pay for cost overruns;[93] in 2012, a further two aircraft were cut.[94] Lockheed Martin acknowledged that the slowing of purchases would increase costs.[95] Sony SVE1513C1EW battery

Sony SVE1513G1EB battery


Sony SVE1512I1ESI battery David Van Buren, U.S. Air Force acquisition chief, said that Lockheed Martin needed to cut infrastructure to match the reduced market for their aircraft.[96] The company said that the slowdown in American orders will free up capacity to meet the urgent short term needs of foreign partners for replacement fighters.[97Sony SVE1513H4EB battery

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Sony SVE1512Y1ES battery] Air Force Secretary Michael Donley said that no more money was available and that future price increases would be matched with cuts in the number of aircraft ordered.[98] Later that month, the Pentagon reported that costs had risen another 4.3 percent, partially resulting from production delays.[ Sony SVE1513J1EW battery

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99] In 2012, the purchase of six out of 31 aircraft was tied to performance metrics of the program.[100] In 2013 Bogdan repeated that no more money was available, but that he hoped to avoid the death spiral.[101] Sony SVE1513P1EW battery

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Japan has warned that it may halt their purchase if unit costs increase, and Canada has indicated it is not committed to a purchase yet.[102][ Sony SVE1513Q1ESI battery

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Sony SVE171B11M battery103] The United States is projected to spend an estimated US$323 billion for development and procurement on the program, making it the most expensive defense program ever.[104Sony SVE1513U1ESI battery


Sony SVE151G13M battery] Testifying before a Canadian parliamentary committee in 2011, Rear Admiral Arne Røksund of Norway estimated that his country’s 52 F-35 fighter jets will cost $769 million each over their operational lifetime.[105] Sony SVE1513Y1ES battery

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Recent program cost increases and delays[edit]

The total life-cycle cost for the entire American fleet is estimated to be US$1.51 trillion over its 50-year life, or $618 million per plane.[106] In order to reduce the estimated $1 trillion cost of the F-35 over its 50-year lifetime, Sony SVE1513Z1EB battery


Sony SVE1512I1ES battery the USAF is considering reducing Lockheed Martin’s role in Contractor Logistics Support.[107] The company has responded that the trillion dollar estimate relies on future costs beyond its control such as USAF reorganizations and yet to be specified upgrades.[1Sony SVE1512H6EB battery

Sony SVE1512H6EW battery08] Delays have negatively affected the program’s worldwide supply chain and partner organisations.[109]

In 2012, General Norton A. Schwartz decried the “foolishness” of reliance on computer models to settle the final design of the aircraft before flight testing found the issues that needed redesign.[110] Sony SVE1512T1ES battery

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In 2013, JSF project team leader USAF Lieutenant General Chris Bogdan said that “A large amount of concurrency, that is, beginning production long before your design is stable and long before you’ve found problems in test, Sony SVE171G11M battery

creates downstream issues where now you have to go back and retrofit airplanes and make sure the production line has those fixes in them. And that drives complexity and cost”.[111Sony SVE171A11M battery

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Sony SVE1713X1EB battery] Bogdan did however praise the improvement in the program ever since Lockheed Martin was forced to assume some of the financial risks.[112]

In 2012, in order to avoid further redesign delays, the U.S. DoD accepted a reduced combat radius for the F-35A and a longer takeoff run for the F-35B.[113][114] Sony SVE1512Y1ESI battery

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The F-35B’s estimated radius has also decreased by 15 percent.[115] In a meeting in Sydney in March, the United States pledged to eight partner nations that there would be no more program delays.[116] Sony SVE1512C4EB battery


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In May 2012, Lockheed Martin Chief Executive Bob Stevens complained that the Defense Department’s requirements for cost data were driving up program cost.[117] Stevens also admitted that a strike might cause a production shortfall of the target of 29 F-35s that year.[11Sony SVE1512C6EB battery


Sony SVE1713L1EB battery8] Striking workers questioned the standards of replacement workers, as even their own work had been cited for “inattention to production quality” with a 16% rework rate.[1Sony SVE1512C6EW battery

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Sony SVE1713H1EW battery19] The workers went on strike to protect pensions whose costs have been the subject of negotiations with the Department of Defense over the next batch of aircraft.[120] These same pension costs were cited by Fitch in their downgrade of the outlook for Lockheed Martin’s stock price.[1Sony SVE1512E6EB battery


Sony SVE1713H1EB battery21] Stevens said that while he hoped to bring down program costs, the industrial base was not capable of meeting the government’s expectations of affordability.[122][123] Sony SVE1512E6EW battery

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According to a June 2012 Government Accountability Office report, the F-35′s unit cost has almost doubled, Sony SVE1511B1E battery


Sony SVE1713F1EW batteryan increase of 93% over the program’s 2001 baseline cost estimates.[124] In 2012, Lockheed Martin reportedly feared that the tighter policies for award fees of the Obama administration would reduce their profits by $500 million over the following five years.[ Sony SVE1511B1EB battery


Sony SVE1713F1EB battery125] This was demonstrated in 2012 when the Pentagon withheld the maximum $47 million allowed for the company’s failure to certify its program to track project costs and schedules.[1Sony SVE1511D1E battery


Sony SVE1511Y1E battery26] The GAO has also faulted the USAF and USN for not fully planning the costs of extending legacy F-16 and F-18 fleets to cover for the delayed F-35.[ Sony SVE151E11M battery


Sony SVE1511X1EB battery127] Due to cost cutting measures, the U.S. Government and the GAO have stated that the flyaway cost (including engines) has been dropping. The U.S. Government estimates that in 2020 a “F-35 will cost some $85m each or less than half of the 2009 initial examples cost. Adjusted to today’s dollars the 2020 price would be $75m each.”[128] Sony SVE1511J1E battery

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In 2013 Lockheed Martin began to lay off workers at the Fort Worth plant where the F-35s were assembled.[12Sony SVE1713Z1EB battery


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9] They said that the currently estimated concurrency costs of refitting the 187 aircraft built by the time testing concludes in 2016 are now less than previously feared.[1Sony SVE1712F1EB battery

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Sony SVE1513Z1EB battery30] The GAO’s Michael Sullivan said that the company had failed to get an early start on the systems engineering and had not understood the requirements or the technologies involved at the program’s start.[131Sony SVE1712H1EWbattery


Sony SVE17A1M6E battery] The Pentagon vowed to continue funding the program during budget sequestration if possible.[132] The United States Congress responded with the Budget Control Act of 2011, which may derail the software needed to complete the F-35 program.[ Sony SVE1712L1EB battery


Sony SVE1712C1EB battery133]

In June 2013, Frank Kendall, Pentagon acquisition, technology and logistics chief, declared “major advances” had been made in the F-35 program over the last three years; and that he intended approve production rate increases in September. Air Force Lt. Gen. Sony SVE1712L1EW battery

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Sony SVE1712B4EW battery Christopher Bogdan, program executive officer, reported far better communications between government and vendor managers, and that negotiations over Lot 6 and 7 talks were moving fast. Sony SVE1712Q1EW battery

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Sony SVE1711W1E battery It was also stated that operating costs had been better understood since training started, and he predicted “we can make a substantial dent in projections” of operating costs.[134] Sony SVE1712T1EB battery


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In July 2013, further doubt was cast on the latest (long delayed) schedule, with further software delays, and sensor, display and wing buffet problems continuing.[135] In August it was revealed that the Pentagon was weighing cancellation of the program as one possible response to the Budget sequestration in 2013Sony SVE1712V1EB battery

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,[136][137] and the United States Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense voted to cut advanced procurement for the fighter.[138] Sony SVE1712Z1EB battery

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On 21 August 2013 C-Span reported that Congressional Quarterly and the Government Accountability Office were indicating the “Total estimated program cost now $400B–nearly twice initial cost.” Sony SVE1713D1EW battery


Sony SVE1711R1EB batteryThe Current investment was documented as approximately fifty (50) billion dollars. The Projected $316 billion dollar cost in development and procurement spending was estimated through 2037 at an average of $12.6 billion dollars per year. Sony SVE1712C1EW battery

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Sony SVE1711Q1E batteryThese were confirmed by Steve O’Bryan, Vice President of Lockheed Martin on the same date.[139]

Concerns over performance and safety[edit]

Considerable criticism followed in the wake of U.S. Ambassador Tom Schieffer’s confirmation to the Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs (JSCFADT) Sony SVE1711G1E battery

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Sony SVE1711P1EW batteryon 21 June 2004: “With regard to the stealth technology, the airplane that Australia will get will be the stealthiest airplane that anybody outside the United States can acquire. Sony SVE1711L1E battery

Sony SVE1711P1E batteryWe have given assurances to Australia that we will give you the absolute maximum that we can with regard to that technology. Having said that, the airplane will not be exactly the same airplane as the United States will have. But it will be a stealth fighter; it will have stealth capabilities; and it will be at the highest level that anyone in the world has outside the United States.”[140][141][ Sony SVE151D11M battery

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Sony SVE14AA11M battery142] Lockheed Martin’s Tom Burbage stated in a 2006 article that export of key technologies such as stealth would be limited by U.S. national disclosure policy.[143] A Jane’s article in 2004 gave a hint that US$1B, Sony SVE171A11M battery


Sony SVE14AJ15M battery spent on several contracts, would serve to protect stealth technology and probably provide for a less stealthy export configuration of the fighter.[144] Sony SVE171E13M battery

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In 2006, the F-35 was downgraded from “very low observable” to “low observable”, a change former RAAF flight test engineer Peter Goon likened to increasing the radar cross-section from a marble to a beach ball.[145] Sony SVE151G11M battery

A Parliamentary Inquiry asked what was the re-categorization of the terminology in the United States such that the rating was changed from “very low observable” to “low observable”. The Department of Defence said that the change in categorization by the U.S. Sony SVE151G13M battery

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Sony SVE14AE15M battery was due to a revision in procedures for discussing stealth platforms in a public document. Decision to re-categorize in the public domain has now been reversed; subsequent publicly released material has categorized the JSF as very low observable (VLO).[14Sony SVE171C11M battery


Sony SVE14AG18M battery6]

Andrew Krepinevich has questioned the reliance on “short range” aircraft like the F-35 or F-22 to “manage” China in a future conflict and has suggested reducing the number of F-35s ordered in favor of a longer range platform like the Next-Generation Bomber, Sony SVE171E11M battery

Sony SVE14AG15M batterybut Michael Wynne, then United States Secretary of the Air Force rejected this plan of action in 2007.[147][148][149] By 2012, Wynne had conceded that America’s short ranged fifth-generation fighters would need drop tanks in order to be effective.[15Sony SVE151E11M battery

0] In 2011, the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (CSBA) pointed to the restructuring of the F-35 program and the return of the bomber project as a sign of their effectiveness, while Rebecca Grant said that the restructuring was a “vote of confidence” in the F-35 and “there is no other stealthy, Sony VGN-FW21E Battery


Sony VGN-FW51MF/H Batterysurvivable new fighter program out there”.[151] Lockheed Martin has also said that the F-35 is designed to launch internally carried bombs at supersonic speed and internal missiles at maximum supersonic speed.[152] Sony VGN-FW21L Battery


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In 2008, it was reported that RAND Corporation conducted simulated war games in which Russian Sukhoi Su-35 fighters defeated the F-35.[15Sony VGN-FW21Z Battery

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Sony VGN-FW51 Battery3][154] During a formal briefing by the Australian Department of Defence to the Australian defence minister Joel Fitzgibbon, it was stated that reports of the simulation were inaccurate and did not compare the F-35′sSony VGN-FW31M Battery


Sony VGN-FW46M Battery flight performance against other aircraft.[155] The Pentagon and Lockheed Martin also stated that these simulations did not address air-to-air combat.[156][157] A Lockheed Martin press release points to USAF simulations regarding the F-35′s Sony VGN-FW11J Battery

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Sony VGN-FW41ZJ/H Batteryair-to-air performance against adversaries described as “4th generation” fighters, in which it claims the F-35 is “400 percent” more effective. Major General Charles R. Davis, USAF, the F-35 program executive officer, has stated that the Sony VGN-FW11ZU Battery

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Sony VGN-FW41M/H Battery“F-35 enjoys a significant Combat Loss Exchange Ratio advantage over the current and future air-to-air threats, to include Sukhois”.[157]

In September 2008, in reference to the original plan to fit the F-35 with only two air-to-air missiles (internally), Major Richard Koch, chief of USAF Air Combat Command’s advanced air dominance branch is reported to have said that Sony VGN-FW21ZR Battery


Sony VGN-FW41J/H Battery“I wake up in a cold sweat at the thought of the F-35 going in with only two air-dominance weapons.”[158] The Norwegians have been briefed on a plan to equip the F-35 with six AIM-120D missiles by 2019.[15Sony VGN-FW3ZJ Battery

Sony VGN-FW41E/H Battery9] Former RAND author John Stillion has written of the F-35A’s air-to-air combat performance that it “can’t turn, can’t climb, can’t run”; Lockheed Martin test pilot Jon Beesley has stated that in an air-to-air configuration the F-35 has almost as much thrust as weight Sony VGN-FW56M Battery


Sony VGN-FW56Z Battery

and a flight control system that allows it to be fully maneuverable even at a 50-degree angle of attack.[160][161][162] Consultant to Lockheed Martin Loren B. Thompson has said that the “electronic edge F-35 enjoys over every other tactical aircraft in the world may prove to be more important in future missions than maneuverability”.[163Sony VGN-FW56E Battery

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In an April 2009 interview with the state-run[164] Global Times, Chen Hu, editor-in-chief of World Military Affairs magazine has said that the F-35 is too costly because it attempts to provide the capabilities needed for all three American services in a common airframe.[16Sony VGN-FW31E Battery


Sony VGN-FW54S Battery5] U.S. defense specialist Winslow T. Wheeler and aircraft designer Pierre Sprey have commented of the F-35 being “heavy and sluggish” and possessing “pitifully small load for all that money”, further criticizing the value for money of the stealth measures as well as lacking fire safety measures; Sony VGN-FW31J Battery

Sony VGN-FW44MR Battery


Sony VGN-FW54J Battery his final conclusion was that any air force would be better off maintaining its fleets of F-16s and F/A-18s compared to buying into the F-35 program.[166] A senior U.S. defense official was quoted as saying that the F-35 will be “the most stealthy, Sony VGN-FW11MR Battery

Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

sophisticated and lethal tactical fighter in the sky,” and added “Quite simply, the F-15 will be no match for the F-35.”[167] After piloting the aircraft, RAF Squadron Leader Steve Long said that, over its existing aircraft, the F-35 will give “the RAF and Navy a quantum leap in airborne capability.”[168] Sony VGN-FW11SR Battery


Sony VGN-FW56ZR Battery

In 2011, Canadian politicians raised the issue of the safety of the F-35′s reliance on a single engine (as opposed to a twin-engine configuration, which provides a backup in case of an engine failure). Canada, and other operators, Sony VGN-FW11Z Battery

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Sony VGN-FW51E/H Batteryhad previous experience with a high-accident rate with the single-engine Lockheed CF-104 Starfighter with many accidents related to engine failures. Defence Minister Peter MacKay, when asked what would happen if the F-35′s single engine fails in the Far North, stated “It won’t”.[169] Sony VGN-FW21SR Battery


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In December 2011, the Pentagon and Lockheed Martin came to an agreement to assure funding and delivery for a fifth order of early F-35 aircraft of yet undefined type.[1Sony VGN-FW21ZR Battery

Sony VGN-FW46Z Battery72] On 22 February 2013, the fledgling F-35 fleet was grounded after a routine inspection of a F-35A at Edwards Air Force Base found a crack in an engine turbine blade.[173][174] Sony VGN-FW46S Battery


In March 2012, Tom Burbage, and Gary Liberson, of Lockheed Martin addressed an Australian Parliamentary Committee about earlier assessments, stating “Our current assessment that we speak of is greater than 6 to 1 relative loss exchange ratio against, in 4 versus 8 engagement scenarios—4 blue F-35s versus 8 advanced red threats in the 2015 to 2020 time frame. Sony VGN-NW26M Battery


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And it is very important to note that is without the pilot in the loop and are the lowest number that we talk about, the greater than 6 to 1 is when we include the pilot in the loop [simulator] activities”. Sony VGN-NW20EF Battery


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Sony VGN-NS20EF/S BatteryThey said: “we actually have a fifth-gen airplane flying today. The F22 has been in many exercises and is much better than the simulations forecast. We have F35 flying today; it has not been put into that scenario yet, Sony VGN-NW20SF Battery

Sony VGN-NW24EG Battery


Sony VGN-NS30Z/S Batterybut we have very high quality information on the capability of the sensors and the capability of the airplane, and we have represented the airplane fairly and appropriately in these large-scale campaign models that we are using. But it is not just us—it is our air force; it is your air force; Sony VGN-NW24JG Battery


Sony VGN-NS30E/S Batteryit is all the other participating nations that do this; it is our navy and our marine corps that do these exercises. It is not Lockheed in a closet gleaning up some sort of result.”[175] Sony VGN-NW24MG Battery

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In May 2012, Michael Auslin of the American Enterprise Institute has questioned the capability of the F-35 to engage modern air defenses.[176] In July 2012, the Pentagon awarded Lockheed Martin $450 million to improve the F-35 electronic warfare systems and incorporate Israeli systems.[177Sony VGN-NW26EG Battery

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Sony VGN-NS20J/P Battery]

In June 2012, Australia’s Air Vice Marshal Osley responded to Air Power Australia’s criticisms by saying “Air Power Australia (Kopp and Goon) claim that the F-35 will not be competitive in 2020 and that


Sony VGN-NS20E/P BatteryAir Power Australia’s criticisms mainly center around F-35′s aerodynamic performance and stealth capabilities.” Osley continued with, “these are inconsistent with years of detailed analysis that has been undertaken by Defence, Sony VGN-NW20SF Battery

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Sony VGN-NS11J/S Batterythe JSF program office, Lockheed Martin, the U.S. services and the eight other partner nations. While aircraft developments such as the Russian PAK-FA or the Chinese J20, as argued by Airpower Australia, show that threats we could potentially face are becoming increasingly sophisticated, Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery


Sony VGN-NS10L/S Battery there is nothing new regarding development of these aircraft to change Defence’s assessment.” He then said that he thinks that the Air Power Australia’s “analysis is basically flawed through incorrect assumptions and a lack of knowledge of the classified F-35 performance information.”[178] Sony VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery

In a report released in 2013 it was stated that flaws in the fuel tank and fueldraulic (fuel-based hydraulic) systems have left it considerably more vulnerable to lightning strikes and other fire sources including enemy fire than previously revealed, Sony VGN-NS10E/S Battery

especially at lower altitudes.[179] This report updated a separate report from 2010, in which Lockheed Martin spokesman John Kent said that adding fire-suppression systems would offer “very small” improvement to survivability.[180Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery

Sony VPCF11C5E Battery


Sony VPCF13E4E Battery] The same 2010 report also noted performance degradation of the three variants, the sustained turn rates had been reduced to 4.6 g for the F-35A, 4.5 g for the F-35B, and 5.0 g for the F-35C. The acceleration performance of all three variants was also downgraded, with the F-35C taking 43 seconds longer than an F-16 to accelerate from Mach 0.8 to Mach 1.2;


Sony VPCF12M1E/H Batterythis was judged by several fighter pilots to be a lower performance level than expected from a fourth generation fighter.[181] On 30 August 2013, it was reported that the F-35B and F-35C models take several complex maneuvers in order to “accelerate” to their top speed of Mach 1.6, which consumed almost all of the onboard fuel.[18Sony VPCF11D4E Battery

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Sony VPCF12F4E/H Battery2] The F-35 program office is reconsidering addition of previously removed safety equipment.[183] In 2012, Lockheed Martin program manager Tom Burbage said that while the relatively large cross-sectional area of the fighter that was required by the internal weapons Sony VPCF11S1E/B Battery


Sony VPCF12E1E/H Battery bays gave it a disadvantage against fourth generation fighters that were operating in a clear configuration, once both fighters were armed the F-35 had the advantage.[184] Sony VPC-F2 Battery


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In March 2013 USAF test pilots noted a lack of visibility from the F-35 cockpit during evaluation flights and said that this will get them consistently shot down in combat. Defense spending analyst Winslow Wheeler concluded from the flight evaluation reports that the F-35A “is flawed beyond redemption”;[18Sony VPC-F21Z1E Battery


Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery5] in response, program manager Bogdan suggested that pilots worried about being shot down should fly cargo aircraft instead.[186] The same report found (in addition to the usual problems with the aircraft listed above): Sony VPCF22J1E Battery


Sony VPCF11S1E Battery

In September 2012, the Pentagon criticized, quite publicly, Lockheed Martin’s performance on the F-35 program and stated that it would not bail out the program again if problems with the plane’s systems, Sony VPCF22L1E Battery


Sony VPCF24M1E Batteryparticularly the helmet-mounted display, were not resolved. The deputy F-35 program manager said that the government’s relationship with the company was the “worst I’ve ever seen” in many years of working on complex acquisition programs. Sony VPCF22M1E Battery

Sony VPCF22S1E Battery


Sony VPCF23S1E BatteryAir Force Secretary Michael Donley told reporters the Pentagon had no more money to pour into the program after three costly restructurings in recent years. He said the department was done with major restructuring and that there was no further flexibility or tolerance for that approach. Sony VPCF22S8E Battery


Sony VPCF231S1E BatteryThis criticism followed a “very painful” 7 September review that focused on an array of ongoing program challenges. Lockheed Martin responded with a brief statement saying it would continue to work with the F-35 program office to deliver the new fighter.[190]

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On 28 September 2012, the Pentagon announced that the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter support program would become an open competition. Sony VPCF23M1E Battery

They invited companies to participate in a two-day forum on 14–15 November for possible opportunities to compete for work managing the supply chain of the aircraft. Their reason is to reduce F-35 life-cycle costs by creating Sony VPCF13E8E Battery

Sony VPCF13M0E/B Battery competition within the program and to refine its acquisition strategy and evaluate alternatives that will deliver the best value, long-term F-35 sustainment solution. This could be hazardous to Lockheed Martin, the current prime contractor for sustainment of all three variants, and selection of another company could reduce their revenues.[19Sony VPCF13J0E/H Battery

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In 2013, the officer in charge of the program blamed Lockheed Martin and Pratt & Whitney for gouging the government on costs, instead of focusing on the long term future of the program.[192] Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery

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Lockheed Martin’s development roadmap extends until 2021, including a block 6 engine improvement in 2019. The aircraft are expected to be upgraded throughout their operational lives.[193] Sony VPCF13Z8E Battery

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On 12 September 2013, Northrop Grumman revealed they were developing a company-funded Directional Infrared Counter Measures system in anticipation of a requirement to protect the F-35 from heat-seeking air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles. A DIRCM is not a requirement for the F-35 Block 3 currently in development, Sony VPCF12S1E/B Battery

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but a laser jammer is expected to be part of the Block 5 upgrade. The system must meet low-observability (LO) requirements to fit in the restricted space in the F-35. Called the Threat Nullification Defensive Resource (ThNDR), Sony VPCF21Z1E/BI Battery


Sony VPCF13M8E/B Battery it will have a smaller, more powerful laser, beam steering and LO window, and require liquid cooling. It can fit alongside sensors for the aircraft’s distributed aperture system (DAS). There would be two jam heads, Sony VPCF24Q1E Battery

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Sony VPCF12M0E/B Batteryone on top and one underneath, to provide spherical coverage with minimal change to the outer mold line. The DAS’s six infrared sensors would provide missile warning and cue the jam head. ThNDR could also be used on the F-22 Raptor, and an air-cooled version in a self-contained pod could be used on the F-15 and F-16.[194Sony VPCF23N1E Battery


Sony VPCF12Z1E Battery]


F-35B’s thrust vectoring nozzle and lift fan

The F-35 appears to be a smaller, single-engine sibling of the twin-engine Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor, and indeed drew elements from it. The exhaust duct design was inspired by the General Dynamics Model 200 design, Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery

Sony VPCY21S1E/G Battery


Sony VPCF13S0E/B Batterywhich was proposed for a 1972 supersonic VTOL fighter requirement for the Sea Control Ship.[195] Lockheed consulted with the Yakovlev Design Bureau in the development of the F-35B STOVL variant, purchasing design data from their development of the Yakovlev Yak-141 “Freestyle”.[19Sony VPCF22M0E Battery

Sony VPCF13S1E/B Battery6][197] Although several experimental designs have been developed since the 1960s, such as the unsuccessful Rockwell XFV-12, the F-35B is to be the first operational supersonic, STOVL stealth fighter.[198] Sony VGN-AR61ZRU Battery

Sony VGN-AR61ZU Battery


Sony VGN-AR31S Battery

Acquisition deputy to the assistant secretary of the Air Force, Lt. Gen. Mark D. “Shack” Shackelford has said that the F-35 is designed to be America’s “premier surface-to-air missile killer and is uniquely equipped for this mission with cutting edge processing power, synthetic aperture radar integration techniques, and advanced target recognition.”[199Sony VGN-AR71E Battery


Sony VGN-AR31MR Battery][200] Lockheed Martin states the F-35 is intended to have close- and long-range air-to-air capability second only to that of the F-22 Raptor.[7] Lockheed Martin has said that the F-35 has the advantage over the F-22 in basing flexibility and “advanced sensors and information fusion”.[2Sony VGN-AR71J Battery

Sony VGN-AR71L Battery


Sony VGN-AR31M Battery01] Lockheed Martin has suggested that the F-35 could replace the USAF’s F-15C/D fighters in the air superiority role and the F-15E Strike Eagle in the ground attack role, although the F-35 lacks the range or payload of the F-15.[2Sony VGN-AR71M Battery

Sony VGN-AR71MR Battery


Sony VGN-AR31E Battery02] The F-35A carries a similar air-to-air armament as the conceptual Boeing F-15SE Silent Eagle when both aircraft are configured for low observable operations, having roughly 80 percent of the F-15SE’s combat radius under those conditions.[203] Sony VGN-AR51MR Battery


Sony VGN-AR21MR Battery

Some improvements over current-generation fighter aircraft are:

Durable, low-maintenance stealth technology, using structural fiber mat instead of the high-maintenance coatings of legacy stealth platforms;[204] Sony VGN-AR51SRU Battery

Sony VGN-AR51SU Battery


Sony VGN-AR41SR Battery

Integrated avionics and sensor fusion that combine information from off- and on-board sensors to increase the pilot’s situational awareness and improve target identification and weapon delivery, and to relay information quickly to other command and control (C2) nodes; Sony VGN-AR61E Battery


Sony VGN-AR41S Battery

High speed data networking including IEEE 1394b[205] and Fibre Channel.[206] (Fibre Channel is also used on Boeing’s Super Hornet.[207])

The Autonomic Logistics Global Sustainment (ALGS), Sony VGN-AR61MR Battery

Sony VGN-AR61MR Battery


Sony VGN-AR41MR BatteryAutonomic Logistics Information System (ALIS) and Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) are to help ensure aircraft uptime with minimal maintenance manpower.[208] The Pentagon has moved to open up the competitive bidding by other companies.[2Sony VGN-AR61S Battery


Sony VGN-AR41L Battery

Sony VGN-AR41M Battery09] This was after Lockheed Martin stated that instead of costing twenty percent less than the F-16 per flight hour, the F-35 would actually cost twelve percent more.[210] Though the ALGS is intended to reduce maintenance costs, the company disagrees with including the cost of this system in the aircraft ownership calculations.[ Sony VGN-AR31SR Battery

Sony VGN-AR41E Battery211] The USMC have implemented a workaround for a cyber vulnerability in the system.[212]

Electrohydrostatic actuators run by a power-by-wire flight-control system.[213]

A modern and updated flight simulator, which may be used for a greater fraction of pilot training in order to reduce the costly flight hours of the actual aircraft.[214] Sony VGN-FE11SR battery

Sony VGN-FE21B battery

Lightweight, powerful and volatile Lithium-ion batteries similar to those that have grounded the Boeing 787 Dreamliner fleet.[215] These are required to provide power to run the control surfaces in an emergency,[216] and have been strenuously tested.[217]

Sony VGN-FE21H battery




Structural composites in the F-35 are 35% of the airframe weight (up from 25% in the F-22).[218] The majority of these are bismaleimide (BMI) and composite epoxy material.[219] The F-35 will be the first mass produced aircraft to include structural nanocomposites, namely carbon nanotube reinforced epoxy.[ Sony VGN-FE21M battery

Sony VGN-FE21S battery

Sony VGN-FE21SR battery

Sony VGN-FE31B battery

Sony VGN-FE31H battery

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Sony PCG-81412M battery220] Experience of the F-22′s problems with corrosion lead to the F-35 using a gap filler that causes less galvanic corrosion to the airframe’s skin, designed with fewer gaps requiring filler and implementing better drainage.[22Sony VGN-FE31Z battery


Sony PCG-81411M battery1] The relatively short 35-foot wingspan of the A and B variants is set by the F-35B’s requirement to fit inside the Navy’s current amphibious assault ship elevators; the F-35C’s longer wing is considered to be more fuel efficient.[222] Sony VGN-FE31ZR battery

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Sony PCG-81313M battery

A United States Navy study found that the F-35 will cost 30 to 40 percent more to maintain than current jet fighters;[223] not accounting for inflation over the F-35′s operational lifetime. A Pentagon study concluded a $1 trillion maintenance cost for the entire fleet over its lifespan.[224] Sony VGN-FE41M battery


Sony PCG-81312M battery


The engine used on the F-35 is the Pratt & Whitney F135. An alternative engine, the General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136, was under development until December 2011 when the manufacturers canceled the project.[225Sony VGN-FE41MR battery

Sony VGN-FE41S battery


Sony PCG-81311M battery][226] Neither the F135 or F136 engines are designed to supercruise in the F-35,[227] however the F-35 can achieve a limited supercruise of Mach 1.2 for 150 miles.[228] The F135 is the second (radar) stealthy afterburning jet engine and, like the Pratt & Whitney F119 Sony VGN-FE41Z battery


Sony PCG-81213M batteryfrom which it was derived, has suffered from pressure pulsations in the afterburner at low altitude and high speed or “screech” during development.[229] Turbine bearing health will be monitored with thermoelectric-powered sensors.[230]

The F-35 has a maximum speed of over Mach 1.6. With a maximum takeoff weight of 60,000 lb (27,000 kg),[N 2][232] Sony VGN-FE48E battery


Sony PCG-81212M battery the Lightning II is considerably heavier than the lightweight fighters it replaces. In empty and maximum gross weights, it more closely resembles the single-seat, single-engine Republic F-105 Thunderchief, Sony VGN-FE48M battery

Sony VGN-FE49VN battery

which was the largest single-engine fighter of the Vietnam war era. The F-35′s modern engine delivers over 60 percent more thrust in an aircraft of the same weight so that in thrust to weight and wing loading it is much closer to a comparably equipped F-16.[N 3]

Sony PCG-81113M battery


The Pratt & Whitney F135 engine with Rolls-Royce LiftSystem, including roll posts, and rear vectoring nozzle, as designed for the F-35B, at the 2007 Paris Air Show

The STOVL F-35B is outfitted with the Rolls-Royce LiftSystem, designed by Lockheed Martin and developed by Rolls-Royce. Sony PCG-81112M battery

This system more resembles the Russian Yak-141 and German VJ 101D/E than the preceding STOVL Harrier Jump Jet and the Rolls-Royce Pegasus engine.[234][235][236] The Lift System is composed of a lift fan, drive shaft, two roll posts and a “Three Bearing Swivel Module” (3BSM).[23Sony VGN-FE11S battery

Sony VGN-FE11SR battery

Sony VGN-FE21B battery

Sony VGN-FE21H battery


Sony PCG-81412M battery7] The 3BSM is a thrust vectoring nozzle which allows the main engine exhaust to be deflected downward at the tail of the aircraft. The lift fan is near the front of the aircraft and provides a counterbalancing thrust using Sony VGN-FE21M battery

Sony VGN-FE21S battery


Sony PCG-81411M battery two counter-rotating blisks.[238] It is powered by the engine’s low-pressure (LP) turbine via a drive shaft and gearbox. Roll control during slow flight is achieved by diverting unheated engine bypass air through wing-mounted thrust nozzles called Roll Posts.[239]


Sony PCG-81313M battery [240]

F136 funding came at the expense of other parts of the program, impacting on unit costs.[241] The F136 team has claimed that their engine has a greater temperature margin which may prove critical for VTOL operations in hot, high altitude conditions.[24Sony VGN-FE21SR battery

Sony VGN-FE31B battery

Sony VGN-FE31H battery

2] Pratt & Whitney has tested higher thrust versions of the F135, partly in response to GE’s claims that the F136 is capable of producing more thrust than the 43,000 lbf (190 kN) of early F135s. The F135 has demonstrated a maximum thrust of over 50,000 lbf (220 Sony VGN-FE31HR battery

Sony VGN-FE31M battery


Sony PCG-81312M batterykN) during testing;[243] making it the most powerful engine ever installed in a fighter aircraft as of 2010.[244]


F-35B, internal bay test release of a GBU-12 500lb Paveway II bomb. Also visible is an external AIM-9 Sidewinder and an AIM-120 AMRAAM, 2012

The F-35 features two internal weapons bays, and external hardpoints for mounting up to four underwing pylons and two near wingtip pylons. The two outer hardpoints can carry pylons for the AIM-9X Sidewinder and AIM-132 ASRAAM short-range air-to-air missiles (AAM) only.[245Sony VGN-FE31Z battery

Sony VGN-FE31ZR battery

] The other pylons can carry the AIM-120 AMRAAM BVR AAM, Storm Shadow cruise missile, AGM-158 Joint Air to Surface Stand-off Missile (JASSM) cruise missile, and guided bombs. The external pylons can carry missiles, bombs, and fuel tanks at the expense of reduced stealth.[24


Sony PCG-81311M battery] An air-to-air load of eight AIM-120s and two AIM-9s is possible using internal and external weapons stations; a configuration of six 2,000 lb (910 kg) bombs, two AIM-120s and two AIM-9s can also be arranged.[247][248]

6Sony VGN-FE41E battery


There are a total of four weapons stations between the two internal bays. Two of these can carry air-to-ground bombs up to 2,000 lb (910 kg) in A and C models, or two bombs up to 1,000 lb (450 kg) in the B model; the other two stations are for smaller weapons such as air-to-air missiles.[247][ Sony VGN-FE41M battery


Sony PCG-81213M battery249] The weapon bays can carry AIM-120 AMRAAM, AIM-132 ASRAAM, the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), Paveway series of bombs, the Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW), Brimstone anti-armor missiles, Sony VGN-FE41MR battery

Sony VGN-FE41S battery


Sony PCG-81212M battery and Cluster Munitions (WCMD).[247] The F-35A includes a GAU-22/A, a four-barrel version of the GAU-12 Equalizer 25 mm cannon.[250] The cannon is mounted internally with 182 rounds for the F-35A or in an external pod with 220 rounds for the F-35B and F-35C;[251


Sony PCG-81113M battery][252] the gun pod has stealth features. The Terma A/S multi-mission pod (MMP) could be used for different equipment and purposes, such as electronic warfare, reconnaissance, or rear-facing tactical radar.[253][254] Sony VGN-FE41Z battery

Sony VGN-FE48E battery


Sony PCG-81112M battery

Lockheed Martin states that the weapons load can be configured as all-air-to-ground or all-air-to-air, and has suggested that a Block 5 version will carry three weapons per bay instead of two, replacing the heavy bomb with two smaller weapons such as AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles.[15Sony VGN-FE48M battery

Sony VGN-FE49VN battery3] Upgrades are to allow each weapons bay to carry four GBU-39 Small Diameter Bombs (SDB) for A and C models, or three in F-35B.[255] Another option is four GBU-53/B Small Diameter Bomb IIs in each bay on all F-35 variants.[2Sony PCG-6P2M Battery

Sony PCG-6Q2M Battery


56] One F-35 has been outfitted with four SDB II bombs and an AMRAAM missile to test adequate bay door clearance.[257] The MBDA Meteor air-to-air missile may be adapted for the F-35, a modified Meteor with smaller tailfins for the F-35 was revealed in September 2010; plans call for the carriage of four Meteors internally.[258Sony PCG-6R1M Battery

Sony PCG-6C1M Battery

Sony PCG-6D1M Battery


Sony PCG-8X1M Battery

] The United Kingdom planned to use up to four AIM-132 ASRAAM missiles internally, later plans call for the carriage of two internal and two external ASRAAMs.[259] The external ASRAAMs are planned to be carried on “stealthy” pylons; the missile allows attacks to slightly beyond visual range without employing radar.[245][260] Sony PCG-6E1M Battery

Sony PCG-6G1M Battery


Sony PCG-791M Battery

Norway and Australia are funding an adaption of the Naval Strike Missile (NSM) for the F-35. Under the designation Joint Strike Missile (JSM), it is to be the only cruise missile to fit the F-35′s internal bays; according to studies two JSMs can be carried internally with an additional four externally.[2Sony PCG-6H1M Battery


Sony PCG-7X1M Battery61] The F-35 is expected to take on the Wild Weasel mission, though there are no planned anti-radiation missiles for internal carriage.[262] The B61 nuclear bomb was initially scheduled for deployment in 2017;[263] as of 2012 it is expected to be in the early 2020s.[264] Sony PCG-6G2M Battery

Sony PCG-6J1M Battery


Sony PCG-7T2M Battery

According to reports in 2002, solid-state lasers were being developed as optional weapons for the F-35.[265][266][267] The F-35 is also one of the target platforms for the High Speed Strike Weapon, assuming that hypersonic missile is successful.[268]

Stealth and signatures[edit] Sony PCG-6J2M Battery


Sony PCG-7R1M Battery



Landing gear door of the F-35, showing its stealthy sawtooth design



F-35A front profile inflight. Note the opened doors to expose the aerial refueling inlet valve.

The F-35 has been designed to have a low radar cross-section primarily due to the shape of the aircraft and the use of stealthy materials in its construction, including fiber-mat.[204] Unlike the previous generation of fighters, Sony PCG-6L1M Battery

Sony PCG-6L2M Battery


Sony PCG-7N2M Batterythe F-35 was designed for very-low-observable characteristics.[269] Besides radar stealth measures, the F-35 incorporates infrared and visual signature reduction measures.[270][271] Sony PCG-7Y1M Battery

Sony PCG-8V1M Battery


The Fighter Teen Series (F-15, F-16, F/A-18) carried large external fuel tanks, but in order to avoid negating its stealth characteristics the F-35 must fly most missions without them. Unlike the F-16 and F/A-18, the F-35 lacks leading edge extensions and instead uses stealth-friendly chines for vortex lift in the same fashion as the SR-71 Blackbird.[2Sony PCG-8V2M Battery

Sony PCG-8W1M Battery


Sony PCG-7N1M Battery53] The small bumps just forward of the engine air intakes form part of the diverterless supersonic inlet (DSI) which is a simpler, lighter means to ensure high-quality airflow to the engine over a wide range of conditions. These inlets also crucially improve the aircraft’s very-low-observable characteristics.[27Sony PCG-8W2M Battery


Sony PCG-7M1M Battery2]

In spite of being smaller than the F-22, the F-35 has a larger radar cross-section; said to be roughly equal to a metal golf ball rather than the F-22′s metal marble.[27Sony PCG-7A1M Battery

Sony PCG-7D1M Battery


Sony PCG-7H2M Battery3] The F-22 was designed to be difficult to detect by all types of radars and from all directions.[274] The F-35 on the other hand manifests its lowest radar signature from the frontal aspect due to design compromises. Sony PCG-7G1M Battery

Sony PCG-7H1M Battery Its surfaces are shaped to best defeat radars operating in the X and upper S band, which are typically found on fighters, surface-to-air missiles and their tracking radars; the F-35 would be easier to detect using other radar frequencies.[2Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A battery

74] Because the aircraft’s shape is important to the radar cross-section (RCS), special care must be taken to maintain the “outer mold line” during production.[275] Ground crews require Repair Verification Radar (RVR) test sets to verify the RCS after performing repairs, which is not a concern upon non-stealth aircraft.[276][2Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery

Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery


Sony VGP-BPS21 battery77]

In late 2008 the air force revealed that the F-35 would be about twice as loud at takeoff as the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle and up to four times as loud during landing.[278] As a result, residents near Luke Air Force Base, Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery


Sony VGP-BPL21 battery Arizona and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, possible home bases for the jet, requested that the air force conduct environmental impact studies concerning the F-35′s noise levels.[2


Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery78] The city of Valparaiso, Florida, adjacent to Eglin AFB, threatened in February 2009 to sue over the impending arrival of the F-35s, but this lawsuit was settled in March 2010.[279][28Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery


Sony VGP-BPS13B battery0][281] It was reported in March 2009 that testing by Lockheed Martin and the Royal Australian Air Force revealed that the F-35 was not as loud as first reported, being “only about as noisy as an F-16 fitted with a Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-200 engine” and “Sony VGP-BPS13A battery


Sony VGP-BPS13AB batteryquieter than the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor and the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.”[282] According to an acoustics study done by Lockheed Martin and the U.S. Air Force, the noise levels of the F-35 are found to be comparable to the F-22 Raptor and F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.[28Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

3] A USAF environmental impact study found that replacing F-16s with F-35s at Tucson International Airport would subject more than 21 times as many residents to extreme noise levels.[284] Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery

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F-35 cockpit mock-up

The F-35 features a full-panel-width glass cockpit touch screen[285] “panoramic cockpit display” (PCD), with dimensions of 20 by 8 inches (50 by 20 centimeters).[286] A cockpit speech-recognition system (DVI) provided by Adacel has been adopted on the F-35, Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery

added to the pilot’s ability to interact with the aircraft and operate its systems. The F-35 will be the first operational U.S. fixed-wing aircraft to employ this DVI system, although similar systems have been used on the AV-8B Harrier II and trialled in previous aircraft, such as the F-16 VISTA.[287] Sony VGP-BPS13 battery


A helmet-mounted display system (HMDS) will be fitted to all models of the F-35.[288] While some fighters have offered HMDS along with a head up display (HUD), this will be the first time in several decades that a front line fighter has been designed without a HUD.[28Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A/B battery9] The F-35 is equipped with a right-hand HOTAS side stick controller. The Martin-Baker US16E ejection seat is used in all F-35 variants.[290] The US16E seat design balances major performance requirements, including safe-terrain-clearance limits, pilot-load limits, and pilot size; Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery

Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

it uses a twin-catapult system housed in side rails.[291] The F-35 employs an oxygen system derived from the F-22′s own system, which has been involved in multiple hypoxia incidents on that aircraft; unlike the F-22, the flight profile of the F-35 is similar to other fighters that routinely use such systems.[292][293] Sony VGP-BPS13A battery


Sony VGP-BPS21B battery

Sensors and avionics[edit]



Electro-optical target system (EOTS) under the nose of a mockup of the F-35

The F-35′s sensor and communications suite is said to possess situational awareness, command-and-control and network-centric warfare capabilities.[7][294] The main sensor on board is the AN/APG-81 AESA-radar, Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery

Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A batterydesigned by Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems.[295] It is augmented by the nose-mounted Electro-Optical Targeting System (EOTS);[296] designed by Lockheed Martin, it provides the capabilities of the externally mounted Sniper XR pod while making a reduced radar presence.[297Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery


Sony VGP-BPS21 battery][298] The AN/ASQ-239 (Barracuda) system is an improved version of the AN/ALR-94 EW suite on the F-22. The AN/ASQ-239 provides sensor fusion of RF and IR tracking functions, basic radar warning, Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

Sony VGP-BPS13AB battery


Sony VGP-BPL21 batterymultispectral countermeasures for self-defense against threat missiles, situational awareness and electronic surveillance; employing 10 radio frequency antennae embedded into the edges of the wing and tail.[29Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery


Sony VGP-BPL13 battery9][300]

Six additional passive infrared sensors are distributed over the aircraft as part of Northrop Grumman’s AN/AAQ-37 distributed aperture system (DAS),[3Sony VGP-BPS13B battery


Sony VGP-BPS13S battery2] which acts as a missile warning system, reports missile launch locations, detects and tracks approaching aircraft spherically around the F-35, and replaces traditional night vision goggles for night operations and navigation. All DAS functions are performed simultaneously, in every direction, at all times. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery

Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A /B BatteryThe F-35′s Electronic Warfare systems are designed by BAE Systems and include Northrop Grumman components.[301] Some functions such as the Electro-Optical Targeting System and the Electronic Warfare system are not usually integrated on fighters.[302Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery


Sony VGP-BPS21B battery]

The communications, navigation and identification (CNI) suite is designed by Northrop Grumman and includes the Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL), as one of a half dozen different physical links.[303Sony VGP-BPS13S battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A battery] The F-35 will be the first jet fighter with sensor fusion that combines radio frequency and IR tracking for continuous target detection and identification in all directions which is shared via MADL to other platforms without compromising low observability.[2


Sony VGP-BPS21 battery31] The non-stealthy Link 16 is also included for communication with legacy systems.[304] The F-35 has been designed with synergy between sensors as a specific requirement, the aircraft’s “senses”Sony VGP-BPL13 battery

Sony VGP-BPL21 battery being expected to provide a more cohesive picture of the reality around it and be available for use in any possible way and combination with one another; for example, the AN/APG-81 multi-mode radar also acts as a part of the electronic warfare system.[305] Sony VPCSD1S1C battery
Sony SVS15 battery
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Unlike previous aircraft, such as the F-22, much of the new software for the F-35 is written in C and C++, because of programer availability. Much Ada83 code is reused from the F-22.[306] The Integrity DO-178B real-time operating system (RTOS) from Green Hills Software runs on COTS Freescale PowerPC processors.[ Sony VPCSA2Z9E battery
Sony SVE151G13M battery307] The final Block 3 software for the F-35 is planned to have 8.6 million lines of software code.[308] The scale of the program has led to a software crisis as officials continue to discover that additional software needs to be written.[30Sony VPCZ11 battery

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9] General Norton Schwartz has said that the software is the biggest factor that might delay the USAF’s initial operational capability.[3Sony VPCZ11X9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12Z9E/B battery10] Michael Gilmore, Director of Operational Test & Evaluation, has written that, “the F-35 mission systems software development and test is tending towards familiar historical patterns of extended development, discovery in flight test, and deferrals to later increments.”[311] Sony VPCZ11Z9E battery


Sony VPCZ12X9E/B battery

The F-35′s electronic warfare systems are intended to detect hostile aircraft, then scan them with the electro-optical system to allow the pilot to engage or evade the opponent before the F-35 is detected.[305] Sony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12V9E/B battery The CATbird avionics testbed for the F-35 program has proved capable of detecting and jamming radars, including those used on the F-22.[312] The F-35 was previously considered a platform for the Next Generation Jammer; however attention has shifted to the use of unmanned aircraft as an alternate platform.[313] Sony VPCZ12C7E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12V9E battery

Several “critical electronic subsystems” of the F-35 depend on Xilinx FPGAs.[314] These COTS components allow for refreshes in supplies from the commercial market and to field upgrade the entire fleet via software for the aircraft’s software-defined radio systems.[315] Sony VPCZ12M9E battery

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Helmet-mounted display system[edit]



VSI Helmet-mounted display system

The F-35 does not need to be physically pointing at its target for weapons to be successful.[247][31Sony VGN-TT1RLN/B battery

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6] Sensors can track and target a nearby aircraft from any orientation, provide the information to the pilot through his helmet (and therefore visible no matter which way the pilot is looking), and provide the seeker-head of a missile with sufficient information. Sony VGN-TT1RWN/X battery

Sony VGN-TT11LN/B battery


Sony VGN-Z51XG/B batteryRecent missile types provide a much greater ability to pursue a target regardless of the launch orientation, called “High Off-Boresight” capability. Sensors use combined radio frequency and infra red (SAIRST) Sony VGN-TT11M/N battery

Sony VGN-TT11RM/N battery

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Sony VGN-Z51WG/B battery to continually track nearby aircraft while the pilot’s helmet-mounted display system (HMDS) displays and selects targets; the helmet system replaces the display-suite-mounted head-up display used in earlier fighters.[317] Sony VGN-TT11VN/X battery


Sony VGN-Z51MG/B battery

The F-35′s systems provide the edge in the “observe, orient, decide, and act” OODA loop; stealth and advanced sensors aid in observation (while being difficult to observe), automated target tracking helps in orientation, Sony VGN-TT11WN/B battery

Sony VGN-TT11XN/B battery


Sony VGN-Z51XTG/B battery sensor fusion simplifies decision making, and the aircraft’s controls allow the pilot to keep their focus on the targets, rather than the controls of their aircraft.[318][N 4]

Problems with the Vision Systems International helmet-mounted display led Lockheed Martin-Elbit Systems to issue a draft specification for alternative proposals in early 2011, Sony VGN-TT21JN/B battery

Sony VGN-TT21VN/X battery

Sony VGN-Z31XN/B battery to be based around the Anvis-9 night vision goggles.[319] BAE Systems was selected to provide the alternative system in late 2011.[320] The BAE Systems alternative helmet was to include all the features of the VSI system.[3Sony VGN-TT21WN/B battery

Sony VGN-TT46GG/W battery

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21] Adopting the alternative helmet would have required a cockpit redesign,[322] but in 2013 development on the alternative helmet was halted due to progress on the baseline helmet.[323] Sony SVE14AG15M battery

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In 2011, Lockheed Martin-Elbit granted VSI a contract to fix the vibration, jitter, night-vision and sensor display problems in their helmet-mounted display.[324] A speculated potential improvement is the replacement of Intevac’s ISIE-10 day/night camera with the newer ISIE-11 model.[325] Sony VGN-TT46MG/W battery

Sony VGN-TT46SG/W battery


Sony VGN-Z51XG battery

Sony VGN-Z battery

In October 2012, Lockheed Martin-Elbit stated that progress had been made in resolving the technical issues of the helmet-mounted display, and cited positive reports from night flying tests;
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it had been questioned whether the helmet system allows pilots enough visibility at night to carry out precision tasks.[32Sony SVE14AE15M battery

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6] In 2013, in spite of continuing problems with the helmet display, the F-35B model completed 19 nighttime vertical landings onboard the USS Wasp at sea,[327] by using the DAS instead of the helmet’s built-in night vision capabilities, which offer at best 20/35 vision.[328] Sony SVE14AA11M battery
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The program’s maintenance concept is for any F-35 to be maintained in any F-35 maintenance facility and that all F-35 parts in all bases will be globally tracked and shared as needed.[32
Sony SVE171E13M battery9] The commonality between the different variants has allowed the USMC to create their first aircraft maintenance Field Training Detachment to directly apply the lessons of the USAF to their F-35 maintenance operations.[ Sony SVE151D11M battery
Sony SVE171A11M battery330] The aircraft has been designed for ease of maintenance, with 95% of all field replaceable parts “one deep”Sony SVE171G11M battery
where nothing else has to be removed to get to the part in question. For instance the ejection seat can be replaced without removing the canopy, the use of low-maintenance electro-hydrostatic actuators instead of hydraulic systems and an all-composite skin without the fragile coatings found on earlier stealth aircraft.[331] Sony SVE171C11M battery
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The F-35 has received good reviews from pilots and maintainers, suggesting it is performing better than its predecessors did at a similar stage of development. The stealth type has proved relatively stable from a maintenance standpoint. Sony SVE171E11M battery

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Sony SVS151A12M batteryPart of the improvement is attributed to better maintenance training, as F-35 maintainers have received far more extensive instruction at this early stage of the program than on the F-22 Raptor. Sony SVE171A11M battery

Sony SVS151A11M batteryThe F-35′s stealth coatings are much easier to work with than those used on the Raptor. Cure times for coating repairs are lower and many of the fasteners and access panels are not coated, further reducing Sony SVE151C11M battery

Sony SVS131B12M batterythe workload for maintenance crews. Some of the F-35′s radar-absorbent materials are baked into the jet’s composite skin, which means its stealthy signature is not easily degraded.[332] It is still harder to maintain (due to its stealth) than fourth-generation aircraft.[333] Sony SVE1711T1EB battery

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Operational history[edit]



The first F-35A (designated AA-1) was rolled out in Fort Worth, Texas, on 19 February 2006. In September 2006, the first engine run of the F135 in an airframe took place.[334] On 15 December 2006, the F-35A completed its maiden flight.[33Sony SVE1711K1EW battery
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Sony SVS13A1U9ES battery5] A modified Boeing 737–300, the Lockheed CATBird has been used as an avionics test-bed for the F-35 program, including a duplication of the cockpit.[153]

The first F-35B (designated BF-1) made its maiden flight on 11 June 2008, piloted by BAE Systems’ test pilot Graham Tomlinson. Sony SVE1711X1EB battery

Sony VPCCA2S1E battery Flight testing of the variant’s STOVL propulsion system began on 7 January 2010.[336] The F-35B’s first hover was on 17 March 2010, followed by its first vertical landing the next day.[3Sony SVE1511G1EW battery

Sony VPCCA3S1E battery37] During a test flight on 10 June 2010, the F-35B became the second STOVL aircraft to achieve supersonic speeds[338] after the X-35B.[339] In January 2011, Lockheed Martin reported that a solution had been found for the cracking of an aluminum bulkhead during ground testing of the F-35B.[34Sony SVE1511G1ESI battery
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Sony VPCCB3M1E battery0] However, in 2013, the F-35B had suffered another incident involving bulkhead cracking.[341]



The first delivered USAF F-35 on its delivery flight to Eglin Air Force Base in July 2011.

External video

F-35B tests on USS Wasp in 2011

Short TakeOff

BF-04 vertical landing

By June 2009, many of the initial flight test targets had been accomplished but the program was behind schedule.[342] During 2008, Sony SVE1511S1EW battery

Sony VPCCA4S1E battery a Pentagon Joint Estimate Team (JET) estimated that the program was two years behind the public schedule, a revised estimate in 2009 predicted a 30-month delay.[343] Delays reduced planned production numbers by 122 aircraft through 2015 Sony SVE1511S1ESI battery

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Sony SVE1511J1EW battery to provide an addition 2.8 billion for development; internal memos suggested that the official timeline would be extended by 13 months.[343][344] The success of the JET led Ashton
Sony SVE1511H1EW batteryCarter calling for more such teams for other poorly performing projects.[345]

Nearly 30 percent of test flights required more than routine maintenance to make the aircraft flightworthy again.[346] As of March 2010, the F-35 program had used a million more man-hours than predicted.[3Sony SVE1511S1EB battery
Sony SVE1511B1EW battery47] The United States Navy projected that lifecycle costs over a 65-year fleet life for all American F-35s to be $442 billion higher than U.S. Air Force projections.[348] F-35 delays have led to shortfall of up to 100 jet fighters in the Navy/Marines team, Sony VPCSE2F1E battery
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although measures have been taken using existing assets to manage and reduce this shortfall.[349]

The F-35C’s maiden flight took place on 7 June 2010, at NAS Fort Worth JRB. A total of 11 U.S. Air Force F-35s arrived in fiscal year 2011.[350] Sony PCG-4121DM battery
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Dell XPS M1730 battery On 9 March 2011, all F-35s were grounded after a dual generator failure and oil leak in flight;[351] the cause of the incident was discovered to have been the result of faulty maintenance.[35
Dell XPS M1530 battery2] In 2012, Navy Commander Erik Etz of the F-35 JSF Program Office commented that rigorous testing of the F-35′s sensors had taken place during exercise Northern Edge 2011, and had served as a significant risk-reduction step.[353][354] Sony PCG-41211M battery
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From 3–18 August 2011, the F-35 fleet was grounded while the Joint Program Office investigated an electrical system failure. On 2 August 2011, the Honeywell-built integrated power package (IPP) of an F-35 had failed during a standard engine test at Edwards Air Force Base.[355][356] On 10 August 201
Dell XPS M1330 batteryground operations for the F-35 Program were re-instituted while the investigation continued. Preliminary inquiries indicated that a control valve did not function properly, leading to the IPP failure.[357][ 1, Sony PCG-41218M battery

Dell XPS M1210 battery358] On 18 August 2011, the flight ban was lifted for 18 of the 20 fighters; two aircraft remained grounded due to a lack of monitoring systems.[ Sony PCG-41414M battery
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Dell XPS L702X battery359] The IPP suffered another software-related incident in 2013, this caused no additional disruption as the fleet was already grounded due to separate issues experienced with the engine.[360] Sony PCG-4121GM battery

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On 25 October 2011, the F-35A reached its designed top speed of Mach 1.6 for the first time.[361] Further testing demonstrated Mach 1.61 and 9.9g.[362] During testing in 2011, all eight landing tests of the F-35C tail hook failed to catch the arresting wire; as a result the design of the hook underwent alteration.[363] In October 2011, Dell XPS 14 battery
two F-35B VTOL aircraft conducted three weeks of initial sea trials aboard USS Wasp.[364] On 15 August 2012, an F-35B completed air start tests, which involved shutting down and restarting the engine while in flight; the F-35A had previously completed these tests.[365] Dell XPS 15 battery
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During the fourth quarter of 2012, weapons separation tests were performed. On 6 October 2012, the F-35A dropped its first bomb,[366] followed three days later by an AIM-120 AMRAAM.[367] On 28 November 2012, Dell XPS L401X battery
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Dell XPS L502X battery an F-35C performed a total of eleven weapon releases, ejecting a GBU-31 JDAM and GBU-12 Paveway from its weapons bay in the first ground weapons ejections for the F-35C.[368] Dell Latitude E5400 battery
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On 16 November 2012, the U.S. Marines received the first F-35B at MCAS Yuma, and the VMFA(AW)-121 unit is to be redesignated from a Boeing F/A-18 Hornet unit to an F-35B squadron.[369Dell Latitude E5510 battery
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] A February 2013 Time article revealed that Marine pilots are not allowed to perform a vertical landing – the maneuver is deemed too dangerous, and it is reserved only for Lockheed test pilots.[370] Dell Latitude E5500 battery
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On 18 January 2013, the F-35B variant was grounded after the failure of a fueldraulic line in the aircraft’s propulsion system on 16 January prior to a conventional takeoff.[371] The problem was traced to an “improperly crimped” fluid line manufactured by Stratoflex.[372][3Dell Latitude E6400 battery
Dell Latitude E6430s battery73] The Pentagon cleared all 25 F-35B aircraft to resume flight tests on 12 February 2013.[374] On 22 February 2013, the U.S. Department of Defense grounded the entire fleet of 51 F-35s after the discovery of a cracked turbine blade in a U.S. Air Force F-35A at Edwards Air Force Base.[375][37Dell Latitude E6400 ATG battery
Dell Latitude E6430 battery6] On 28 February 2013, the Defense Department lifted the grounding after an investigation concluded that the cracks in that particular engine resulted from stressful testing, including excessive heat for a prolonged period during flight, and did not reflect a fleetwide problem.[377][378Dell Latitude E6500 battery
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On 11 February 2013, an F-35A completed its final test mission for clean wing flutter, reporting to be clear of flutter at speeds up to Mach 1.6.[379] On 10 May 2013, the F-35B completed its first vertical takeoff test.[380Dell Latitude E4310 battery

] On 5 June 2013, an F-35A completed the first in-flight missile launch of an AIM-120 C5 AAVI (AMRAAM Air Vehicle Instrumented) over the Point Mugu Sea Test Range. The missile was launched from the internal weapons bay of the F-35.[381] Dell Latitude E4320 battery
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On 3 August 2013, the F-35B completed its 500th vertical landing. The aircraft, BF-1, was the same aircraft that made the F-35B’s first vertical landing at Naval Air Station Patuxent River in March 2010.[382] Dell Latitude E6410 battery
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In 2011, the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation warned that the USAF’s plan to start unmonitored flight training “risks the occurrence of a serious mishap”.[383] The leaders of the United States Senate Committee on Armed Services called on Defense Secretary Leon Panetta to address the issue.[38Dell Latitude E6500 battery

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Dell Latitude E6320 battery4] Despite the objections, expanded trial flights began in September 2012.[385]

The F-35A and F-35B were cleared for flight training in early 2012.[386] A military flight release for the F-35A was issued on 28 February 2012.[387] The aircraft were restricted to basic maneuvers with no tactical training allowed.[388Dell Latitude E6510 battery

Dell Latitude E6220 battery] On 24 August 2012, an F-35 flew its 200th sortie while at Eglin Air Force Base, flown by a Marine pilot. The pilot said, “The aircraft have matured dramatically since the early days. The aircraft are predictable and seem to be maintainable, which is good for the sortie production rate. Currently, Dell Latitude E6120 battery
Dell Latitude E6210 battery the flight envelope for the F-35 is very, very restricted, but there are signs of improvement there too.” The F-35s at the base no longer need to fly with a chase aircraft and are operating in a normal two-ship element.[389] Sony PCG-41212M battery


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On 21 August 2012, J. Michael Gilmore wrote that he would not approve the Operational Test and Evaluation master plan until his concerns about electronic warfare testing, budget and concurrency were addressed.[39Sony PCG-41215M battery

Sony VPCZ21Q9E battery0] On 7 September 2012, the Pentagon failed to approve a comprehensive operational testing plan for the F-35.[3Sony PCG-41216M battery

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91] Instead, on 10 September 2012, the USAF began an operational utility evaluation (OUE) of the F-35A entire system, including logistical support and maintenance, maintenance training, pilot training, and pilot execution.[39Sony VGN-TT battery


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Sony VGN-Z51WG battery2] By 1 October, the OUE was reported as “proceeding smoothly”, pilots started on simulators prior to flying on 26 October.[393] The OUE was completed on Sony VGN-Z11WN/B battery


Sony VGN-Z51 battery14 November with the 24th flight, the four pilots involved having completing six flights each.[394]

During the Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) phase of the aircraft, the U.S. had taken a tri-service approach to developing tactics and procedures for the F-35 using flight simulators prior to the type entering service. Sony VGN-Z11XN/X battery


Sony VGN-Z31ZN/B batterySimulated flights had tested the flight control’s effectiveness, helping to discover technical problems and refine aircraft design.[395] Maintenance personnel have discovered that it is possible to correct deficiencies in the F-35, Sony VGN-Z21 battery

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Sony VGN-Z31VN/X battery

Sony VGN-Z31WN/B batterywhich is a software-defined aircraft, simply by rebooting the aircraft’s software and onboard systems.[396]

Air Force pilot training F-35A started in January 2013 at Eglin Air Force Base; the program currently has a maximum capacity of 100 military pilots and 2,100 maintainer students.[397]

Basing strategy for U.S. F-35s[edit] Sony VGN-Z21WN/B battery


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On 9 December 2010 Associated Press reported (supplemented with Alert5 on 10 December 2010) that the “USMC will base 216 F-35Bs on the East Coast and 184 of them on the West Coast, documents showed.”


Sony VGN-Z31 battery This report continued to state that, “Cherry Point will get 128 jets to form eight squadrons; Beaufort will have three squadrons and a pilot training center using 88 aircraft; Miramar will form six operational squadrons with 96 jets and 88 F-35s will go to Yuma for five operational squadrons with an additional test and evaluation unit.”[398] Sony VGN-Z21XN battery

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In 2011, the USMC and USN signed an agreement that the USMC will purchase 340 F-35B and 80 F-35C fighters. The five squadrons of USMC F-35Cs would be assigned to Navy carriers while F-35Bs would be used ashore.[399][400][401]

Procurement and international participation[edit]


Main article: Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II procurement

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While the United States is the primary customer and financial backer, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Canada, Turkey, Australia, Norway, and Denmark have agreed to contribute US$4.375 billion towards development costs.[40Sony PCG-41218M battery

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Sony VPCZ13M9E/B battery2] Total development costs are estimated at more than US$40 billion (underwritten largely by the United States), the purchase of an estimated 2,400 aircraft is expected to cost an additional US$200 billion.[403] The initial plan was that the nine major partner nations would acquire over 3,100 F-35s through 2035.[404] Sales to partner nations are made through the Pentagon’s Foreign Military Sales program.[405] Sony PCG-31114M battery



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There are three levels of international participation.[406] The levels generally reflect financial stake in the program, the amount of technology transfer and subcontracts open for bid by national companies, and the order in which countries Sony PCG-41311M battery

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can obtain production aircraft. The United Kingdom is the sole “Level 1″ partner, contributing US$2.5 billion, which was about 10% of the planned development costs[407] under the 1995 Memorandum Sony PCG-41314M battery

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Sony PCG-6124M batteryof Understanding that brought the UK into the project.[408] Level 2 partners are Italy, which is contributing US$1 billion; and the Netherlands, US$800 million. Level 3 partners are Turkey, Sony PCG-4R2M battery


Sony PCG-6123M battery US$195 million; Canada, US$160 million; Australia, US$144 million; Norway, US$122 million and Denmark, US$110 million. Israel and Singapore have joined as Security Cooperative Participants (SCP).[409][410][411] Sony PCG-4R2M battery

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Sony PCG-6122M battery Japan announced on 20 December 2011 its intent to purchase 42 F-35s with deliveries beginning in 2016 to replace the F-4 Phantom II; Japan seeks for 38 of the F-35s to be assembled domestically.[13Sony PCG-6Z4M battery


By 2012, many changes had occurred in the order book. Italy became the first country to announce a reduction of its overall fleet procurement, cutting its buy from 131 to 90 aircraft. Other nations reduced initial purchases or delayed orders while still intending to purchase the same final numbers. Sony PCG-6112M battery

Sony PCG-6121M batteryThe United States canceled the initial purchase of 13 F-35s and postponed orders for another 179. The United Kingdom cut its initial order and delayed a decision on future orders. Sony PCG-4121DL Battery

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Australia decided to buy the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet as an interim measure. Turkey also cut its initial order of four aircraft to two, Sony PCG-4121EL Battery

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but confirmed plans to purchase 100 F-35As.[412][413] Turkey will buy four F-35s to be delivered in 2015 and 2016, while the order may be increased from 100 to 120 aircraft.[414] These changes resulted in increased procurement prices, and increased the likelihood of further cuts.[415][416] Sony PCG-4121GL Battery


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On 3 April 2012, the Auditor General of Canada Michael Ferguson published a report on 3 April 2012 outlining problems with Canada’s procurement of the jet, including misinformation over the final cost. According to the Auditor General, the government knowingly understated the final price of the 65 jets by $10 billion.[41Sony PCG-41211L Battery


Sony PCG-41412L Battery7] Canada’s Conservative government had stated it would not reduce its order, claiming an anticipated $75–80 million unit cost; the procurement was termed a “scandal” and “fiasco” by the media and faced a full review to determine any Canadian F-35 purchase.[418][419][ Sony PCG-41212L Battery


Sony PCG-41411L Battery420] On 13 December 2012, in a scathing editorial published by CBC News, journalist Brian Stewart termed the F-35 project a “global wrecking ball” due to its run-away costs and lack of affordability for many participating nations.[421] Sony PCG-41213L Battery


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In May 2013, Lockheed Martin declared that Turkey is projected to earn $12 billion from licensed production of F-35 components.[422][423]





Configuration of the three original F-35 variants

The F-35 is being built in three different main versions to suit various combat missions.



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The F-35A is the conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) variant intended for the U.S. Air Force and other air forces. It is the smallest, lightest F-35 version and is the only variant equipped with an internal cannon, the GAU-22/A.

Sony PCG-41216L Battery This 25 mm cannon is a development of the GAU-12 carried by the USMC’s AV-8B Harrier II. It is designed for increased effectiveness against ground targets compared to the 20 mm M61 Vulcan cannon carried by other USAF fighters. Sony PCG-41214L Battery

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The F-35A is expected to match the F-16 in maneuverability and instantaneous and sustained high-g performance, and outperform it in stealth, payload, range on internal fuel, avionics, operational effectiveness, supportability, sony PCG-6X7L battery

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Sony SVE171G112 Battery and survivability.[424] It is expected to match an F-16 that is carrying the usual external fuel tank in acceleration performance.[425] It also has an internal laser designator and infrared sensors, equivalent to the Sniper XR pod carried by the F-16, built in to reduce radar cross-section. sony PCG-6XAL battery

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The A variant is primarily intended to replace the USAF’s F-16 Fighting Falcon. At one point it was also intended to replace the A-10 Thunderbolt II starting in 2028.[426sony PCG-6Z1L battery

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Sony SVE171E11L Battery][427] The F-35A can be outfitted to receive fuel via either of the two main aerial refueling methods; this was a consideration in the Canadian procurement and a deciding factor for the Japanese purchase.[428][429][430]

sony PCG-6Z3L battery

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Sony SVE171C11L BatteryThe F-35B is the short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) variant of the aircraft. Similar in size to the A variant, the B sacrifices about a third of the other version’s fuel volume to accommodate the vertical flight system. Vertical takeoffs and landings are riskier due to threats such as foreign object damage.[431][ Sony SVS131C1DL Battery

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Sony SVE151J11L Battery432] Whereas the F-35A is stressed to 9 g, the F-35B is stressed to 7 g.[433][434] The first test flight of the F-35B was conducted on 11 June 2008.[435]

Unlike other variants, the F-35B has no landing hook. The “STOVL/HOOK” control instead engages conversion between normal and vertical flight.[43Sony SVS131G1DL Battery

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Sony SVE151G13L Battery6] Jet thrust is sent directly downwards during vertical flight; the nozzle is being redesigned to spread the output across an oval rather than circular shape in order to limit damage to asphalt and ship decks.[4Sony SVS151C2DL Battery

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Sony SVE151G11L Battery7] The variant’s three-bearing swivel nozzle that directs the full thrust of the engine is moved by a “fueldraulic” actuator using pressurized fuel.[438]

The United States Marine Corps plans to purchase 340 F-35Bs,[86] to replace current inventories of both the F/A-18 Hornet (A, B, Sony PCG-61A11L Battery

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Sony SVE151E11L Battery C and D-models), and the AV-8B Harrier II, in the fighter, and attack roles.[439] The Marines plan to use the F-35B from “unimproved surfaces at austere bases”, but with “special, high-temperature concrete designed to handle the heat”.[440][4Sony PCG-61A14L Battery


Sony SVE141L11L Battery41] The USMC intends to declare Initial Operational Capability with about 50 F-35s running interim Block 2B software in the 2014 to 2015 timeframe.[442] The USAF had considered replacing the A-10 with the F-35B, but will not do so due to the F-35B inability to generate enough sorties.[443] Sony PCG-71C11L Battery

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The Royal Air Force and Royal Navy plan for the F-35B is to replace the Harrier GR9s, which were retired in 2010. One of the Royal Navy requirements for the F-35B design was a Shipborne Rolling and Vertical Landing (SRVL) Sony PCG-61714L Battery


Sony SVE141C11L Battery mode to increase maximum landing weight to bring back unused ordnance by using wing lift during landing.[444][445] In October 2010, the UK announced plans to order to the CATOBAR F-35C instead,[44Sony PCG-61813L Battery

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Sony PCG-91311L Battery6] but in May 2012 the UK reverted back to purchasing the F-35B, citing the cost of equipping the UK’s new aircraft carriers for the F-35C.[447Sony PCG-61913L Battery


Sony PCG-91211L Battery][448] In July 2013, Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Dalton announced that 617 Squadron would be the first Royal Air Force squadron to receive the F-35.[449][450] The second squadron will be the Fleet Air Arm’s 809 NAS.[451] Sony PCG-71614L Battery


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The Italian Navy is preparing Grottaglie Air Station for future operations with the F-35B. The Italian Navy is to receive 22 aircraft between 2014 and 2021, with its Cavour aircraft carrier set to be modified to operate them by 2016.[452] Sony PCG-71713L Battery

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Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps, General James Amos has said that, in spite of increasing costs and schedule delays, there is no plan B to the F-35B.[453] The F-35B is larger than the aircraft it replaces, which required USS America to be designed without well deck capabilities.[45Sony PCG-71911L Battery

Sony PCG-71912L Battery4] In 2011, the USMC and USN signed an agreement that the USMC will purchase 340 F-35B and 80 F-35C fighters while the USN will purchase 260 F-35C fighters. The five squadrons of USMC F-35Cs will be assigned to Navy carriers while F-35Bs will be used on amphibious ships and ashore. Sony PCG-61713L Battery


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On 6 January 2011, Gates said that the 2012 budget would call for a two-year pause in F-35B production during which the aircraft faced redesign, or cancellation if unsuccessful.[81][4


Sony PCG-61316L Battery55] In 2011, Lockheed Martin executive vice president Tom Burbage and former Pentagon director of operational testing Tom Christie stated that most program delays were due to the F-35B, Sony PCG-91111L Battery


Sony PCG-61315L Batterywhich forced massive redesigns of other versions.[456] Lockheed Martin Vice President Steve O’Bryan has said that most F-35B landings will be conventional to reduce stress on vertical lift components.[45Sony PCG-91112L Battery

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Sony PCG-61312L Battery7] However these conventional mode takeoffs and landings cause “an unacceptable wear rate” to the aircraft’s poorly designed tires.[458] USMC Lt. Gen. Robert Schmidle has said that the vertical lift components would only be used “a small percentage of the time” to transfer the aircraft from carriers to land bases.[45Sony PCG-71311L Battery

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Sony PCG-61311L Battery] On 3 October 2011, the F-35B began its initial sea-trials by performing a vertical landing on the deck of the amphibious assault ship USS Wasp.[460] Probation status was reportedly ended by Defense Secretary Leon Panetta in January 2012 due to progress made.[84]



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F-35C launching from an electromagnetic catapult during testing, November 2011.

Compared to the F-35A, the F-35C carrier variant features larger wings with foldable wingtip sections, larger wing and tail control surfaces for improved low-speed control, stronger landing gear for the stresses of carrier arrested landings, Sony PCG-71217L Battery


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Sony PCG-61211L Battery a twin-wheel nose gear, and a stronger tailhook for use with carrier arrestor cables. The larger wing area allows for decreased landing speed while increasing both range and payload. Sony PCG-71313L Battery


The United States Navy will use the F-35C carrier variant. It intends to buy 480 F-35Cs to replace the F/A-18A, B, C, and D Hornets and complement the existing Super Hornet fleet.[461] On 27 June 2007, the carrier variant completed its Air System Critical Design Review (CDR), allowing the production of the first two functional prototype F-35Cs.[462] The C variant is expected to be available beginning in 2014.[4Sony PCG-71315L Battery

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63] The first F-35C was rolled out on 29 July 2009.[464] The United States Marine Corps will also purchase 80 F-35Cs, enough for five marine fighter-attack squadrons, for use with navy carrier air wings in a joint service agreement signed on 14 March 2011.[399][400][401Sony PCG-71317L Battery


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On 6 November 2010, the first F-35C arrived at Naval Air Station Patuxent River. At the time, it was determined that the replacement engines for at-sea repair are too large to be transported by current underway replenishment systems.[4Sony PCG-71318L Battery

Sony PCG-71212L Battery65] In 2011, the F-35Cs were grounded for six days because of a software error intended to keep the wings from folding in mid-flight.[466] On 27 July 2011, the F-35C test aircraft CF-3 completed its first steam catapult launch during a test flight in Naval Air Engineering Station Lakehurst; the TC-13 Mod 2 test steam catapult, Sony PCG-71211L Battery

representative of current fleet technology, was used. In addition to catapult launches at varying power levels, a three-week test plan included dual-aircraft jet blast deflector testing and catapult launches using a degraded catapult configuration to measure the effects of steam ingestion on the aircraft.[467] Sony PCG-7152L Battery

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On 13 August 2011, the F-35 integrated test force successfully completed jet blast deflector (JBD) testing at the Lakehurst facility, with a round of two-aircraft testing. F-35C test aircraft CF-1 along with an F/A-18E tested a combined JBD cooling panel configuration to assess Sony PCG-7154L Battery

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the integration of F-35s in aircraft carrier launch operations. The tests measured temperatures, pressures, sound levels, velocities, and other environmental data; the combined JBD model will enable carrier deck crews to operate all air wing aircraft, including the F-35C, as per operational requirements. Further carrier suitability testing continued, Sony PCG-7162L Battery

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Sony VPCF11FGX batteryincluding catapult and arrestment testing in preparation for initial ship trials in 2013.[468] On 18 November 2011, the U.S. Navy used its new Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) to catapult an F-35C into the air for the first time.[469] Sony PCG-7172L Battery

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On 22 June 2013, The U.S. Navy’s Strike Fighter Squadron VFA-101 received the Navy’s first F-35C Lightning II carrier variant aircraft from Lockheed Martin at the squadron’s home at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.[470] Sony PCG-7174L Battery


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The F-35I is an F-35A with Israeli modifications. A senior Israel Air Force official stated “the aircraft will be designated F-35I, as there will be unique Israeli features installed in them”. Despite an initial refusal to allow such modifications, Sony PCG-7181L Battery


Sony PCG-81411L Battery the U.S. has agreed to let Israel integrate its own electronic warfare systems into the aircraft’s built-in electronic suite. That would let Israel gradually add indigenously produced EW sensors and countermeasures once it receives its first squadron. Sony PCG-7182L Battery


Sony PCG-81314L Battery In addition, a plug-and-play feature added to the main computer will allow for the use of Israeli electronics in an add-on fashion. Israel will be able to fit its own external jamming pod and plans to install its own air-to-air missiles and guided bombs in the F-35’s internal weapon bays.[47Sony PCG-7183L Battery

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Sony PCG-81313L Battery2][473] A contract was issued for this in 2012.[177] Israeli pilots are scheduled to start training in F-35s in December 2016 with the first squadron activated about a year later.[474] Sony PCG-7185L Battery

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Israel Aerospace Industries has considered playing a role in the development of a proposed two-seat F-35. An IAI executive stated, “There is a known demand for two seats not only from Israel but from other air forces. Advanced aircraft are usually two seats rather than single seats.”[4Sony PCG-8141L Battery


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Sony PCG-81312L Battery75] IAI also plans to produce conformal fuel tanks to extend the range.[476]

A senior IAF official has said that elements of the stealth on the F-35 may be overcome in 5 to 10 years, while the aircraft will be in service for 30 to 40 years, Sony PCG-8151L Battery


Sony PCG-81214L Battery which is why Israel has insisted on the ability to install their own electronic warfare systems. “The basic F-35 design is OK. We can make do with adding integrated software.”[477] Israel is interested in purchasing as many as 75 F-35 fighters.[478]

CF-35[edit] Sony PCG-21313L Battery

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Main article: Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II Canadian procurement

The Canadian CF-35 is a proposed variant that would differ from the F-35A through the addition of a drag chute and may include an F-35B/C-style refueling probe.[479][480] Norway may also use the drag chute option, as they also have icy runways.[ Sony PCG-31311L Battery

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270] However, in 2012 it was revealed that the CF-35 would employ the same boom refueling system as the F-35A.[481]

One alternative proposal would have been the adoption of the F-35C for its probe refueling and lower landing speed; the Parliamentary Budget Officer’s report cited the F-35C’s limited performance and payload as being too high a price to pay.[4Sony PCG-51111L Battery


Sony PCG-81112L Battery82] The heavier F-35C airframe reduces the maximum G-level as compared to the F-35A. The F-35C will have the largest internal fuel capacity and longest range out of the three F-35 variants, and is likely to be more expensive than the F-35A.

Philippines and Manila

Philippines and Manila

The Philippines officially known as the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan; west across the South China Sea sits Vietnam; southwest is the island of Borneo across the Sulu Sea, and to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other islands of Indonesia; Sony SVS13AA11L Battery

while to the east it is bounded by the Philippine Sea. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator make the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world’s greatest biodiversity. Sony SVS131A11L Battery
At 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi), the Philippines is the 73rd-largest country in the world,[12] consisting of an archipelago of 7,107 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions: Sony SVS131B11L Battery

Sony PCG-41414L BatteryLuzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Its capital city is Manila while its most populous city is Quezon City.

With a population of more than 98 million people,[13] the Philippines is the seventh-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. An additional 12 million Filipinos live overseas,
Sony PCG-41413L Batterycomprising one of the world’s largest and most influential diasporas.[14] Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago’s earliest inhabitants. Sony SVS151A11L Battery

Sony PCG-41412L BatteryThey were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples who brought with them influences from Malay, Hindu, and Islamic societies. Various nations were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sony SVS151B11L Battery

Sony PCG-41411L BatterySultans or Lakans. Trade with China also introduced Chinese culture and settlement, which remain present to this day. Sony SVS151G1GL Battery

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The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 marked the beginning of an era of Spanish interest and eventual colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. Sony PCG-4121DL Battery

Sony PCG-41217L BatteryThe Spanish Empire began to settle with the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from New Spain (present day-Mexico) in 1565 who established the first Spanish settlement in the archipelago, which remained a Spanish colony for more than 300 years.
Sony PCG-41216L Battery During this time, Manila became the Asian hub of the Manila–Acapulco galleon fleet.

As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, there followed in quick succession the Philippine Revolution, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic; the Spanish–American War; and the Philippine–American War. Sony PCG-4121EL Battery
In the aftermath, the United States emerged as the dominant power; aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands. After World War II,[15
Sony PCG-41215L Battery] the Treaty of Manila established the Philippine Republic as an independent nation.[16] Since then, the Philippines has had an often tumultuous experience with democracy, with popular “people power” movements overthrowing a dictatorship in one instance, Sony PCG-4121FL Battery
but also underlining the institutional weaknesses of its constitutional republic in others. The nation’s large size and economic potential have led it to be classified as a middle power.[17]

The name Philippines is named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Sony PCG-4121GL Battery

Sony PCG-41214L BatterySpanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos during his expedition in 1542 named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, Sony PCG-41213L Battery other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan’s name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands. Sony PCG-41211L Battery
The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of the country’s history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. Sony PCG-41212L Battery
From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–46), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, sony PCG-4R2L battery

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sony PCG-6124L battery a translation of the Spanish name. During the American period,[clarification needed When?] the name Philippines began to appear and it has since become the country’s common name.[23] Since independence, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. sony PCG-4Q4L battery

A Tagalog couple of the Maginoo caste depicted on a page of the 16th century Boxer Codex.

The metatarsal of Callao Man is reported to have been reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago[24sony PCG-4Q3L battery

] thereby replacing the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 24,000 years ago,[25][26] as the oldest human remains found in the archipelago. Negritos were among the archipelago’s earliest inhabitants, sony PCG-4Q1L battery


sony PCG-6123L batterybut their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.[27] There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes that the ancestors of the Filipinos evolved locally. sony PCG-6X1L battery


sony PCG-6122L battery Wilhelm Solheim’s Island Origin Theory[28] postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the antediluvian Sundaland area around 48000 to 5000 BCE rather than by wide-scale migration. sony PCG-6X2L battery

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sony PCG-6121L battery The Austronesian Expansion Theory states that Malayo-Polynesians coming from Taiwan began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BCE, displacing earlier arrivals.[29][30] Whatever the case, sony PCG-6X7L battery

by 1000 BCE the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gathering tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and maritime-centered harbor principalities.[31] sony PCG-6X8L battery


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Tantric Period

The 1st millennium saw the rise of the harbor principalities and their growth into Maritime states composed of autonomous barangays independent of, or allied with, larger nations which were either Malay thalassocracies led by Datus or Indianized Kingdoms led by Rajahs. The chief among which were the Rajahnate of Butuan, sony PCG-6XAL battery


sony PCG-6Z3L batterywhich attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri Bata Shaja,[32] the Kingdom of Tondo, ruled over by the Lakandula dynasty[33][34] and the Rajahnate of Cebu[35] which was led by Rajamuda Sri Lumay. sony PCG-6XBL battery

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sony PCG-6Z2L battery Other nations in this era include the State of Ma-i and the Confederation of Madja-as. Sulu, before its Islamization was also an Indianized Kingdom under its first ruler, Rajah Sipad the Older.[36] The great epics; the Hinilawod, Darangan, Biag Ni Lam-Ang and etc. trace their origins to this era.[37] Sony SVS13AB1GL Battery

Islamic Period

The 1300s heralded the arrival and eventual spread of the Islamic religion in the Philippine archipelago. In 1380, Karim ul’ Makdum and Shari’ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab trader born in Johore, arrived in Sulu from Malacca and established the Sultanate of Sulu by converting Sulu’s Rajah and marrying his daughter.[38] Sony SVS131C1DL Battery

Sony PCG-61913L Battery [39] Also, at the end of the 15th century, Shariff Mohammed Kabungsuwan of Johor introduced Islam in the island of Mindanao and he subsequently married Paramisuli, an Iranun Princess from Mindanao, Sony SVS131C24L Battery

Sony PCG-61911L Batteryand established the Sultanate of Maguindanao. The sultanate system even extended itself further and the Confederation of sultanates in Lanao was a logical extension of this.[40] Eventually, Sony SVS131E1DL Battery
Islam had begun to spread out from the southern Philippines into the north. Even Manila itself was nominally islamized since the reign of Sultan Bolkiah in 1485 to 1521, wherein, the Sultanate of Brunei subjugated Tondo by installing the Muslim, Rajah Suleiman to the throne. Sony SVS131G1DL Battery

The rivalries between the disparate Datus, Rajahs, Sultans and Lakans together with their respective states competing over the limited territory and people of the islands eventually simplified Spanish colonization by allowing its conquistadors to effectively employ a strategy of divide and conquer for rapid conquest.[45] Sony SVS151C1GL Battery

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Colonial Period

Fort Santiago in Manila, built by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1590

José Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, and Mariano Ponce: leaders of the Propaganda Movement

In 1521,
Sony PCG-61714L BatteryPortuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines and claimed the islands for Spain.[46Sony SVS151C2DL Battery

Sony PCG-71C12L Battery] Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. In 1571, after dealing with the local royal families in the wake of the Tondo Conspiracy and defeating the Chinese pirate warlord Limahong,
Sony PCG-71C11L Batterythe Spanish established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies.[47][48]

Spanish rule contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican War of Independence. Sony SVS151E1GL Battery
The Manila galleons and its large naval fleet linking Manila to Acapulco traveled once or twice a year between the 16th and 19th centuries. Sony PCG-61A11L Battery
Trade introduced foods such as corn, tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, and pineapples from the Americas.[48] Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools, Sony PCG-61A13L Battery
Sony PCG-61A14L Batterya university, and hospitals. While a Spanish decree introduced free public schooling in 1863, efforts in mass public education mainly came to fruition during the American period.[49]

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Sony PCG-71315L BatterySpanish galleon bombarding the Muslim pirates of the southern Philippines in 1848

During its rule, the Spanish fought off various indigenous revolts and several external colonial challenges from Chinese pirates, the Dutch, and the Portuguese. In an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years’ War, British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764. Sony PCG-71713L Battery

Sony PCG-71313L Battery They found local allies like Diego and Gabriela Silang who took the opportunity to lead a revolt, but Spanish rule was eventually restored following the 1763 Treaty of Paris.[45][50][51] Sony PCG-71811L Battery

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In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Philippine society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines (criollos) and those of mixed ancestry (mestizos) became wealthy. The influx of Spanish and Latino settlers secularized churches and opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula (peninsulares). Sony PCG-71911L Battery
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Sony PCG-71218L Battery The ideals of revolution also began to spread through the islands. Criollo dissatisfaction resulted in the revolt in Cavite El Viejo in 1872 that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution. Sony PCG-71913L Battery

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Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three priests — Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (collectively known as Gomburza) — were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed.[52Sony PCG-71914L Battery

Sony PCG-71312L Battery][53] This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, Sony PCG-91211L Battery

Sony PCG-91112L Battery1896, on charges of rebellion.[56] As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the secret society called the Katipunan, a society along the lines of the freemasons, Sony PCG-91311L Battery
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which sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.[54] Bonifacio and the Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo of Cavite province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio’s position as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo took over. Sony SVE141D11L Battery

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American Occupational Period

In 1898, the Spanish-American War began in Cuba and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898, and the insurgent First Philippine Republic was established Sony SVE141L11L Battery

Sony PCG-61713L Battery the following year. Meanwhile, the islands were ceded by Spain to the United States for 20 million US dollars in the 1898 Treaty of Paris.[57] As it became increasingly clear the United States Sony SVE151E11L Battery

Sony SVE171G112 Battery would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out. The Americans then destroyed the first Philippine Republic, nevertheless, it was survived by three cantonal republics: Sony SVE151G11L Battery

Sony SVE171E12L BatteryThe Republic of Zamboanga, The Republic of Negros and The Tagalog Republic. Yet, these too were crushed and total American control was expanded over the entirety of the archipelago which was administered as an insular area.[58] Sony SVE151G13L Battery
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In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and established a puppet government. Sony SVE171C11L Battery
Sony SVE171E11L BatteryMany atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war such as the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre that culminated during the Battle of Manila.[59] Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated over a million Filipinos had died.[60] Sony PCG-71316L Battery
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Lowering of the American flag on July 4, 1946

On July 4, 1946, the Philippines attained its independence.[5] Immediately after World War II, the Philippines faced a number of challenges. Sony PCG-71318L Battery
The country had to be rebuilt from the ravages of war. It also had to come to terms with Japanese collaborators. Sony PCG-71211L Battery
Meanwhile, disgruntled remnants of the Hukbalahap communist rebel army that had previously fought against and resisted the Japanese continued to roam the rural regions. This threat to the government was dealt with by Secretary of National Defense and later President Ramon Magsaysay, Sony PCG-71212L Battery

Sony PCG-61316L Batterybut sporadic cases of communist insurgency continued to flare up long afterward.[61][62] In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Nearing the end of his second term and constitutionally barred from seeking a third, he declared martial law on September 21, 1972. Sony PCG-71215L Battery

Sony PCG-61315L Battery By using political divisions, the tension of the Cold War, and the specter of communist rebellion and Islamic insurgency as justifications, he governed by decree.[63] Sony PCG-71216L Battery
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On August 21, 1983, Marcos’ chief rival opposition leader Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, Jr. ignored warnings and returned from exile in the United States. He was assassinated as he was taken off the plane at the Manila International Airport

Sony PCG-61311L Battery (now called the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in his memory). With political pressure building, Marcos eventually called for snap presidential elections in 1986.[61] Corazon Aquino, Benigno’s widow, Sony PCG-61211L Battery
Sony PCG-61215L Batterywas persuaded to become the presidential candidate and standard bearer of the opposition. The elections were widely considered rigged when Marcos was proclaimed the winner. This led to the People Power Revolution, Sony PCG-3B1L Battery

instigated when two long-time Marcos allies – Armed Forces of the Philippines Vice Chief-of-Staff Fidel V. Ramos and Secretary of National Defense Juan Ponce Enrile –Sony PCG-3B2L Battery
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Sony PCG-3H4L Battery  resigned and barricaded themselves in Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame. Exhorted by the Cardinal Archbishop of Manila Jaime Sin, people gathered in support of the rebel leaders and protested on Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). In the face of mass protests and military defections, Sony PCG-3B4L Battery

Sony PCG-3H3L Battery Marcos and his allies fled to Hawaii and into exile. Corazon Aquino was recognized as president.[62][64] Sony PCG-3C2L Battery

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The return of democracy and government reforms after the events of 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, a persistent communist insurgency, and military conflict with Islamic separatists. Sony PCG-3C3L Battery
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Sony PCG-3H1L Battery The economy improved during the administration of Fidel V. Ramos, who was elected president in 1992.[65] However, the economic improvements were negated with the onset of the East Asian financial crisis in 1997. Sony PCG-3D4L Battery

Sony PCG-3G5L Battery In 2001, amid charges of corruption and a stalled impeachment process, Ramos’ successor Joseph Estrada was ousted from the presidency by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and replaced by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Sony PCG-3E3L Battery

Sony PCG-3G3L Battery Her administration that lasted 9 years was tied with graft and corruption and numerous political scandals.[66][67][68] As a result of the May 2010 elections, Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III was elected president. Sony PCG-3F1L Battery
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Politics and government




Benigno S. Aquino III, the current and 15th president of the Republic of the Philippines

Main articles: Politics of the Philippines, President of the Philippines, and Constitution of the Philippines Sony PCG-3F3L Battery
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The Philippines has a democratic government.[69] It is a constitutional republic with a presidential system. It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao which is largely free from the national government. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.[70][71] Sony PCG-9Z1L Battery

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The President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet. Sony PCG-9Z2L Battery
[3] The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house,
Sony PCG-8141L Batterywith members elected to a three-year term. The senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation.[ Sony PCG-7142L Battery
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3] The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.[3]

Security and defense
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BRP Gregorio del Pilar (PF-15), a Hamilton-class cutter of the Philippine Navy

Main articles: Armed Forces of the Philippines and Philippine National Police

Philippine defense is handled by the Armed Forces of the Philippines and is composed of three branches:
Sony PCG-7185L Batterythe Air Force, the Army, and the Navy (including the Marine Corps). Civilian security is handled by Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG). Sony PCG-7152L Battery

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In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the largest separatist organization, the Moro National Liberation Front, is now engaging the government politically. Other more militant groups like the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, Sony PCG-7153L Battery

Sony PCG-7183L Batterythe communist New People’s Army, and the Abu Sayyaf still roam the provinces, but their presence has decreased in recent years due to successful security provided by the Philippine government.[72][73] Sony PCG-7154L Battery

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The Philippines has been an ally of the United States since World War II. A mutual defense treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951. The Philippines supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean and Vietnam wars. It was a member of the now dissolved SEATO,
Sony PCG-7181L Batterya group that was intended to serve a role similar to NATO and that included Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[74] After the start of the War on Terror, the Philippines was part of the coalition that gave support to the United States in Iraq.[75] Sony PCG-7161L Battery
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Sony PCG-7174L BatteryThe United States designated the country a major non-NATO ally. The Philippines is currently working to end its domestic insurgency with help from the United States.

International relations

Main article: Foreign relations of the Philippines
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The Philippine Embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.

The Philippines’ international relations are based on trade with other nations and the well-being of the 11 million overseas Filipinos living outside the country.[76] As a founding and active member of the United Nations, Sony PCG-7171L Battery
Sony PCG-7172L Battery the Philippines has been elected several times into the Security Council. Carlos P. Romulo was a former President of the United Nations General Assembly. The country is an active participant in the Human Rights Council as well as in peacekeeping missions, particularly in East Timor. Sony PCG-21313L Battery
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In addition to membership in the United Nations, the country is also a founding and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among states in the Southeast Asian region.[8Sony PCG-41112L Battery
1] It has hosted several summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.[82] The relations it currently enjoys with other Southeast Asian states are in contrast to its relations with them before the 1970s when it was one of the allies of the US Forces against, Sony PCG-51111L Battery
with then the North Vietnam and was heavily disputing Sabah with Malaysia; although, disagreements continue to exist due to the Spratly Islands.[83]

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Sony PCG-81411L BatteryMembers of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

The Philippines values its relations with the United States.[76] It supported the United States during the Cold War and the War on Terror and is a major non-NATO ally. Sony PCG-51211L Battery
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Sony PCG-81314L Battery Despite this history of goodwill, controversies related to the presence of the now former U.S. military bases in Subic Bay and Clark and the current Visiting Forces Agreement have flared up from time to time.[7Sony PCG-51312L Battery

Sony PCG-81313L Battery6] Japan, the biggest contributor of official development assistance to the country,[84] is thought of as a friend. Although historical tensions still exist on issues such as the plight of comfort women, much of the animosity inspired by memories of World War II have faded.[85] Sony PCG-51411L Battery

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Relations with other nations are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western and European countries while similar economic concerns help in relations with other developing countries. Historical ties and cultural similarities also serve as a bridge in relations with Spain and Latin America. Sony PCG-51412L Battery

Sony PCG-81311L BatteryDespite issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting overseas Filipino workers and obstacles posed by Islamic insurgency in Mindanao, relations with Middle Eastern countries (including Egypt, Iran, Sony PCG-51511L Battery

Sony PCG-81214L Battery Iraq, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) are friendly as seen in the continuous employment of more than two million overseas Filipinos living there.

With communism no longer the threat it once was, once hostile relations in the 1950s between the Philippines and the People’s Republic of China have improved greatly. Sony PCG-51513L Battery

Sony PCG-81114L Battery Issues involving Taiwan, the Spratly Islands, and concerns of expanding Chinese influence, however, still encourage a degree of carefulness.[85] Recent foreign policy has been mostly about economic relations with its Southeast Asian and Asia-Pacific neighbors.[76] Sony PCG-61412L Battery

The Philippines is an active member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Latin Union, Sony PCG-71111L Battery

Sony PCG-81113L Battery the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement.[3] It is also seeking to strengthen relations with Islamic countries by campaigning for observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.[86][87] Sony PCG-81111L Battery
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Administrative divisions

Main article: Administrative divisions of the Philippines

The Philippines is divided into three island groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. As of March 2010, these were divided into 17 regions, 80 provinces, 138 cities, 1,496 municipalities, and 42,025 barangays.[88Sony VPCF115FM battery

Sony VPCF119HX battery] In addition, Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the definition of the territorial sea around the Philippine archipelago does not affect the claim over Sabah.[89]

A clickable map of the Philippines exhibiting its 17 regions and 80 provinces. Sony VPCF11JFX battery
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A clickable map of the Philippines exhibiting its 17 regions and 80 provinces.

About this image

The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands[3] with a total land area, including inland bodies of water, of approximately 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi). Its 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi) of coastline makes it the country with the 5th longest coastline in the world.[3][92] It is located between 116° 40′, and 126° 34′ E. Sony VPCF11FGX battery
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longitude and 4° 40′ and 21° 10′ N. latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea to the east, the South China Sea to the west, and the Celebes Sea to the south. Sony VPCF11LFX battery

Sony VPCF11PFX batteryThe island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the north. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are located to the south-southwest and Palau is located to the east of the islands.[3] Sony VPCF11DGX battery
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Most of the mountainous islands are covered in tropical rainforest and volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is Mount Apo. It measures up to 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao.

Sony VPCF11BFX battery The Galathea Depth in the Philippine Trench is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world. The trench is located in the Philippine Sea. The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon. Manila Bay, upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, Sony VPCF112FX battery

Sony VPCF11AFX batteryis connected to Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River. Subic Bay, the Davao Gulf, and the Moro Gulf are other important bays. The San Juanico Strait separates the islands of Samar and Leyte but it is traversed by the San Juanico Bridge.[93]

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Sony VPCF1190X batteryIfugao/Igorot utilized terrace farming to grow crops in the steep mountainous regions of northern Philippines.

Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction.[ Sony VPCF11CGX battery

Sony VPCF119GX battery94] Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake.[95] There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, Sony VPCF116FX battery

Sony VPCF11NFX batteryand Taal Volcano. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century.[96Sony VPCF111FX battery
Sony VPCF11GGX battery] Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, the area represents a habitat for biodiversity conservation, the site also contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in Asia.[ sony VPCEB3AFM battery

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sony VPCEB15FM battery97] The white sand beaches that make Boracay a popular vacation getaway are made of coral remnants.

Due to the volcanic nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa and one of the largest copper deposits in the world.[9sony VPCEA24FM battery

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8] It is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Despite this, poor management, high population density, and environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped.[98sony VPCEA36FM battery


sony VPCEB17FX battery] Geothermal energy, however, is another product of volcanic activity that the country has harnessed more successfully. The Philippines is the world’s second-biggest geothermal producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country’s electricity needs being met by geothermal power.[99] sony VPCEB33FMbattery

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Flora and fauna

Main article: Wildlife of the Philippines

See also: List of threatened species of the Philippines

The Philippines’ rainforests and its extensive coastlines make it home to a diverse range of birds, plants, animals, and sea creatures.[10sony VPCEB11FM battery


sony VPCEB15FX battery0] It is one of the ten most biologically megadiverse countries and is at or near the top in terms of biodiversity per unit area.[101][102][ sony VPCEB23FM battery

103] Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere.[ sony VPCEH14FM battery


sony VPCEB12FX battery104] Endemic species include the tamaraw of Mindoro, the Visayan spotted deer, the Philippine mouse deer, the Visayan warty pig, the Philippine flying lemur, and several species of bats.[


sony VPCEB11GX battery105] The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise.[106] sony VPCEH25FM battery

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Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta), one of the smallest primates.

The Philippines lacks large predators, with the exception of snakes, such as pythons and cobras, saltwater crocodiles and birds of prey, such as the national bird, known as the Philippine Eagle, which scientists suggest as the largest eagle in the world.[107] sony VPCEH35FM battery


sony VPCEB13FX battery [108] The largest crocodile in captivity was captured in the southern island of Mindanao.[109] Other native animals include the palm civet cat, the dugong, and the Philippine tarsier associated with Bohol. With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands,[10sony VPCEB11FX battery

sony VPCEB14FX battery4] Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora, including many rare types of orchids and rafflesia.[110][111] The narra is considered as the most important type of hardwood.

Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as 2,200,000 square kilometers (849,425 sq mi) producing unique and diverse marine life and are an important part of the Coral Triangle.[8sony VPCEH12FX battery


sony VPCEH11FX battery9] The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively.[100][104] However, new records [112][113] and species discoveries[114][ sony VPCEH13FX battery


sony VPCEH390X battery115] continuously increase these numbers underlining the uniqueness of the marine resources in the Philippines. The Apo Reef is the country’s largest contiguous coral reef system and the second-largest in the world.[1sony VPCEH15FX battery


sony VPCEH37FX battery16] The Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of pearls, crabs, and seaweeds.[100][117]


Deforestation, often the result of illegal logging, is an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the country’s total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999.[118sony VPCEH16FX battery

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sony VPCEH36FX battery][119] Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia, which the Philippines is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 20th century.[12sony VPCEH190X battery


sony VPCEH34FX battery0] According to Conservation International, “the country is one of the few nations that is, in its entirety, both a hotspot and a megadiversity country, placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation.”[110]



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Typhoon Megi (known as Juan)over the Philippines

Main article: Climate of the Philippines

The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate and is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: tag-init or tag-araw, the hot dry season or summer from March to May; tag-ulan, the rainy season from June to November; and tag-lamig, sony VPCEH1AFX battery


sony VPCEH2CFX battery the cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan.[12sony VPCEH1BFX battery

1] Temperatures usually range from 21 °C (70 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F) although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.[3][122]

The average yearly temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F).[121] In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. sony VPCEH1CFX battery


sony VPCEH290X batteryWhether in the extreme north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), sony VPCEH1DFX battery

making it a popular destination during hot summers.[121] Likewise, Tagaytay is a favored retreat.

Sitting astride the typhoon belt, most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and thunderstorms from July to October,[1sony VPCEH2AFX battery

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sony VPCEH27FX battery23] with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall.[124][125][126] Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys.[1sony VPCEH22FX battery

sony VPCEH24FX battery23] The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 1911 cyclone, which dropped over 1,168 millimeters (46.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio City.[12sony VPCEH23FX battery

7] Bagyo is the local term for a tropical cyclone in the Philippines.[127] For the PAGASA, at least 19-22 storms would enter in their area and 10-13 storms would hit the Philippines.


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Main article: Economy of the Philippines

The national economy of the Philippines is the 41st largest in the world, with an estimated 2013 gross domestic product (nominal) of $272.207 billion.[7] Sony SVE151G11M battery

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Sony SVE14AJ15M battery Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, sony SVE1513RCXS battery


sony SVE1511KFXW battery transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, and fruits.[5] Major trading partners include the United States, Sony SVE171B11M battery

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Sony SVE14AE15M battery Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand.[5] Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso (₱ or PHP).

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Makati in Metro Manila, the country’s financial center.

A newly industrialized country, the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Of the country’s total labor force of around 38.1 million,[5sony SVE15138CXS battery

] the agricultural sector employs close to 32% but contributes to only about 14% of GDP. The industrial sector employs around 14% of the workforce and accounts for 30% of GDP.


Sony SVE14AG18M battery Meanwhile the 47% of workers involved in the services sector are responsible for 56% of GDP.[128][129]


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The unemployment rate as of July 2009 stands at around 7.6% and due to the global economic slowdown inflation as of September 2009 reads 0.70%.[129] Gross international reserves as of July 2011 are $83.201 billion.[1sony SVE15132CXS battery


sony SVE1511GFXW battery30] In 2004, public debt as a percentage of GDP was estimated to be 74.2%; in 2008, 56.9%.[5] Gross external debt has risen to $66.27 billion.[5] The country is a net importer.[129] sony SVE1512GCXW battery


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After World War II, the country was for a time regarded as the second wealthiest in East Asia, next only to Japan.[76][131][ Sony SVE171E11M battery

Sony SVE14AG15M battery132] However, by the 1960s its economic performance started being overtaken. The economy stagnated under the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos as the regime spawned economic mismanagement and political volatility.[76sony SVE15125CXS battery


sony SVE1511CFXS battery][132] The country suffered from slow economic growth and bouts of economic recession. Only in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization did the economy begin to recover.[76][132] sony SVE15115MFXS battery

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The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. But the extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. sony SVE15126CXS battery


sony SVE1511BGXS battery This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth.[6Sony SVE151E11M battery



sony SVE1511AFXS battery5] There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades.[133][134] sony SVE15134CXS battery

sony SVE15135CXS battery [135] Yet average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole and the daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2.[136][1sony SVE15112FXS battery


sony SVE1411CFXW battery37] Despite enjoying sustained economic growth during the 2000s (decade), as of 2010, the country’s economy remains smaller than those of its Southeast Asian neighbors Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore in terms of GDP and GDP per capita (nominal).[138] sony SVE15113FXS battery

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Other incongruities and challenges exist. The economy is heavily reliant on remittances which surpass foreign direct investment as a source of foreign currency. Regional development is uneven with Luzon sony SVE15115FXS battery


sony SVE14A190X battery– Metro Manila in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions,[ sony SVE151190X battery


sony SVE14A37CXH battery139] although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the country. Despite constraints, service industries such as tourism and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country.[129] sony SVE1511NFXS battery

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sony SVE14A35CXH battery [140] Goldman Sachs includes the country in its list of the “Next Eleven” economies.[141] but China and India have emerged as major economic competitors.[142] sony SVE1512JCXW battery


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Goldman Sachs estimates that by the year 2050, it will be the 14th largest economy in the world. HSBC also projects the Philippine economy to become the 16th largest economy in the world, 5th largest economy in Asia and the largest economy in the South East Asian region by 2050.[143]


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The Philippines is a member of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Asian Development Bank which is headquartered in Mandaluyong City, the Colombo Plan, the G-77, and the G-24 among other groups and institutions.[5] sony SVE1512KCXS battery


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Main articles: Demographics of the Philippines, Filipino people, and Overseas Filipino



Ethnic groups per province

Population in Philippines increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame.[144] The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.[14sony SVE1513APXS battery


sony SVE151290X battery5] As of 2011, the Philippines has become the world’s 12th most populous nation, with a population of over 94 million. It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. The population growth rate between 1995 to 2000 of 3.21% decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005 to 2010 period, but remains a contentious issue.[146]


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sony SVE15128CXS battery [147] The population’s median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old.[5] Life expectancy at birth is 71.94 years, 75.03 years for females and 68.99 years for males.[148] sony SVE1513BCXS battery

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There are about 11 million Filipinos outside the Philippines.[149] Since the liberalization of United States immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. sony SVE1713ACXB battery

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In 2007 there were an estimated 3.1 million.[150][151] According to the United States Census Bureau, immigrants from the Philippines made up the second largest group after Mexico that sought family reunification.[152sony SVE1713CCXB battery


sony SVE17137CXB battery] Some two million Filipinos work in the Middle East, with nearly a million in Saudi Arabia alone.[153]


Main article: Ethnic groups of the Philippines

According to the 2000 census, 28.1% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Bisaya/Binisaya, 7.5% Hiligaynon, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, and 25.3% as “others”,[5][154] which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro, the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the Ibanag, and the Ivatan.[15sony SVE1713DCXB battery


sony SVE171290X battery5] There are also indigenous peoples like the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Bajau, and the tribes of Palawan.[156] Negritos, such as the Aeta and the Ati, are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.[157] sony SVE1713ECXB battery

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Filipinos generally belong to several Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people.[15sony SVE1712BCXB battery


sony SVE17132CXB battery6] It is believed that thousands of years ago Austronesian-speaking Taiwanese aborigines migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan, bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing, eventually displacing the earlier Negrito groups of the islands.[158] They were later supplanted by arrivals of Chinese and Japanese in the northern islands, and Malays, Indians, sony SVE17122CXB battery

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sony SVE17127CXB battery Arabs in the southern islands. Later arrivals during the colonial period include more Japanese, Indians, Spaniards, Americans, as well as other European peoples. Intermarriage between the groups is evident in the major cities and urban areas.[159][160][161] Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery


Sony VGP-BPS15/S Battery Descendants of such mixed couples are known as mestizos.[162]

The two most important non-indigenous minorities include the Chinese and the Spaniards. Chinese Filipinos, mostly descended from immigrants from Fujian, Sony VGP-BPL14 Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery China after 1898, number 2 million, although there is an estimated 28 million Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry, stemming from precolonial Chinese migrants.[1Sony VGP-BPL14B Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery63] Chinese Filipinos have a prominent role in the country’s private sector, and are part of the larger bamboo network, a network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia that share common family and cultural ties.[164Sony VGP-BPS10 Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS14B Battery] Other significant minorities include Americans, mostly White, numbering 300,000, and Koreans, numbering 96,000. Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery

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Main article: Cities of the Philippines

Metro Manila is the most populous of the 12 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the 11th most populous in the world. As of the 2007 census, it had a population of 11,553,427, comprising 13% of the national population.[1Sony VGP-BPS12/Q Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS14/B Battery65] Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, and Rizal) of Greater Manila, the population is around 21 million.[165][166]

Metro Manila’s gross regional product is estimated as of July 2009 to be ₱468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

and accounts for 33% of the nation’s GDP.[167] In 2011, it ranked as the 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in Southeast Asia, according to PricewaterhouseCoopers.[168Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery


Sony VGP-BPS14 Battery] Cebu City in the Visayas and Davao City in Mindanao are other

Ethnologue lists 175 individual languages in the Philippines, 171 of which are living languages while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

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Sony VGP-BSP13/S Battery They are part of the Borneo–Philippines group of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family.[156]

According to the 1987 Philippine Constitution, Filipino and English are the official languages. Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog, Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery spoken mainly in Metro Manila and other urban regions. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. The constitution designates regional languages such as Bicolano, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Tagalog, Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

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and Waray-Waray as auxiliary official languages and mandates that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.[11]

Other languages such as Aklanon, Cuyonon, Ifugao, Itbayat, Ivatan, Kalinga, Kamayo, Kankanaey, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Masbateño, Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery

Romblomanon, Surigaonon, Tausug, Yakan, and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces. The Chavacano language, a creole language born from Spanish, is also spoken in Cavite and Zamboanga.[170] Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery


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The Philippines is a secular nation having a constitution separating the state and church. However, more than 90% of the population are Christians: about 80% belong to the Roman Catholic Church while 10% belong to other Christian denominations, such as the Iglesia ni Cristo, Sony VGP-BPS22 Battery


Sony VGP-BPS26 Batterythe Philippine Independent Church, United Church of Christ in the Philippines (a mainline Protestant united church), and Jehovah’s Witnesses.[17Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery


Sony VGP-BPS26A Battery2] As a result of Spanish cultural influence, the Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being East Timor, a former Portuguese colony. Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery

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Between 5% and 10% of the population are Muslim, most of whom live in parts of Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago – an area known as Bangsamoro or the Moro region.[173][174] Some have migrated into urban and rural areas in different parts of the country. Most Muslim Filipinos practice Sunni Islam according to the Shafi’i school.[42] Sony VGP-BPL14 battery


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Philippine traditional religions are still practiced by many aboriginal and tribal groups, often syncretized with Christianity and Islam. Animism, folk religion, and shamanism remain present as undercurrents of mainstream religion, Sony VGP-BPL14/B battery

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Sony VGP-BPS12/Q batterythrough the albularyo, the babaylan, and the manghihilot. Buddhism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religion, are dominant in Chinese communities.[174] There are also followers of Hinduism, Sikhism,[160] and Judaism and Baha’i.[175] Sony VGP-BPS14 battery

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The National Statistics Office reports a simple literacy rate of 93.4% and a functional literacy rate of 84.1% for 2003.[5][129][1Sony VGP-BPS14/B battery

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36] Literacy is about equal for males and females.[5] Spending for education is around 2.5% of GDP.[5] According to the Department of Education, or DepEd, there were 44,846 elementary schools and 10,384 secondary schools registered for the school year 2009–2010[176] while the Commission on Higher Education (CHEDSony VGP-BPS14/S battery
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) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, 607 of which are public and 1,573 private.[177] Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to OctoberSony VGP-BPL12 battery


Sony vgp-bps24 battery and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs.[3] Republic Act No. 9155 gives the framework of basic education in the Philippines and provides for compulsory elementary education and free high school education.[178] Sony VGP-BPS12 battery

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Several government agencies are involved with education. The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and nonformal education; the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) Sony VGP-BPL20 battery


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administers the post-secondary middle-level education training and development; and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises the college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulates standards in higher education.[ Sony VGP-BPS20/B battery

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Sony VGP-BPL22 battery179] In 2004, madaris were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education.[180] Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State University and College (SUC) or Local College and University (LCU).[1Sony VGP-BPL14 battery


Sony VGP-BPS22 battery77] SUCs are funded by the national government as determined by the Philippine Congress.[181] The University of the Philippines is the national university of the Philippines.[182]


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Main articles: Health in the Philippines and List of hospitals in the Philippines

Most of the national burden of health care is taken up by private health providers. In 2006, total expenditures on health represented 3.8% of GDP. Sony VGP-BPL14/S battery

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67.1% of that came from private expenditures while 32.9% was from government. External resources accounted for 2.9% of the total. Health expenditures represented about 6.1% of total government spending. Sony VGP-BPS14/B battery

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Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was $52.[183] The proposed national health budget for 2010 is ₱28 billion (about $597 million) or ₱310 ($7) per person.[184] The government share of total spending on health has declined steadily, and with more people, there has been less to spend per person. Sony VGP-BPS14/S battery



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There are an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses, 43,220 dentists, and 1 hospital bed per every 769 people.[183Sony VGP-BPS26 battery


Sony VGP-BPS22A battery] Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. 70% of nursing graduates go overseas to work. The country is the biggest supplier of nurses.[185] In 2001 there were about 1,700 hospitals,


Sony VGP-BPL22 battery of which about 40% were government-run and 60% private. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 25% of all deaths. According to official estimates, 1,965 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported in 2003, Sony VGP-BPL26 battery

Sony VGP-BPS22 batteryof which 636 had developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Other estimates have as many as 12,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in 2005.[186]


A jeepney and a bus, common forms of public transport in the Philippines

The transportation infrastructure in the country is relatively underdeveloped. Partly this is due to the mountainous terrain and the scattered geography of the islands, Sony VGP-BPS26A battery

but it is also the result of the government’s persistent underinvestment in infrastructure. In 2003, only 3.6% of GDP went to infrastructure development which was significantly lower than that of some of its neighbors. Sony SVS13AA11M battery

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[123] Consequently, while there are 203,025 kilometers (126,154 mi) of roads in the country, only around 20% of the total is paved.[187]

Nevertheless there are many ways to get around, especially in urban areas. Buses, jeepneys, taxis, and motorized tricycles are commonly available in major cities and towns. Sony SVS131B12M battery

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Sony SVS1511W9EB batteryIn 2007, there were about 5.53 million registered motor vehicles with registration increasing at an average annual rate of 4.55%.[188] Train services are provided by three main railway networks that serve different areas of Metro Manila and parts of Luzon:
Sony SVS1511V9EB battery the Manila Light Rail Transit System (LRT), the Manila Metro Rail Transit System (MRT), and the Philippine National Railways (PNR).

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Terminal 3 of Ninoy Aquino International Airport, the main gateway to the country

As an archipelago, inter-island travel via watercraft is often necessary. The busiest seaports are Manila, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, Sony SVS151A12M battery

Sony SVS1511N3ES batteryand Zamboanga.[189] Passenger ships and other sea vessels such as those operated by 2GO Travel and Sulpicio Lines serve Manila, with links to various cities and towns. In 2003, the 919-kilometer (571 mi) Sony SVS1311E3EW battery

Sony SVS1511M3EW batteryStrong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established.[190]

Some rivers that pass through metropolitan areas, such as the Pasig River and Marikina River, have air-conditioned commuter ferries. Sony SVS1311P9EB battery
Sony SVS1511L3ES batteryThe Pasig River Ferry Service has numerous stops in Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina.[191] There are 3,219 kilometers (2,000 mi) of navigable inland waterways.[5] Sony PCG-4121DM battery


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There are 85 public airports in the country, and around 111 more that are private.[187] The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) is the main international airport. Other important airports include the Clark International Airport, Sony PCG-4121EM battery


Sony PCG-41217M battery Mactan-Cebu International Airport, Francisco Bangoy International Airport and Zamboanga International Airport. Philippine Airlines, Asia’s oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name, and Cebu Pacific, the leading low-cost airline, are the major airlines serving most domestic and international destinations.[192][193][19Sony PCG-41211M battery
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The Philippines has a sophisticated cellular phone industry and a high concentration of users.[195] As of 2008, there are about 67.9 million cellular phone subscribers in the Philippines.[196] Text messaging is a popular form of communication Sony PCG-41218M battery


Sony PCG-41215M battery and has fostered a culture of quick greetings and forwarded jokes among Filipinos. In 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day.[197] Out of this growing number of avid text message senders, Sony PCG-41414M battery

Sony PCG-41212M battery over five million of them use their cellular phones as virtual wallets, making it a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks.[198] Sony PCG-41214M battery
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The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company commonly known as PLDT is the leading telecommunications provider. It is also the largest company in the country.[195][1Sony VPCEA3S1R Battery
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Sony SVE1511J1EW battery99] Its wholly owned subsidiaries Smart Communications and Piltel, along with Globe Telecom of the Ayala Group, BayanTel, and Sun Cellular are the major cellular service providers in the country. Sony SVE1711T1EB battery

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There are approximately 383 AM and 659 FM radio stations and 297 television and 873 cable television stations.[200] Estimates for internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people.[201Sony SVE1711K1EW battery
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Sony SVE1511H1EW battery][202] Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent internet activities.[203][204]

Culture and society


Main articles: Culture of the Philippines, Literature of the Philippines, Music of the Philippines, and Original Pilipino Music

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Sony SVE1511B1EW batteryPercussion instruments that make up the Philippine kulintang ensemble, an example of pre-Hispanic musical tradition

Philippine culture is a combination of Eastern and Western cultures. The Philippines exhibits aspects found in other Asian countries with a Malay[2Sony SVE1511G1EW battery
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Sony SVE1511S1EB battery05] heritage, yet its culture also displays a significant amount of Spanish and American influences. Traditional festivities known as barrio fiestas (district festivals) to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are common. The Moriones Festival and Sinulog Festival are a couple of the most well-known. Sony SVE1511G1EB battery
Sony SVE1511S1EW battery These community celebrations are times for feasting, music, and dancing. Some traditions, however, Sony SVE1513A1ES battery


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are changing or gradually being forgotten due to modernization. The Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has been lauded for preserving many of the Sony PCG-41311M battery


various traditional folk dances found throughout the Philippines. They are famed for their iconic performances of Philippine dances such as the tinikling and singkil that both feature the use of clashing bamboo poles.[206]


Sony VGP-BPS20 batteryBarasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan where the First Philippine Republic was founded.

One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos. However, a Spanish name and surname does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, Sony PCG-41313M battery


Sony VGP-BPS20/S batteryunique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial decree, the Clavería edict, for the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of the Spanish naming system on the population.[20Sony SVE1513A1ESI battery


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Sony SVE171B11M battery7] The names of many streets, towns, and provinces are also in Spanish. Sony PCG-41314M battery


Sony VGP-BPS20/B batterySpanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II.[ Sony PCG-41315M battery


Sony VGP-BPL20 battery33] Some examples remain, mainly among the country’s churches, government buildings, and universities. Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Sony PCG-4R2M battery


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Sony VPCZ23K9E batterythe San Agustín Church in Manila, the Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte, the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Ilocos Sur, and the Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo.[2Sony PCG-4R2M battery

Sony VPCZ13Z9E/X battery08] Vigan in Ilocos Sur is also known for the many Hispanic-style houses and buildings preserved there.[209]

The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the ready acceptance and influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos’ love of fast food, Sony PCG-4U2M battery


film, and music. Fast food outlets are found on many street corners. American global fast food chain stalwarts have entered the market, Sony SVE1513B1EW battery


Sony SVE171E13M battery but local fast food chains like Goldilocks and most notably Jollibee, the leading fast food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against their foreign rivals.[210][2Sony PCG-6Z4M battery


Sony VPCZ13V9E battery11] Filipinos regularly listen to and watch contemporary American, Asian, and European music and film just as they enjoy Original Pilipino Music (also known as OPM) and local films


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Main article: Philippine cuisine



The halo-halo is a dessert made of ice, milk, various fruits, and ice cream.

Philippine cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian origins to become a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic, . Sony PCG-6112M battery


Sony VPCZ13 battery Chinese, American, and other Asian influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, such as the paellas and cocidos created for fiestas. Sony PCG-6121M battery


Sony PCG-6124M battery Popular dishes include lechón, adobo, sinigang, kare-kare, tapa, crispy pata, pancit, lumpia, and halo-halo. Some common local ingredients used in cooking are calamondins, coconuts, saba (a kind of short wide plantain), mangoes, Sony SVE1513C1EB battery

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Sony SVE1512I1ES battery milkfish, and fish sauce. Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors.[211][21Sony PCG-6122M battery

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Unlike many of their Asian counterparts, Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Philippine cuisine, Sony VPCZ11 battery


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the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork.[213] The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan is seen more often in less urbanized areas.[214] Sony VPCZ11X9E battery


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Mythology and literature

Main articles: Philippine literature, Philippine mythology, and Deities of Philippine mythology

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Baybayin, one of several indigenous scripts of the Philippines

Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. While each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell, Hindu and Spanish influences can nonetheless be detected in many cases. Sony VPCZ11X9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12X9E/B battery Philippine mythology mostly consists of creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures, such as the aswang, the manananggal, the diwata/engkanto,


Sony SVE1512H6EB batteryand nature. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are Maria Makiling, Lam-Ang, and the Sarimanok.[215] Sony VPCZ11Z9E battery


Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created in the 19th century. Sony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12V9E/B batteryFrancisco Balagtas the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Filipino language. José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tángere (Touch Me Not) Sony VPCZ12C7E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12V9E battery and El Filibusterismo (The Filibustering, also known as The Reign of Greed) and is considered a national hero. His depiction of the injustices of Spanish rule, and his death by firing squad, inspired other Philippine revolutionaries to seek independence. Sony VPCZ12M9E battery

Sony VPCZ12M9E/B battery In the 20th century, among those officially recognized as National Artists of the Philippines in literature are NVM Gonzalez, Nick Joaquin, F. Sionil Jose, and Alejandro Roces.[216] Sony PCG-6P2M Battery
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Main articles: Cinema of the Philippines, Television in the Philippines, Radio in the Philippines, and Philippine drama

Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English. Other Philippine languages, including various Visayan languages are also used, especially in radio due to its ability to reach remote rural locations that might otherwise not be serviced by other kinds of media. Sony PCG-6R1M Battery
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Sony PCG-791M BatteryThe dominant television networks ABS-CBN, GMA and TV5 also have extensive radio presence.[217]

The entertainment industry is vibrant and feeds broadsheets and tabloids with an unending supply of details about celebrities and sensationalist scandals du jour. Drama and fantasy shows are anticipated as are Latin telenovelas, Asianovelas, Sony PCG-6E1M Battery
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Sony PCG-7X1M Battery and anime. Daytime television is dominated by game shows, variety shows, and talk shows such as Eat Bulaga and It’s Showtime.[ Sony SVE1513C1EW battery

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Sony SVE1513Z1EB battery218] Philippine cinema has a long history and is popular domestically, but has faced increasing competition from American, Asian and European films. Sony PCG-6H1M Battery

Sony PCG-7T2M BatteryCritically acclaimed directors and actors include Lino Brocka and Nora Aunor for films like Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag (Manila: Sony SVE1513H4EB battery

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Sony SVE1513Y1ES battery In the Claws of Light) and Himala (Miracle). In recent years it has become common to see celebrities flitting between television and movies and then moving into politics provoking concerns.[219] Sony PCG-6G2M Battery

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Main article: Sports in the Philippines



A PBA basketball game at the Smart Araneta Coliseum, Southeast Asia’s largest arena.

Various sports and pastimes are popular in the Philippines including basketball, boxing, cockfighting, volleyball, football, badminton, karate, taekwondo, billiards, ten-pin bowling, chess, and sipa. Motocross, Sony PCG-6J1M Battery

Sony PCG-7N2M Batterycycling, and mountaineering are also becoming popular. Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines.[22Sony PCG-6J2M Battery

Sony PCG-7N1M Battery0] In almost every corner of the cities, there is a basketball court.[206]

The Philippines has participated in the Summer Olympic Games since 1924, making it the first country in Southeast Asia to compete and win a medal.[221Sony PCG-6L1M Battery

Sony PCG-7M1M Battery] The country had competed in every Summer Olympic Games since then, except when they participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics. The Philippines is also the first tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympics. Sony PCG-6L2M Battery

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Traditional Philippine games such as luksung baka, patintero, piko, and tumbang preso are still played primarily as children’s games among the youth.[222][ Sony PCG-7Y1M Battery

Sony PCG-7H1M Battery223] Sungka is a traditional native Philippine board game. Card games are popular during festivities, with some, including pusoy and tong-its, being used as a form of illegal gambling. Mahjong is played in some Philippine communities. Sony PCG-8V1M Battery
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Sony PCG-7G1M BatteryThe yo-yo, a popular toy in the Philippines, was introduced in its modern form by Pedro Flores with its name from the Ilokano language.[224]

Arnis (Eskrima or Kali in some regions) is the national martial art and sport.[2Sony SVE1513J1EW battery


Sony SVE1513U1ESI battery25] Today there are said to be almost as many Philippine fighting styles as there are islands in the Philippines. In 1972, Sony PCG-8W1M Battery

Sony PCG-7D1M Batterythe Philippine government included Filipino martial arts into the national sports arena. The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports also incorporated them into the physical education curriculum for high school and college students. Sony PCG-8W2M Battery
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Some Filipinos recognized for their achievements include Francisco Guilledo, Flash Elorde, Nonito Donaire and Manny Pacquiao in boxing; Paulino Alcántara in football (soccer); Carlos Loyzaga, Robert Jaworski, and Ramon Fernandez in basketball; Efren Reyes in billiards; Eugene Torre in chess; and Rafael Nepomuceno in bowling.[226][227sony VPCF11C4E/B battery

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Manila (English: /məˈnɪlə/; Filipino: Maynila, [majˈnilaʔ]) is the capital city and the second largest city of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities (along with the municipality of Pateros) that make up the National Capital Regionsony VPCF11D4E battery

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called Metro Manila which has a population of 12 million.

The City of Manila is located on the eastern shore of Manila Bay and is bordered by the cities of Navotas and Caloocan to the north; Quezon City and San Juan to the northeast; Mandaluyong to the east; Makati to the southeast, and Pasay to the south. sony VPCF11S1E/B battery

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Manila has a total population of 1,652,171 according to the 2010 census[3] and is the second most populous city in the Philippines, behind Quezon City. The populace inhabit an area of only 38.55 square kilometres (14.88 sq mi), Sony SVE1513L1ES battery


Sony SVE1513U1ES battery making Manila the most densely populated city in the world.[4][5]


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The city is divided into six legislative districts and consists of sixteen areas: Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Port Area, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Andres, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz, sony VPC-F21Z1E battery


sony VPCF12S1E/B battery Santa Mesa and Tondo. Bustling commerce and some of the most historically and culturally significant iconic landmarks in the country, as well as the seat of the executive and judicial branches of the government are found in the city. sony VPCF22J1E battery


sony VPCF12Z1E battery Manila is also home to many scientific and educational institutions, numerous sport facilities, and other culturally and historically significant venues.

Listed as a global city, Manila has its strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, Sony SVE1513P1EW battery

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Sony SVE1513Q1ESI battery research and development, tourism and transport making it the historical, cultural, political, economic and educational center of the Philippines.[6] sony VPCF22L1E battery

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The earliest written account of the city is the 10th-century Laguna Copperplate Inscription which describes a context of a Malay kingdom maintaining diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Medang. sony VPCF23M1E battery


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sony VPCF13S1E/B battery The city had preferential trade with Ming dynasty China which registered the place as “東都” (Dongdu).[7] It then became a province of the Maharajanate of Majapahit and was called by its Sanskrit title, “षेलुरोन्ग्” sony VPCF22S1E battery

sony VPCF22S8E battery (Selurong)[8] before it was invaded by Brunei’s Sultan Bolkiah and renamed into كوتا سلودوڠ (Kota Saludong)[ sony VPCF23Q1E battery

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sony VPCY21S1E/G battery9] or simply Maynila. By the 15th century, it was nominally islamized when the Spanish Conquistadors first arrived. They renamed the area into Nuevo Reino de Castilla and shortened the alternative name, sony VPCF23S1E battery

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sony VPCY21S1E/L batteryMaynila to Manila. Manila eventually became the center of Spanish activity in the Far East and one end of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade route linking Europe, Latin America and Asia.[1sony VPCF11S1E battery

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sony VPCF23N1E battery0] The city would eventually be given the moniker of the “Pearl of the Orient”, as a result of its central location in the vital Pacific sea trade routes. Several Chinese insurrections, local revolts, a British Occupation and a Sepoy mutiny[11sony VPCF11Z1E/BI battery

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sony VPCF23P1E battery] also occurred shortly thereafter. Manila also saw the rise of the Philippine Revolution which was followed by the arrival of the Americans who made contributions to the city’s urban planning[1sony VPCF12F4E/H battery

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sony VPCF24Q1E battery2] and development only to have most of those improvements lost in the devastation of World War II.[13] Since then the city has been rebuilt.

The earliest evidence of human habitation in and around the area of Manila is found the via the nearby Angono Petroglyphs dated to around 3000 BC. Sony SVE1512Y1ES battery

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Furthermore, negritos, a class of Australoid peoples, became the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippine islands. They were found across Luzon before the Malayo-Polynesians migrated in and assimilated them.[14] sony VPCF13E4E battery

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Indian influence[edit]

A page from the 16th century Boxer Codex showing a Tagalog couple of the Maginoo caste.

The Kingdom of Maynila flourished during the latter half of the Ming Dynasty as a result of direct trade relations with China. sony VPCF13J0E/H battery

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sony VPCF13M1E/H battery Ancient Tondo was maintained as the traditional capital of the empire, with its rulers as sovereign kings and not mere chieftains, and were addressed variously as panginuan or panginoon (“lords”);sony VPCF13M1E/B battery

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sony VPCF12Z1E/BI battery anak banwa (“son of heaven”); or lakandula (“lord of the palace”), the Emperor of China considered the Lakans (rulers of ancient Manila) “王” (Kings). In the 13th century, the city consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter at the shores of the Pasig River, on top of previous older towns. sony VPCF13Z8E battery

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sony VPCF12S1E/B battery Manila was then invaded by the Indianized empire of Majapahit as referenced in the epic eulogy poem Nagarakretagama which inscribed its conquest by Maharaja Hayam Wuruk.[8] Selurong “षेलुरोन्ग्” which is a historical name for the city of Manila is listed in Canto 14 alongside Sulot, which is now Sulu, and Kalka.[8] Sony VPCZ21L9E/B battery
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Islamic Hegemony[edit]

During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah from 1485 to 1521, Sony SVE1512N1EB battery

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Sony SVE1712Q1EW batterythe Sultanate of Brunei invaded, wanting to take advantage of Tondo’s China trade by attacking its environs and establishing “كوتا سلودوڠ Kota Saludong/ Selurong” (Now Manila). They ruled under and gave yearly tribute to the Sultanate of Brunei as its satellite state.[9] Sony VPCZ21S9E/B battery
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Sony VPCZ11E7E batteryThey established a new dynasty under the local leader who accepted Islam and became Rajah Salalila or Tariq Sulayman I. He also established a trading challenge to the already rich House of Rajah Lakandula in Tondo. Sony VPCZ21X9E/B battery
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Sony VPCZ11D7E battery Islam was further strengthened by the arrival of Muslim traders from the Arab-Indian area and Southeast Asia.[15] Manila was temporarily besieged by the invasion of Chinese pirate-warlord Limahong (1574) Sony VPCZ13B7E battery
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Sony VPCZ11C7E battery before it became the seat of the colonial government of Spain.

Viceroyalty of New Spain[edit]

On June 24, 1571, Sony SVE1512N1ESI battery


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Sony SVE1712L1EW battery Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from New Spain, now Mexico, and then exercised rule of the Spanish city of Manila as a territory of New Spain with the establishment of a city council in what today is the district of Intramuros.[1Sony VPCZ13D7E battery
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Sony VPCZ11C5E battery] Miguel López de Legazpi executed the local royalty after the failure of the Tondo Conspiracy; a plot wherein an alliance between Japanese merchants, Luzon’s Rajahs with several Visayan Datus plus the Brunei Sultanate would band together to execute the Spaniards and their allies which came from the Americas and AfricaSony VPCZ13F7E battery
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Sony VPCZ11A7R batteryAt the conclusion of which, the victorious Spaniards made Manila the capital of the Spanish East Indies and of the Philippine Islands, Sony SVE1512Q1EW battery

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Sony SVE1712H1EWbatterywhich the empire would control for the next three centuries, from 1565 to 1898. (Still, the Spanish also massacred about 26000 Chinese residents of Manila in 1603) Sony VPCZ12S9R/B battery

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Manila then became famous during the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade which lasted for three centuries and brought goods from Europe, Africa and Latin America across the Pacific Islands to Southeast Asia (Which was already Sony VPCZ12S9R/S battery

Sony VPCZ12C5E battery an entrepot for goods coming from India, Indonesia and China) and trade also flowed vice versa. Silver that was mined in Mexico and Peru were exchanged for Chinese silk, Indian gems, and the spices of the Southeast Asia, Sony VPCZ12V9E/X battery
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Sony VPCZ12B7E battery some of which even flowed to Europe. Likewise wines and olives grown from Europe and North Africa were transshipped via Mexico towards Manila.[17]

British Occupation[edit] Sony VPCZ12X9E/X battery

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The city was occupied by Great Britain for two years from 1762 to 1764 as part of the European Seven Years’ War between Spain and France and Great Britain.[1Sony SVE1512T1ESI battery

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Sony SVE1712F1EW battery8] The city remained the capital of the Philippines under the government of the provisional British governor, Sony VPCZ12E7E battery
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Sony VPCZ11Z9R/B battery Dawsonne Drake, acting through the Mexico-born Archbishop of Manila, Manuel Rojo del Rio y Vieyra and the captive Audiencia Real.[19] Sony SVE171A11M battery

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Sony SVE1712F1EB battery However, armed resistance to the British persisted, centered in Pampanga, and was led by Oidor Don Simón de Anda y Salazar.[19
Sony VPCZ11X9R/B battery] During the course of the occupation, the captive Hashemite Sultan of Sulu, Azim ud-Din I, was used as a hostage by both the British and Spanish. Also, the Chinese at Binondo rebelled against Spain and afterwards, the British’s Sepoy mercenaries from India, mutinied against them.[2Sony VPCZ12G7E battery

Sony VPCZ11X9R/S battery0] Eventually, the British withdrew as per agreements in the Treaty of Paris (1763).[21] The Sepoys however, elected to stay and they settled in the area around Cainta, Rizal.[1Sony VPCZ12H7E battery

Sony VPCZ12X9R/B battery1] As for the Chinese, thereafter, the Spanish Fortress-city of Intramuros always pointed their cannons against Binondo (The world’s oldest Chinatown) to create a quick response against anymore Chinese uprisings.[22] Sony VPCZ12L7E battery

Direct Spanish Rule[edit]



Escolta Street in 1878

After the British Occupation, direct trade and communications with Spain facilitated by the opening of the Suez Canal, supplanted indirect rule via the Viceroyalty. Eventually, Mexican Independence in 1821 necessitated direct rule from Spain.[ Sony VPCZ12J7E battery
Sony VPCZ12L9E/B battery23] Under direct Spanish rule, banking, industry and education flourished more than in the past two centuries.[24] Sony SVE1511Z1E battery

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The growing wealth and education attracted Indian, Chinese, Latino, European and local migrants from the Philippine provinces to Manila, Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery
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Sony VGN-FW54M Battery all of whom elected a nascent Filipino nationality regardless of ethnicity.[25] The developments also facilitated the rise of an illustrado class which espoused liberal ideas, the ideological foundations of the Philippine Revolution which sought independence from Spain. Sony VGN-NW24S Battery

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American Colonial Period[edit]



The Burnham Plan of Manila. North is at the left.

After the Battle of Manila (1898), Spain ceded the surrendered city of Manila to the United States. The First Philippine Republic based at nearby Bulacan fought against the Americans for control of the city of Manila.[2Sony VGN-NW26M Battery
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Sony VGN-FW54S Battery 6] The Americans defeated the First Philippine Republic and captured president Emilio Aguinaldo who announced allegiance to the United States on April 1, 1901.

Under American control, Sony VGN-NW20SF Battery
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a new civilian oriented Insular Government headed by then Governor-General William Howard Taft invited city planner Daniel Burnham for the transformation of Manila, to adapt the old city to changed times and modern needs.[27] Sony VGN-FW4ZTJ/H Battery

Sony VGN-FW54J Battery The Burnham Plan included development of the road system, the use of waterways for transportation, and beautification of Manila with the improvement of waterfronts, construction of parks, Sony VGN-FW51 Battery

Sony VGN-FW54E Battery parkways and various building for various activities.[28][29] The latter included a government center occupying all of Wallace Field, which extends from Luneta to the present Taft Avenue. Sony VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery

Sony VGN-FW46Z Battery The Philippine Capitol was to rise at the Taft Avenue end of the field, facing toward the sea, and would form, with the buildings of different government bureaus and departments, a quadrangle, Sony VGN-FW51MF/H Battery
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lagoon in the center, and a monument to Jose Rizal at its Luneta end. Of Burnham’s proposed government center, only three units — the Legislative Building and the building of the Finance and Agricultural departments — were completed when World War II erupted. Sony VGN-FW41M/H Battery

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Japanese Invasion[edit]



The destruction brought about by the Battle of Manila

Due to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, American soldiers were ordered to withdraw from the city and all military installations were removed on December 24, Sony VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery
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Sony VGN-NW26EG Battery 1941. General Douglas MacArthur declared Manila an open city to prevent further death and destruction; despite this, the Japanese warplanes continued to bomb the city. Manila was occupied by the Japanese forces on January 2, 1942. Sony VGN-NW24S Battery
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Manila was also the site of the bloodiest battle in the Pacific theater during the Second World War. After falling to the Empire of Japan on January 2, 1942, it was recaptured by joint American and Filipino troops from February 3 to March 3, 1945. Sony VGN-FW56J Battery

Sony VGN-NW24MG BatterySome 100,000 civilians were killed in Manila in February 1945.[30] It was the second most devastated city in the world after Warsaw during the Second World War. Sony SVE1512C6EB battery


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Sony SVE151D11M battery At the end of World War II, almost all of the structures in the city, particularly Intramuros, were destroyed but after the war, reconstruction took place. Sony VGN-NW24EG Battery
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Sovereign Philippines[edit]

In 1948, President Elpidio Quirino moved the seat of government of the Philippines to Quezon City, a new capital city in the suburbs and fields northeast of Manila, created in 1938 by former President Manuel L. Quezon, which was renamed after him.[3Sony VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

Sony VGN-FW11ZU battery1] The move ended any implementation of the Burnham Plan’s intent for the government centre to be at Luneta.

With Arsenio Lacson as its first elected mayor in 1952 (all mayors were appointed prior to this), the city of Manila underwent The Golden Age,[32] Sony VGN-FW56Z Battery
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Sony VGN-FW11S battery was revitalized, and once again became the “Pearl of the Orient”, a moniker it earned before the Second World War. After Mayor Lacson’s term in the 1950s, the city was led by Antonio Villegas during most of the 1960s, Sony VGN-SR57V Battery
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Sony VGN-FW11M battery and Ramon Bagatsing for nearly the entire decade of the 1970s until the 1986 People Power Revolution, making him the longest serving Mayor of Manila. Mayors Lacson, Villegas, Sony SVE1512C6EW battery

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Sony SVE1713W1EB battery and Bagatsing are often collectively considered as the “Big Three of Manila” less for their rather long tenures as the city’s chief executive (continuously for over three decades, Sony VGN-SR59TH/H Battery

Sony VGN-FW11E battery  from 1952–1986), but more for their indelible contribution to the development and progress of the city and their lasting legacy in uplifting the quality of life and welfare of the people of the city of Manila. Sony VGN-SR59VG/H Battery

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During the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos, the region of the Greater Manila Area was created as an integrated unit with the enactment of Presidential Decree No. 824 on November 7, 1975. Sony VGN-SR59XG/H Battery

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Sony VGN-FW21M batteryThe area encompassed four cities and thirteen adjoining towns, as a separate regional unit of government.[33] On the 405th anniversary of the city’s foundation on June 24, 1976, Sony VGN-FW56ZR Battery

Sony VGN-FW21J battery Manila was reinstated by Marcos as the capital of the Philippines for its historical significance as the seat of government since the Spanish Period. Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, Sony VGN-FW56SR Battery

Sony VGN-FW21E batterythe premier city of the Philippines being the center of trade, commerce, education and culture.[34]

In 1992, Alfredo Lim became the mayor, and was known for his anti-crime crusades. Lim was succeeded by Atienza, who served as the vice mayor during Lim’s term. Atienza was known for his campaign (and city slogan) Sony VGN-SR49VT/H Battery

Sony VGN-NW31JF battery “Buhayin ang Maynila” (Revive Manila), which saw the establishment of several parks and the repair and rehabilitation of the city’s deteriorating facilities. He was the city’s mayor for 3 terms (9 years) before being termed out of office. Sony VGN-NW21EF/S battery
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Alfredo Lim once again ran for mayor and defeated Atienza’s son Ali in the 2007 city election and immediately reversed all of Atienza’s projects[35] claiming Atienza’s projects made little contribution to the improvements of the city. Sony VGN-NW21MF/W battery
Sony VGN-NW21MF batteryThe relationship of both parties turned bitter, with the two pitting again during the 2010 city elections in which Lim won against Atienza.
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Among the numerous controversies surrounding Lim’s administration were the filing of human rights complaints against him and other city officials by councilor Dennis Alcoreza on 2008,[36] the resignation of 24 city officials because of the maltreatment of Lim’s police forces, and his bloody resolution of the Manila hostage crisis, Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery

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Sony VPCF13Z8E Batteryone of the deadliest hostage crisis in the Philippines. Lim was also accused of graft and corruption,[37] believed to be the cause of the city’s bankruptcy. These allegations were later followed by a complaint on 2012 by Vice Mayor Isko Moreno and 28 city councilors Sony VPCF11D4E Battery

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Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery which cited that Lim’s statement in a meeting were “life-threatening” to them.[38][39] On the 2013 elections, former President Joseph Estrada defeated Lim in the mayoral race.

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The skyline of the City of Manila as viewed from Harbour Square in the CCP Complex.


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Sony SVE1713V1EB batteryLandsat satellite false-color photo of Manila Bay, Metro Manila and surrounding provinces.

Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila bay, which rests on the western shores of Luzon. The city lies 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) from mainland Asia.[4Sony SVE1512H1EB battery

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Sony SVE1713S1EW battery0] The Pasig River bisects the city. Almost all of the city sits on top of centuries of prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the Pasig and on some land reclaimed from Manila Bay. Sony VPC-F2 Battery

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The city’s land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since the American colonial times. Some of the natural variations in topography have been evened out due to the urbanization of the city. The city occupies an area of 38.55 square kilometres Sony VPCF22L1E Battery

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Sony VPCF1318E/H Battery  (14.88 sq mi) and is divided into 897 barangays, the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines. Sony SVE1511B1EB battery

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Sony SVE1713L1EB batteryEach barangay has its own chairperson and councilors. For administrative convenience, all the barangays in Manila are grouped into 100 zones. These zones have no form of local government. Sony VPCF22S1E Battery

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Manila is composed of 16 former towns and municipalities which was absorbed by the city in the 19th century. These settlements are now known as places within the city. They are further grouped into the six legislative districts of Manila. Sony VPCF23M1E Battery

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Under the Köppen climate classification system, Manila features a tropical savanna climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Aw/Am). Sony SVE151E11M battery


Sony SVE1713H1EW batteryTogether with the rest of the Philippines, Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going below 20 °C (68 °F) Sony VPCF231S1E Battery

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Sony VPCF13J0E/H Batteryor above 38 °C (100 °F) . However, humidity levels are usually very high all year round. It has a distinct dry season from late December through May, and a relatively lengthy and cooler wet season that covers the remaining period with mild to warm temperatures. Sony VPCF24M1E Battery

In the rainy season it rarely rains all day but the rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons can occur from June to September and can cause flooding in parts of the city.[41] Sony SVE1511J1E battery

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Largely due to industrial waste and heavy reliance on automobiles, Manila suffers from air pollution[45][46] in the form of smog[4Sony VPCF11S1E Battery


Sony VPCF13E8E Battery7] which affects 98% of the residents of the city[48] and results in more than 4,000 deaths per year.[49] Open dump sites and industrial waste contribute to increasing pollution within the city.[5Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery


Sony VPCF13E4E Battery0] Several rivers in Manila have been considered biologically dead. The Pasig River, where 150 tons of domestic waste and 75 tons of industrial waste were dumped daily according to a report in 2003, is now one of the most polluted rivers in the world.[51]


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Lack of adequate infrastructure is one of the causes of pollution in the city.[52] The district of Ermita is the most air polluted district in the city.[50] Sony SVE1511X1EB battery


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Rehabilitation projects are now seen in several waterways around Manila. The Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission is in charge of cleaning up the Pasig River for transportation, recreation and tourism purposes.[5Sony VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery

3] Because of rehabilitation efforts, several waterways in Manila are now cleaned-up and already lined with trees, plants and flowers instead of slums, which are now relocated in other areas.[54][55

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Manila is the most densely populated city in the world with 43,079 inhabitants per km2.[56] District 6 is listed as being the most dense with 68,266 inhabitants per km2, followed by the first two districts with 64,936 and 64,710, respectively, and district 5 being the least dense with 19,235.[57] ] Sony VPCF12E1E/H Battery

Manila’s population density dwarfs that of Kolkata (27,774 inhabitants per km2), Mumbai (22,937 inhabitants per km2), Paris (20,164 inhabitants per km2), Sony VPCF13Z8E/BI Battery


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Dhaka (19,447 inhabitants per km2), Shanghai (16,364 inhabitants per km2, with its most dense district, Nanshi, having a density of 56,785 inhabitants per km2), and Tokyo (10,087 inhabitants per km2).[57] Sony VPCF12S1E/B Battery


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The vernacular language is Filipino, based mostly on the Tagalog of surrounding areas, and this Manila form of speaking Tagalog has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and entertainment.


Sony VPCF13Z0E/B Battery Meanwhile, English is the language most widely used in education, business, and heavily in everyday usage throughout the Metro Manila region and the Philippines itself. A number of older residents can still speak basic Spanish, Sony VPCF12Z1E/BI Battery


Sony VPCF13M8E/B Battery which used to be a mandatory subject in the curriculum of Philippine universities and colleges, and many children of Japanese Filipino, Indian Filipino,and other migrants or expatriates also speak their parents’ languages at home, Sony VPCF13M1E/H Battery

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aside from English and/or Filipino for everyday use. Minnan Chinese (known as Lannang-oe) is spoken by the city’s Chinese-Filipino community. Sony VPCF24Q1E Battery

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A view of Roxas Boulevard, where the business hub of Manila is located.

Manila’s economy is diverse and multifaceted. With its excellent protected harbor, Manila serves as the chief seaport of the country. Diverse manufacturers produce industrial-related products such as chemicals, textiles, Sony VPCF23N1E Battery


Sony VPCF12S1E/B Batteryclothing, and electronic goods. Food and beverages and tobacco products also produced. Local entrepreneurs continue to process primary commodities for export, including rope, plywood, refined sugar, Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery

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Sony VPCF12Z1E Battery copra, and coconut oil. The food-processing industry is one of the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city. Manila is also a major publishing center in the Philippines.[58]


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Binondo has begun to be revitalized along with Divisoria, several high-rise condominiums and offices are rising in the area. The plan to make the Chinatown area into a business process outsourcing (BPO) Sony VPCF22M0E Battery

Sony VPCF13S1E/B Batteryhub continues to progress and is being pursued by the city government of Manila. 30 buildings are already identified to be converted into BPO offices. These buildings are mostly located along the Escolta Street of Binondo, Sony SVE1511Y1E battery

Sony SVE1713F1EB batterywhich are all unoccupied and can be converted into offices.[59]


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The Port of Manila, the chief port of the country

Tourism in Manila attracts over 1 million tourists each year.[58] Major destinations include the walled city of Intramuros, museums such as the National Museum of the Philippines, and other tourist destinations including Ermita,

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Sony VGN-FW56E Battery Malate, Santa Cruz, the Manila Zoo, the City Chinatown and events such as the Feast of Black Nazarene, free performances in Rizal Park and events within the Cultural Center of the Philippines.[note 1Sony VGN-FW21L Battery

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Sony VGN-FW56M Battery] Rizal Park is a major tourist attraction and one of the most recognizable icons of the Philippines. Ermita and Malate, aside from being known for its nightlife, are well-known shopping destination for the upper class while Divisoria was the shopping destination for local residents. Sony VGN-FW21M Battery


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The city’s cash position in 2011 stated that Manila has ₱1.6 billion cash-at-hand while its gross operating expenses was ₱2.97 billion.[60] The financial expenses of the city was P45 million,[60] and has a liability of 3.3 billion.[60Sony VGN-FW31M Battery

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Sony VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery] Manila has the highest budget allocation to health and was one of the cities with the highest tax revenue.[61] Manila was also one of the cities with the highest internal revenue.[61]


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In 2012, the city was reported as bankrupt by the Commission on Audit (COA), citing: the city’s cash position of ₱1.006 billion is insufficient to pay its deficit of ₱3.553 billion; unclaimed remittances from the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS), Sony VGN-FW11ZU Battery

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Sony VGN-FW46M BatteryHome Development Mutual Fund (Pag-IBIG) and the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth); and the bloating expenses for the operation of the city and its services.[62][6Sony VGN-FW21ZR Battery


Sony VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery3] City officials disputed the claim and stated that the city is not bankrupt.[64] In 2013, it is confirmed by current city officials including Mayor Joseph Estrada that the city is indeed in debt, with only 242 million pesos left in its funds.[65][66] Sony VGN-FW3ZJ Battery


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The Basilica Minore de San Sebastian, the only all-steel church in Asia.[67]

Residents in the city are mainly Christians, though the city welcomes all people of other faiths. Roman Catholics predominate, comprising 93.5% of the population, followed by Philippine Independent Church 2.4%,Sony VGN-FW41E/H Battery

Sony VGN-FW41J/H Battery followed by Iglesia ni Cristo, comprising 1.9% of the population followed by Protestants (1.8%) and Buddhist (1.1%). Other religions comprises the remaining 1.4% of the city’s population.[68] Manila is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila, Sony VGN-FW31E Battery


Sony VGN-NW20EF/W Battery the oldest archdiocese in the country, and the Primate of the Philippines, whose offices were located at the Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Conception.[69] Manila is home to three other basilicas, Sony VGN-FW31J Battery


Sony VGN-NW20EF/S Batterybesides the Manila Cathedral, namely, the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene, Minor Basilica of St. Lorenzo Ruiz and the Basilica Minore de San Sebastian. Being the seat of the Spanish colonial government in past centuries, it has been used as the base of numerous Roman Catholic missions to the Philippines. Sony VGN-FW44MR Battery


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The interior of San Agustin Church in Intramuros, one of the most visited places in the city.

Other notable churches in the city include San Agustin Church in Intramuros, the shrine of the canonically crowned image of Nuestra Señora de Consolación y Correa, a UNESCO World Heritage Site,[69Sony VGN-FW11MR Battery


Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery] and a favorite wedding place of notable people and one of two fully air-conditioned churches in the city; the Binondo Church, also known as Basilica Minore de San Lorenzo Ruiz; Malate Church, the shrine of Nuestra Señora de Remedios; Sony VGN-FW11S Battery

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Sony VGN-NW31JF Battery Ermita Church, home of the oldest Marian Image in the Philippines, Nuestra Señora de Guia; Tondo Church, home of the century-old ivory image of Sto. Niño (Child Jesus); and Sta. Ana Church, shrine of the canonically crowned image of Nuestra Senora de los Desamparados.


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Aside from the Evangelical Christians, Manila is also the home of most of the country’s Mainline Protestants. The Pro-Cathedral of the Saint Stephen, the center of the Episcopal Diocese of Central Philippines of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines is also found in the city. Sony VGN-FW11Z Battery


Sony VGN-NW21ZF Battery The mainly Filipino revolutionary church Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippine Independent Church or Aglipayan Church) is headquartered in the city. Also, the main campus of the Cathedral of Praise is located within the city. Sony VGN-FW11ZU Battery


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The city also hosts other faiths. There are many Buddhist and Taoist temples built by the Chinese community in Manila. Quiapo is home to a sizable Muslim population in Manila, where Masjid Al-Dahab is located. There is also a large Hindu temples for the Indian population, and Sikh Temples are also erected. Sony VGN-FW21SR Battery

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Nightlife in Manila centres around Ermita and Malate, along with Intramuros. Areas in Binondo, the city’s Chinatown, also attract many people, while other notable areas in the city such as Quiapo and Divisoria are known for being one of the shopping center of bargain goods. Sony VGN-FW46S Battery


Sony VGN-NW21MF Battery Ermita and Malate, being a popular tourist destination, showcase a wide variety of hotels, restaurants, clubs, bars, cafes, art and antique shops. The nightlife offers everything from cultural exhibitions to discothèques, casinos, entertainment lounges, and fashionable cafes.


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Annual cultural events[edit]

Manila celebrates civic and national holidays. Manila Day, which celebrates the city’s founding, was first proclaimed by Herminio A. Astorga (then Vice Mayor of Manila) on 24 June 1962 and has been annually commemorated, Sony VGN-FW46Z Battery


Sony VGN-FW54S Batteryunder the patronage of John the Baptist. Each of the city’s districts also have their own fiesta (festivals). The city is also the host to the Feast of the Black Nazarene, held every 9 January, which draws millions of Catholic devotees. Sony VGN-FW48E/H Battery

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The National Museum of the Philippines

As the cultural center of the Philippines, Manila houses a number of notable museums. Bahay Tsinoy, one of Manila’s most prominent museums, documents the Chinese lives and contributions in the history of the Philippines. Sony VGN-FW56ZR Battery

Sony VGN-FW54J Battery The Intramuros Light and Sound Museum chronicles the Filipinos desire for freedom during the revolution under Rizal’s leadership and other revolutionary leaders. The Metropolitan Museum of Manila exhibits the Filipino arts and culture. The Museum of Manila is the city-owned museum that exhibits the city’s culture and history. Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery

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Manila is also home to other notable museums of the country, namely the Museo Pambata, a children’s museum, the Museum of Philippine Political History, which exhibits notable political events in the country, Sony VGN-NW24S Battery


Sony VGN-NS20EF/P Batterythe National Museum of the Philippines (which includes the Museum of the Filipino People) of which exhibits life, culture and history of the country, the Parish of the Our Lady of the Abandoned and the San Agustin Church Museum, which houses religious artifacts, Plaza San Luis, Sony VGN-NW26M Battery


Sony VGN-NS30Z/S Batterya public museum, the UST Museum of Arts and Sciences and the DLS-CSB Museum of Contemporary Art and Design (MCAD), both of which are university museums dedicated to science and technology, and contemporary art respectively. Sony VGN-NW20EF Battery

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Other points of interest[edit]

Numerous notable landmarks are located in Manila, such as Rizal Park and the historical Intramuros. Rizal park is a crescent-shaped 58 hectares (140 acres)[70] park, it was erected for the country’s national hero, José Rizal. Among the attractions in Rizal Park is the Chinese and Japanese Gardens, the National Museum of the Philippines, Sony VGN-NW24JG Battery

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Sony VGN-NS30E/S BatteryThe National Library of the Philippines, the Planetarium, the Orchidarium and Butterfly Pavilion, the park auditorium, a landscaped relief map of the Philippines, the fountain, the children’s lagoon, the chess plaza, the Quirino Grandstand and the Manila Ocean Park, which features a wide variety of marine animals. Sony VGN-NW24MR Battery

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Sony VGN-NS20M/S BatteryThe flagpole west of the Rizal Monument is the Kilometer Zero marker for distances to the rest of the country. In the northernmost part of the city lie three cemeteries: the Loyola and Chinese cemeteries, and Manila North Cemetery, the largest public cemetery in the Manila metropolitan area. Sony VGN-NW26JG Battery

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Shopping centers[edit]




Robinsons Place Manila, a major shopping mall in the city

Manila has become a well-known shopping hub of the country and it has been named as one of the best shopping destinations in Asia.[71Sony VGN-NW21MF/P Battery


Sony VGN-NS20E/P Battery][72] Major shopping malls are located around the city while local and traditional shopping centers such as markets and bazaars are also located around Manila.

Robinsons Place Manila is the largest shopping mall in the city,[73] Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery

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Sony VGN-NS11J/S Battery it is located at the heart of Manila. The mall was the second and by-far, the largest Robinson Mall ever built by John Gokongwei, the mall features a wide range of local and international retail shops, dining outlets, Sony VGN-NS10E/S Battery

Sony VGN-NS10L/S Batteryentertainment facilities and service centers, it also features anchor stores such as Robinsons Supermarket, Robinsons Department Store and Robinsons Cinema.

Another shopping mall is the SM City Manila, it is the first SM Supermall in the city, it features major SM brands like the SM Department Store, SM Supermarket, SM Cinemas and SM Foodcourt, it is located right beside the Manila City Hall; Sony PCG-6P2M Battery

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the mall underwent major redevelopment in 2008. SM City San Lazaro is the second SM Supermall in Manila, it is located in the district of Santa Cruz, the mall sits on what was the site of the former San Lazaro Hippodrome, a racetrack for horses. Sony PCG-6R1M Battery


Sony PCG-8X1M BatteryThe site of the original SM Department Store located at Quiapo is known today as the SM Clearance Center, which was established in 1972 and is occupying a formerly well-known hotel with a revolving restaurant atop. Other department stores still thrive throughout the city. Sony PCG-6C1M Battery


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Aside from the aforementioned malls, the Tutuban Commercial Center, Lucky Chinatown Mall (Cityplace Square), 11/88 Mall, 168 Shopping Mall, and 999 Shopping Mall are some of the popular malls in the city located in Divisoria, a well-known shopping center in the country.

The traditional shopping areas of Divisoria, Binondo, and Quiapo, Sony PCG-6D1M Battery

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Sony PCG-7X1M Battery is a place for local and adventurous shoppers, these areas offers bargains and cheap buys and it also offers indigenous Filipino cuisine, crafts and delicacies. Quiapo is referred as the “Old Downtown”, it has also made a name for itself as a place where cheap buys or goods are being sold at rock-bottom prices. Sony PCG-6G2M Battery


Sony PCG-7T2M Battery Binondo is the oldest Chinatown in the world,[22] it is the district center of commerce and trade for all types of businesses run by Filipino-Chinese merchants; it offers Chinese restaurants, Filipino restaurants, and Chinese stores. Tiangge (flea market) stores are common, which are mostly concentrated on these areas to accommodate visitors. Sony PCG-6J1M Battery


Children playing basketball at Intramuros

Sports in Manila have a long and distinguished history. The city’s, and the country’s in general, main sport is basketball, Sony PCG-6L2M Battery

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Sony PCG-7N2M Battery and most barangays have a makeshift basketball court, with court markings drawn on the streets. Larger barangays have covered courts; this is where interbarangay leagues are held every summer (April–May). Sony PCG-6J2M Battery

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The city has several well-known sports venues, such as the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex and San Andres Gym, the home of the now defunct Manila Metrostars.[7Sony PCG-8V1M Battery

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Sony PCG-7N1M Battery] The Rizal Memorial Sports Complex houses the Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium, the Baseball Stadium, Tennis Courts, Memorial Coliseum and the Ninoy Aquino Stadium (the latter two are indoor arenas). Sony PCG-8W1M Battery


The Rizal complex had hosted several multi-sport events, such as the 1954 Asian Games and the 1934 Far Eastern Games. Whenever the country hosts the Southeast Asian Games, most of the events are held at the complex, but on the 2005 Games, Sony PCG-8W2M Battery

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Sony PCG-7M1M Battery most events were held elsewhere. The 1960 ABC Championship and the 1973 ABC Championship, forerunners of the FIBA Asia Championship, was hosted by the complex, with the national basketball team winning on both tournaments. The 1978 FIBA World Championship was held at the complex although the latter stages were held in the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City, Southeast Asia’s largest indoor arena. Sony PCG-7D1M Battery

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Manila also hosts several well-known sports facilities such as the Enrique M. Razon Sports Center and the University of Santo Tomas Sports Complex, both of which are private venues owned by a university; collegiate sports are also held, Sony PCG-7H1M Battery

Sony PCG-7H2M Battery with the University Athletic Association of the Philippines and the National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball games held at Rizal Memorial Coliseum and Ninoy Aquino Stadium, although basketball events had transferred to San Juan’s Filoil Flying V Arena and the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City. Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery



Other collegiate sports are still held at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex. Professional basketball also used to play at the city, but the Philippine Basketball Association now holds their games at Araneta Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery


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Previously a widely-played sport in the city, Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery

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Sony VGP-BPS21 battery Manila is now the home of the only sizable baseball stadium in the country, at the Rizal Memorial Baseball Stadium. The stadium hosts games of Baseball Philippines; Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth were the first players to score a home run at the stadium at their tour of the country on December 2, 1934.[75] Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery


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Another popular sport in the city are cue sports, and billiard halls are a feature in most barangays. The 2010 World Cup of Pool was held at Robinsons Place Manila.[76] Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery


The Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium hosted the first FIFA World Cup qualifier in decades when the Philippines hosted Sri Lanka in July 2011. The stadium, which was previously unfit for international matches, Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery

had undergone a major renovation program prior to the match.[77] The Football Stadium now regularly hosts matches of the United Football League. The stadium also hosted its first rugby test when it hosted the 2012 Asian Five Nations Division I tournaments.[78] Sony VGP-BPS13A battery

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The Rizal Monument at the Luneta Park

Manila is the site of the Rizal Park. The park lies within the heart of Manila’s cultural and business district, as an honor and dedication to the country’s national hero José Rizal, who was executed in the same place


Sony VGP-BPS13B battery  where the park was created by the Spaniards on charges of subversion. Manila is also the home to several plazas, such as the Plaza Balagtas and Plaza Miranda, the site of the 1971 politics-related bombings. Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery

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Notable parks and green areas include the Cultural Center of the Philippines, the Rajah Sulayman Park, Manila Boardwalk, Liwasang Bonifacio, Mehan Garden, Paco Park, Remedios Circle, the Manila Zoological and Botanical Garden, Pandacan Linear Park, and the Malacañang Garden. Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery

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Within the city lies the cemeteries of the Manila Chinese Cemetery, La Loma Cemetery,[note 2] the Manila South Green Park and the Manila North Green Park, notable as being the resting place of several historical figures and being the largest cemetery in the Metropolis. Both the Manila North and South Green Park are city-owned cemeteries. Sony VGP-BPS13 battery


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A large number of private and public recreational areas are scattered throughout the city. Also, several playgrounds, sports facilities and gardens were erected within the city — most of these being developed in commercial areas. Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery

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Within the city there are numerous shrine plazas wherein numerous historic monuments are found. Plazas also have numerous tiangge stores accommodating visitors. Plazas, unlike parks, consist of less greenery and mostly of bricked pathways. Plazas in the city are usually located in commercial and industrial places while shrines have more greenery than plazas and no tiangge.

Government[edit] Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery

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The Manila City Hall and its iconic clock tower are among the region’s registered Cultural Properties.

The Mayor of Manila (Filipino: Alkalde ng Maynila) is restricted to three consecutive terms, totaling nine years, although a Mayor can be elected again after an interruption of one term. The Vice-Mayor is the Presiding Officer of the Manila City Council composed of the six elected City Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery


Sony VGP-BPL21 battery Councilors of the legislative districts; the local President of the Association of Barangay Captains; and the Sangguniang Kabataan (youth council) president. The Mayor’s office and Council seat is Manila City Hall. The civic judicial branch is administered by the Supreme Court of the Philippines under the Metro Manila judicial region. Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery


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Incumbent officials[edit]

The incumbent Mayor is Joseph Estrada, former President of the Republic of the Philippines, who defeated former mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2013) in the 2013 local election. Isko Moreno is the city’s incumbent Vice-Mayor. Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery

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Coat of Arms[edit]

The coat of arms of Manila is composed of the city’s modern coat-of-arms, with colours mirroring those of the National Flag. It is a modified form of the city’s colonial arms bestowed in the 16th century. Sony VGP-BPS13AB battery

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The arms consist of a pre-Hispanic shield, horizontally divided into red and blue fields. The top, red half depicts the city’s nickname, “Pearl of the Orient”, while the lower, blue half is charged with a sea-lion surmounting the waves of the River Pasig and Manila Bay. Sony VGP-BPS13B battery


Sony VGP-BPS21B battery The sea-lion originally represented the islands’s former colonial status as an ultramar (overseas) possession of Spain, and is ultimately derived from the arms of the León.

The arms are surrounded by a white roundel containing the words Lungsod ng Maynila and Pilipinas (Filipino, “City of Manila”;Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery


Sony VGP-BPS21A battery “Philippines”), and six yellow stars representing the city’s six congressional districts.

Administrative districts[edit]

Maps of Manila

The city of Manila is divided into sixteen officially-defined administrative districts, and subdivided into 897 barangays that are only known by sequential numbers instead of names.[3Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPS21 battery] The districts only exist for administrative convenience and do not have their own sets of elected officials. Each geographical district is further divided into officially-defined “zones,” which are clusters of two or Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery


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Data presented by the National Statistics Office still do not reflect the 16-district configuration recognized by the city government of Manila. It recognizes neither the western area of Santa Ana that now belongs to the fifth congressional district of Manila as the geographical district of San Andres Bukid, Sony VGP-BPS13S battery

Sony VGP-BPL13 battery nor the area of Sampaloc south of the Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard which now belongs to the sixth congressional district as the geographical district of Santa Mesa.

Legislative districts[edit]



Manila’s legislative districts

Aside from the division of the sixteen geographical districts, the city is also divided into the six legislative districts that serve as the constituencies for the election of the city’s representatives to the lower house of the Congress of the PhilippinesSony VGP-BPS13S battery

Sony VGP-BPL13 battery  and of the regular members to the Sangguniang Panlungsod (SP; City Council). Each district elects one representative to the House of Representatives and six SP members to the council. The city, along with the rest of the nation, elects 12 senators as one at-large district. Sony PCG-81212M battery

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The 1st District (2007 population: 407,331) is Manila’s (and the country’s) most densely populated congressional district. It covers the western portion of Tondo that lies along Manila Bay. Within this district, the northern Port Area is located. Sony PCG-81311M battery


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The 2nd District (2007 population: 223,273) comprises the eastern inland portion of Tondo, a neighborhood known as Gagalangin.

The 3rd District (2007 population: 197,242) covers the districts of Binondo, Quiapo, San Nicolas and Santa Cruz. These areas were once the commercial and financial centres of the metropolis. The congressional district is home to the city’s Chinatown, Sony PCG-81312M battery


Sony VGN-FE11E battery and to several notable landmarks, including the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene, the Binondo Church, Avenida Rizal, and the city’s three largest burial grounds: the La Loma Cemetery, the Manila Chinese Cemetery and the Manila North Green Park. Some areas of this district is a part of the University Belt. Sony PCG-81313M battery

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The 4th District (2007 population: 255,613) comprises solely the geographical district of Sampaloc, a mainly residential area. The University of Santo Tomas, along with several well-known universities is located in this district. Sony VGN-FE31M battery

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The 5th District (2007 population: 315,961) consists of the geographical districts of Ermita, Malate, Port Area, Intramuros, San Andres Bukid, and a portion of Paco (zone 90). The congressional district contains some of the most historically and culturally significant landmarks and institutions in the country, Sony VGN-FE31ZR battery


Sony PCG-81411M batterysuch as the old walled city of Manila, Rizal Park, the Manila Zoo, the National Museum and a portion of the Cultural Center of the Philippines complex. The Supreme Court of the Philippines, the Court of Appeals and the World Health Organization are all in Ermita. The districts of Malate and Ermita are known for entertainment and nightlife. The three century-old college, Colegio de San Juan de Letran is located in this district. Sony VGN-FE41E battery

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The 6th District (2007 population: 261,294) covers the geographical districts of Paco (except zone 90), Pandacan, San Miguel, Santa Ana and Santa Mesa. This congressional district is host to the Malacañan Palace, the official residence of the President of the Philippines and the main campus of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Sony VGN-FE41MR battery


National government[edit]



The façade of Malacañang Palace, the official residence of the President of the Philippines

Manila, being the seat of political power of the Philippines, has several national government offices headquartered at the city. Sony VGN-FE41S battery

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Sony PCG-81313M battery Planning for the development for being the center of government started during the early years of American colonization to the country when they envisioned a well-designed city outside the walls of Intramuros. Sony VGN-FE48E battery


Sony PCG-81312M batteryThe strategic location chosen was Bagumbayan, a former town which is now the Rizal Park to become the center of government and a design commission was given to Daniel Burnham to create a master plan for the city patterned after Washington D.C.. These improvements were eventually abandoned under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L. Quezon. Sony VGN-FE48M battery


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A new government center was to be built on the hills northeast of Manila, or what is now Quezon City. Several government agencies have set up their headquarters in Quezon City but several key government offices still reside in Manila. However, many of the plans were substantially altered after the devastation of Manila during World War II and by subsequent administrations. Sony VGN-FE49VN battery


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Façade of the Supreme Court of the Philippines

The city, as the capital, still hosts the Office of the President, as well as the president’s official residence. Aside from these, important institutions such as the Supreme Court (Kataas-taasang hukuman), the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, Sony VPCSD1S1C battery
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the Departments of Budget and Management (Kagawaran ng Pagbabadyet at Pamamahala), Finance, Health, Justice, Labor and Employment, and Tourism still call the city home. Manila also hosts important national institutions such as the National Library, National Archives, National Museum and the Philippine General Hospital. Sony VPCSA2Z9E battery

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Congress previously held office at the Old Congress Building. In 1972, due to declaration of martial law, Congress was dissolved; its successor, the unicameral Batasang Pambansa, held office at the new Batasang Pambansa Complex. Sony SVE14AG18M battery
Sony SVE1711K1EW battery When a new constitution restored the bicameral Congress, the House of Representatives stayed at the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate remained at the Old Congress Building. In May 1997, Sony SVE14AE15M battery

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Sony SVE1711T1EB batterythe Senate transferred to a new building it shares with the Government Service Insurance System at reclaimed land at Pasay.

The National Library of the Philippines is located within Rizal Park.

The center of education since the colonial period, Manila — particularly Intramuros — is home to several Philippine universities and colleges as well as its oldest ones. It served as the home of the University of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620), Sony SVE14AA11M battery
Sony SVE151C11M battery and Ateneo de Manila University (1859). Only Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620) remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc in 1927, and Ateneo left Intramuros for Loyola Heights, Quezon City (while still retaining “de Manila” in its name) in 1952.

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The University of the City of Manila located at Intramuros, and Universidad De Manila located just outside the walled city, are both owned and operated by the Manila city government. The national government controls the University of the PhilippinesSony SVE171G11M battery
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Manila, the oldest of the University of the Philippines constituent universities and the center of health sciences education in the country.[79] The city is also the site of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, the largest university in the country in terms of student population.[80] Sony SVE171A11M battery


The University Belt refers to the area where there is a high concentration or a cluster of colleges and universities in the city and it is commonly understood as the one where the San Miguel, Quiapo and Sampaloc districts meet. Generally, Sony SVE171E13M battery
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it includes the western end of España Boulevard, Nicanor Reyes St. (formerly Morayta St.), the eastern end of Claro M. Recto Avenue (formerly Azcarraga), Legarda Avenue, Mendiola Street, and the different side streets. Each of the colleges and universities found here are at a short walking distance of each other. Sony SVE151G11M battery

Sony SVE151E11M batteryAnother cluster of colleges lies along the southern bank of the Pasig River, mostly at the Intramuros and Ermita districts, and still a smaller cluster is found at the southernmost part of Malate near the border with Pasay. Sony SVE151G13M battery

Sony SVE171E11M batteryThe high concentration of higher learning institutions makes Manila the country’s educational capital.

The Division of the City Schools of Manila, a branch of the Department of Education, refers to the city’s three-tier public education system. It governs the 71 public elementary schools, 32 public high schools[81] and the two city-owned universities. Sony SVE171B11M battery

The city also contains the Manila Science High School, the pilot science high school of the Philippines; the National Museum, where the Spoliarium of Juan Luna is housed; the Metropolitan Museum of Manila, the premier museum of modern and contemporary visual arts; the Museo Pambata, the Children’s Museum, Sony SVE171C11M battery

a place of hands-on discovery and fun learning; and, the National Library, the repository of the country’s printed and recorded cultural heritage and other literary and information resources.

Manila LRT Purple Line’s V. Mapa Station of the Manila Light Rail Transit System. Sony SVE151D11M battery

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One of the more famous modes of transportation in Manila is the jeepney. Patterned after U.S. army jeeps, these have been in use since the years immediately following World War II.[82] Today, the Tamaraw FX, the third generation Toyota Kijang, has begun to compete directly with jeepneys. Along with buses, jeepneys and Tamaraws follow fixed routes for a set price. Sony SVE171A11M battery


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On a for-hire basis, the city is served by numerous taxicabs, “tricycles” (motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the auto rickshaw), and “trisikads” or “sikads” (bicycles with a sidecars, the Philippine version of pedicabs). Sony SVE171E13M battery

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In some areas, especially in the Divisoria district, motorized pedicabs are popular. Spanish-era horse-drawn calesas are still a popular tourist attraction in the streets of Binondo and Intramuros. All types of public transport are privately owned and operated under government franchise. ,sony VPCF12F4E/H battery


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The city is serviced by the Manila Light Rail Transit System, popularly known as LRT, as distinct from the Manila Metro Rail Transit System, or MRT, in other parts of Metro Manila. Development of the railway system began in the 1970s under the Marcos administration, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast Asia. ,sony VPCF12M1E/H battery

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,sony VGP-BPS13/B BatteryThe LRT and MRT system has undergone a multi-billion dollar expansion.[83] Two lines provide service to the city: the LRT-1 Line (Yellow Line) that runs along the length of Taft Avenue (R-2) and Rizal Avenue (R-9), and the MRT-2 Line (Purple Line) that runs along Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard (R-6) from Santa Cruz, through Quezon City, up to Santolan in Pasig. ,sony VPCF13E8E battery



The main terminal of the Philippine National Railways lies within the city. Railways extend north to the city of San Fernando in Pampanga and south to Legazpi City in Albay, though only the southern railway is in operation.

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The Port of Manila, located in the vicinity of Manila Bay, is the chief seaport of the Philippines and it is the premier international shipping gateway to the country. The city is also served by the Pasig River Ferry Service which runs on the Pasig River.

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The city is also served by the Ninoy Aquino International Airport and Clark International Airport.

In 2006, Forbes magazine ranked Manila “the world’s most congested city”. Manila has become notorious for its frequent traffic jams and high densities.[84,sony PCG-7M1M Battery
,sony PCG-7N1M Battery
,sony PCG-7N2M Battery] Government units have taken efforts to alleviate traffic jams, including a construction of a new flyover at Sampaloc.[85]

Medical facilities[edit]

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The Philippine General Hospital

Manila is headquarters to the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific, the World Health Organization Country Office for the Philippines, main office of the Department of Health, and several private and public hospitals and medical centers. ,sony VPCF13M1E/H battery

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One of the many programs of the Department of Tourism is the promotion of medical tourism in the Philippines. Manila hosts a large number of wellness centers and spa facilities.

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The Manila Health Department, which is responsible for the planning and implementation of the health programs of the city government, operates 44 health centers and lying-in facilities scattered throughout the city.[86] Hospitals in the city are the Manila Doctors’ Hospital, ,sony VPCF24Q1E battery


,sony VPCF23M1E batteryUniversity of the Philippines – Philippine General Hospital, Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, Dr. José R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, San Lazaro Hospital, the University of Santo Tomas Hospital and the city-owned Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center.[69] ,sony VPCF23P1E battery

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Aung San Suu Kyi ,Burma and Yangon

Aung San Suu Kyi ,Burma and Yangon

Aung San Suu Kyi MP AC is a Burmese opposition politician and chairperson of the National League for Democracy (NLD) in Burma. In the 1990 general election, Sony VGN-AR51SRU Battery

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the NLD won 59% of the national votes and 81% (392 of 485) of the seats in Parliament.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] She had, however, already been detained under house arrest before the elections. Sony VGN-AR61E Battery

She remained under house arrest in Burma for almost 15 of the 21 years from 20 July 1989 until her most recent release on 13 November 2010,[10] becoming one of the world’s most prominent political prisoners.[11]

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Suu Kyi received the Rafto Prize and the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought in 1990 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. In 1992 she was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding by the government of India and the International Simón Bolívar Prize from the government of Venezuela. In 2007, the Government of Canada made her an honorary citizen of that country,[1Sony VGN-AR61MR Battery


Sony VGN-AR11MR Battery2] the fourth person ever to receive the honour.[13] In 2011, she was awarded the Wallenberg Medal.[1Sony VGN-AR61S Battery


Sony VGN-AR11M Battery4] On 19 September 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi was also presented with the Congressional Gold Medal, which is, along with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honour in the United States.[15]


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On 1 April 2012, her party, the National League for Democracy, announced that she was elected to the Pyithu Hluttaw, the lower house of the Burmese parliament, representing the constituency of Kawhmu;[16Sony VGN-AR31SR Battery


Sony VGN-AR31MR Battery] her party also won 43 of the 45 vacant seats in the lower house.[17] The election results were confirmed by the official electoral commission the following day.[18]

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On 6 June 2013, Suu Kyi announced on the World Economic Forum’s website that she wants to run for the presidency in Myanmar’s 2015 elections.[19]

A family portrait, with Aung San Suu Kyi (in white) as a toddler, taken in 1947, shortly before her father’s assassination. Sony VGN-AR41L Battery


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Aung San Suu Kyi derives her name from three relatives: “Aung San” from her father, “Suu” from her paternal grandmother, and “Kyi” from her mother Khin Kyi.[20] Sony VGN-AR41MR Battery

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Sony VGN-AR41SR Battery She is frequently called Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Daw is not part of her name, but is an honorific, similar to madame, for older, revered women, literally meaning “aunt”.[2Sony VGN-AR41M Battery


Sony VGN-AR21MR Battery1] She is also often referred to as Daw Suu by the Burmese (or Amay Suu, lit. “Mother Suu,” by some followers),[22][23] or “Aunty Suu”, and as Dr. Suu Kyi,[24] Ms. Suu Kyi, or Miss Suu Kyi by the foreign media. However, like other Burmese, she has no surname (see Burmese names). Sony VGN-FW21L Battery

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A portrait of Khin Kyi and her family in 1948. Aung San Suu Kyi is seated on the floor.

Aung San Suu Kyi was born on 19 June 1945 in Rangoon (now named Yangon).[25] Her father, Aung San, founded the modern Burmese army and negotiated Burma’s independence from the British Empire in 1947; Sony VGN-FW21Z Battery

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he was assassinated by his rivals in the same year. She grew up with her mother, Khin Kyi, and two brothers, Aung San Lin and Aung San Oo, in Rangoon. Aung San Lin died at the age of eight, when he drowned in an ornamental lake on the grounds of the house.[20] Her elder brother emigrated to San Diego, California, Sony VGN-FW31M Battery

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Sony VGN-NW20EF/P Battery becoming a United States citizen.[20] After Aung San Lin’s death, the family moved to a house by Inya Lake where Suu Kyi met people of very different backgrounds, political views and religions.[2Sony VGN-FW11ZU Battery

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6] She was educated in Methodist English High School (now Basic Education High School No. 1 Dagon) for much of her childhood in Burma, where she was noted as having a talent for learning languages.[27] She is a Theravada Buddhist.

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Aung San Suu Kyi at the age of six.

Suu Kyi’s mother, Khin Kyi, gained prominence as a political figure in the newly formed Burmese government. She was appointed Burmese ambassador to India and Nepal in 1960, and Aung San Suu Kyi followed her there. Sony VGN-FW3ZJ Battery

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Sony VGN-NW31ZF/S BatteryShe studied in the Convent of Jesus and Mary School in New Delhi, and graduated from Lady Shri Ram College in New Delhi with a degree in politics in 1964.[25][28] Suu Kyi continued her education at St Hugh’s College, Oxford, obtaining a B.A. degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics in 1969. Sony VGN-FW41J/H Battery

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Sony VGN-NW21ZF Battery After graduating, she lived in New York City with a family friend Ma Than E, who was once a popular Burmese pop singer.[29] She worked at the United Nations for three years, primarily on budget matters, writing daily to her future husband, Dr. Michael Aris.[30] In late 1971, Sony VGN-FW46M Battery


Sony VGN-NW21JF BatteryAung San Suu Kyi married Aris, a scholar of Tibetan culture, living abroad in Bhutan.[25] The following year she gave birth to their first son, Alexander Aris, in London; their second son, Kim, was born in 1977. Sony VGN-FW51 Battery

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Sony VGN-NW21EF BatteryBetween 1985 and 1987, Suu Kyi was working toward an M.Phil degree in Burmese literature as a research student at SOAS the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.[31Sony VGN-FW51MF/H Battery

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Sony VGN-NW21MF Battery][32] She was elected as an Honorary Fellow of SOAS in 1990.[25] For two years she was a Fellow at the Indian Institute of Advanced Studies (IIAS) in Shimla, India. She also worked for the government of the Union of Burma.

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In 1988 Suu Kyi returned to Burma, at first to tend for her ailing mother but later to lead the pro-democracy movement. Aris’ visit in Christmas 1995 turned out to be the last time that he and Suu Kyi met, as Suu Kyi remained in Burma and the Burmese dictatorship denied him any further entry visas.[2Sony VGN-FW31E Battery


Sony VGN-FW54S Battery5] Aris was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1997 which was later found to be terminal. Despite appeals from prominent figures and organizations, including the United States, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and Pope John Paul II, the Burmese government would not grant Aris a visa, Sony VGN-FW31J Battery


Sony VGN-FW54J Battery saying that they did not have the facilities to care for him, and instead urged Aung San Suu Kyi to leave the country to visit him. She was at that time temporarily free from house arrest but was unwilling to depart, Sony VGN-FW44MR Battery

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Sony VGN-FW56ZR Battery fearing that she would be refused re-entry if she left, as she did not trust the military junta’s assurance that she could return.[33]


Aris died on his 53rd birthday on 27 March 1999. Since 1989, when his wife was first placed under house arrest, he had seen her only five times, the last of which was for Christmas in 1995.


Sony VGN-FW48E/H BatteryShe was also separated from her children, who live in the United Kingdom, but starting in 2011, they have visited her in Burma.[34] Sony VGN-FW11SR Battery

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On 2 May 2008, after Cyclone Nargis hit Burma, Suu Kyi lost the roof of her house and lived in virtual darkness after losing electricity in her dilapidated lakeside residence. She used candles at night as she was not provided any generator set.[35Sony VGN-FW11ZU Battery


Sony VGN-FW46Z Battery] Plans to renovate and repair the house were announced in August 2009.[36] Suu Kyi was released from house arrest on 13 November 2010.[37]

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Aung San Suu Kyi arrives to give a speech to the supporters during the 2012 by-election campaign at her constituency Kawhmu township, Myanmar on 22 March 2012.

Political beginnings[edit]

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Coincident with Aung San Suu Kyi’s return to Burma in 1988, the long-time military leader of Burma and head of the ruling party, General Ne Win, stepped down. Mass demonstrations for democracy followed that event on 8 August 1988 (8–8–88, Sony VGN-FW46S Battery

a day seen as auspicious), which were violently suppressed in what came to be known as the 8888 Uprising. On 26 August 1988, she addressed half a million people at a mass rally in front of the Shwedagon Pagoda in the capital, calling for a democratic government.[25Sony PCG-6Z2M battery

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] However in September, a new military junta took power.


Influenced[38] by both Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violence[39][40] and more specifically by Buddhist concepts,[41] Aung San Suu Kyi entered politics to work for democratisation, helped found the National League for Democracy on 27 September 1988,[42] but was put under house arrest on 20 July 1989. Offered freedom if she left the country, she refused. Sony PCG-4Q2M battery,

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One of her most famous speeches was Freedom From Fear, which began: “It is not power that corrupts, but fear. Fear of losing power corrupts those who wield it and fear of the scourge of power corrupts those who are subject to it.”[43]

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She also believes fear spurs many world leaders to lose sight of their purpose. “Government leaders are amazing”, she once said. “So often it seems they are the last to know what the people want.”[44]

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Political career[edit]




Suu Kyi meets with Edgardo Boeninger of the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs in 1995.

1990 general election[edit]

In 1990, the military junta called a general election, in which the National League for Democracy (NLD) received 59% of the votes, guaranteeing NLD 80% of the parliament seats. Some claim that Aung San Suu Kyi would have assumed the office of Prime Minister;[45] in fact, however, as she was not permitted, Sony PCG-71D14M battery


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she did not stand as a candidate in the elections (although being a MP is not a strict prerequisite for becoming PM in most parliamentary systems). Instead, the results were nullified and the military refused to hand over power, Sony PCG-61511M battery

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Sony PCG-91112M battery resulting in an international outcry. Aung San Suu Kyi was placed under house arrest at her home on University Avenue (16°49′32″N 96°9′1″E) in Rangoon, during which time she was awarded the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought in 1990,

Sony PCG-71511M battery and the Nobel Peace Prize the year after. Her sons Alexander and Kim accepted the Nobel Peace Prize on her behalf. Aung San Suu Kyi used the Nobel Peace Prize’s 1.3 million USD prize money to establish a health and education trust for the Burmese people.[46] Around this time, Sony PCG-61712M battery


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Suu Kyi chose non-violence as an expedient political tactic, stating in 2007, “I do not hold to non-violence for moral reasons, but for political and practical reasons,”[47] however, nonviolent action as well as civil resistance in lieu of armed conflict are also political tactics in keeping with the overall philosophy of her Theravada Buddhist religion. Sony PCG-61813M battery

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1996 attack[edit]

On 9 November 1996, the motorcade that she was traveling in with other National League for Democracy leaders Tin Oo and U Kyi Maung, was attacked in Yangon. About 200 men swooped down on the motorcade, Sony PCG-71511M battery

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wielding metal chains, metal batons, stones and other weapons. The car that Aung San Suu Kyi was in had its rear window smashed, and the car with Tin Oo and U Kyi Maung had its rear window and two backdoor windows shattered. Sony PCG-91311M battery

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Sony PCG-61611M batteryIt is believed the offenders were members of the Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) who were allegedly paid 500 kyats (@ USD $0.50) each to participate. Sony PCG-71316M battery


Sony PCG-61511M batteryThe NLD lodged an official complaint with the police, and according to reports the government launched an investigation, but no action was taken. (Amnesty International 120297)[48] Sony SVE151D11M battery

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House arrest[edit]

Aung San Suu Kyi has been placed under house arrest for 15 of the past 21 years, on numerous occasions, since she began her political career,[4Sony PCG-71318M battery



Sony PCG-71D14M battery9] during which time she was prevented from meeting her party supporters and international visitors. In an interview, Suu Kyi said that while under house arrest she spent her time reading philosophy, Sony PCG-6Z2M battery,

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Sony PCG-71C11M battery politics and biographies that her husband had sent her.[50] She also passed the time playing the piano, and was occasionally allowed visits from foreign diplomats as well as from her personal physician.[51]

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The media were also prevented from visiting Suu Kyi, as occurred in 1998 when journalist Maurizio Giuliano, after photographing her, was stopped by customs officials who then confiscated all his films, tapes and some notes.[52Sony PCG-4Q2M battery

Sony PCG-4R1M battery] In contrast, Suu Kyi did have visits from government representatives, such as during her autumn 1994 house arrest when she met the leader of Burma, General Than Shwe and General Khin Nyunt on 20 September in the first meeting since she had been placed in detention.[2Sony VPCSA2Z9E battery

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5] On several occasions during Suu Kyi’s house arrest, she had periods of poor health and as a result was hospitalized.[53]


The Burmese government detained and kept Suu Kyi imprisoned because it viewed her as someone “likely to undermine the community peace and stability” of the country, and used both Article 10(a) and 10(b) of the 1975 State Protection Act (granting the government the power to imprison people for up to five years without a trial),[5Sony SVE14AG18M battery

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Sony SVE1711K1EW battery4] and Section 22 of the “Law to Safeguard the State Against the Dangers of Those Desiring to Cause Subversive Acts” as legal tools against her.[55] She continuously appealed her detention,[56] and many nations and figures continued to call for her release and that of 2,100 other political prisoners in the country.[57Sony SVE14AJ15M battery

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Sony SVE1711T1EB battery][58] On 12 November 2010, days after the junta-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) won elections conducted after a gap of 20 years, the junta finally agreed to sign orders allowing Suu Kyi’s release,[5

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9] and Suu Kyi’s house arrest term came to an end on 13 November 2010.

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United Nations involvement[edit]

The United Nations (UN) has attempted to facilitate dialogue between the junta and Suu Kyi.[25] On 6 May 2002, following secret confidence-building negotiations led by the UN, the government released her; Sony SVE171G11M battery
Sony SVE151C11M batterya government spokesman said that she was free to move “because we are confident that we can trust each other”. Aung San Suu Kyi proclaimed “a new dawn for the country”.Sony SVE171A11M battery
Sony SVE171A11M battery However on 30 May 2003 in an incident similar to the 1996 attack on her, a government-sponsored mob attacked her caravan in the northern village of Depayin, murdering and wounding many of her supporters.[60] Aung San Suu Kyi fled the scene with the help of her driver, Ko Kyaw Soe Lin, Sony SVE171E13M battery
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but was arrested upon reaching Ye-U. The government imprisoned her at Insein Prison in Rangoon. After she underwent a hysterectomy in September 2003,[61] the government again placed her under house arrest in Rangoon.

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The results from the UN facilitation have been mixed; Razali Ismail, UN special envoy to Burma, met with Aung San Suu Kyi. Ismail resigned from his post the following year, partly because he was denied re-entry to Burma on several occasions.[6Sony SVE151G11M battery

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2] Several years later in 2006, Ibrahim Gambari, UN Undersecretary-General (USG) of Department of Political Affairs, met with Aung San Suu Kyi, the first visit by a foreign official since 2004.[63] He also met with Suu Kyi later the same year.[64Sony SVE151G13M battery] On 2 October 2007 Gambari returned to talk to her again after seeing Than Shwe and other members of the senior leadership in Naypyidaw.[65] State television broadcast Suu Kyi with Gambari, Sony SVE171B11M battery
Sony SVE171C11M battery stating that they had met twice. This was Suu Kyi’s first appearance in state media in the four years since her current detention began.[66]

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The United Nations Working Group for Arbitrary Detention published an Opinion that Aung San Suu Kyi’s deprivation of liberty was arbitrary and in contravention of Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, Sony SVS13A1U9ES battery
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Sony SVS1511V9ES battery and requested that the authorities in Burma set her free, but the authorities ignored the request at that time.[67] The U.N. report said that according to the Burmese Government’s reply, Sony SVS131B12M battery

Sony SVS1511V9EB battery “Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has not been arrested, but has only been taken into protective custody, for her own safety”, and while “it could have instituted legal action against her under the country’s domestic legislation .. Sony SVS151A11M battery
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Sony SVS1511T9ES battery. it has preferred to adopt a magnanimous attitude, and is providing her with protection in her own interests.”[67]

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Such claims were rejected by Brig-General Khin Yi, Chief of Myanmar Police Force (MPF). On 18 January 2007, the state-run paper New Light of Myanmar accused Suu Kyi of tax evasion for spending her Nobel Prize money outside of the country. Sony SVS1311P9EB battery
Sony SVS1511L3ES battery
Sony SVS1511M3EW battery The accusation followed the defeat of a US-sponsored United Nations Security Council resolution condemning Burma as a threat to international security; the resolution was defeated because of strong opposition from China, Sony VPCSE2V9E battery
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which has strong ties with the military junta (China later voted against the resolution, along with Russia and South Africa).[68]

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In November 2007, it was reported that Suu Kyi would meet her political allies National League for Democracy along with a government minister. The ruling junta made the official announcement on stateSony PCG-4121EM battery

Sony PCG-41214M battery  TV and radio just hours after UN special envoy Ibrahim Gambari ended his second visit to Burma. The NLD confirmed that it had received the invitation to hold talks with Suu Kyi.[69] However, the process delivered few concrete results.

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On 3 July 2009, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon went to Burma to pressure the junta into releasing Suu Kyi and to institute democratic reform. However, on departing from Burma, Ban Ki-moon said he was Sony PCG-41213M battery
Sony PCG-41218M battery“disappointed” with the visit after junta leader Than Shwe refused permission for him to visit Suu Kyi, citing her ongoing trial. Ban said he was “deeply disappointed that they have missed a very important opportunity.”[70] Sony PCG-41212M battery

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On 22 September 2007, although still under house arrest, Suu Kyi made a brief public appearance at the gate of her residence in Yangon to accept the blessings of Buddhist monks who were marching in support of human rights.[7Sony PCG-41216M battery

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Sony VPCZ21Q9E battery7] It was reported that she had been moved the following day to Insein Prison (where she had been detained in 2003),[7Sony PCG-41218M battery


Sony VPCZ13Z9E/X battery8][79][80][81] but meetings with UN envoy Ibrahim Gambari near her Rangoon home on 30 September and 2 October established that she remained under house arrest.[82][83

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U.S. Senator Jim Webb visiting Suu Kyi in 2009. Webb negotiated the release of John Yettaw, the man who trespassed in Suu Kyi's home, resulting in her arrest and conviction with three years' hard labour. Sony SVE151G11M battery


On 3 May 2009, an American man, identified as John Yettaw, swam across Inya Lake to her house uninvited and was arrested when he made his return trip three days later.[84] He had attempted to make a similar trip two years earlier, Sony PCG-31114M battery


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Sony VPCZ13M9E/B batterybut for unknown reasons was turned away.[85] He later claimed at trial that he was motivated by a divine vision requiring him to notify her of an impending terrorist assassination attempt.[86Sony PCG-41313M battery

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Sony VPCZ13 battery] On 13 May, Suu Kyi was arrested for violating the terms of her house arrest because the swimmer, who pleaded exhaustion, was allowed to stay in her house for two days before he attempted the swim back. Sony PCG-41315M battery


Sony PCG-6124M batterySuu Kyi was later taken to Insein Prison, where she could have faced up to five years confinement for the intrusion.[8Sony PCG-4R2M battery


Sony PCG-6123M battery7] The trial of Suu Kyi and her two maids began on 18 May and a small number of protesters gathered outside.[88][ Sony PCG-4R2M battery


Sony PCG-6122M battery89] Diplomats and journalists were barred from attending the trial; however, on one occasion, several diplomats from Russia, Sony PCG-4U2M battery


Sony PCG-6121M batteryThailand and Singapore and journalists were allowed to meet Suu Kyi.[90] The prosecution had originally planned to call 22 witnesses.[91] It also accused John Yettaw of embarrassing the country.[9Sony SVE151G13M battery


Sony SVE14AE15M battery2] During the ongoing defence case, Suu Kyi said she was innocent. The defence was allowed to call only one witness (out of four), while the prosecution was permitted to call 14 witnesses. Sony PCG-6Z4M battery

Sony PCG-6112M batteryThe court rejected two character witnesses, NLD members Tin Oo and Win Tin, and permitted the defence to call only a legal expert.[93] According to one unconfirmed report, the junta was planning to, once again, place her in detention, this time in a military base outside the city.[9Sony VPCZ11 battery


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4] In a separate trial, Yettaw said he swam to Suu Kyi’s house to warn her that her life was “in danger”.[95] The national police chief later confirmed that Yettaw was the “main culprit” in the case filed against Suu Kyi.[ Sony VPCZ11X9E battery


Sony VPCZ12Z9E/B battery96] According to aides, Suu Kyi spent her 64th birthday in jail sharing biryani rice and chocolate cake with her guards.[97]


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Her arrest and subsequent trial received worldwide condemnation by the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, the United Nations Security Council,[98] Western governments,[99] South Africa,[100] Japan[Sony VPCZ11X9E/B battery

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101] and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, of which Burma is a member.[102] The Burmese government strongly condemned the statement, as it created an “unsound tradition”[1Sony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12X9E/B battery03] and criticised Thailand for meddling in its internal affairs.[104] The Burmese Foreign Minister Nyan Win was quoted in the state-run newspaper New Light of Myanmar as saying that the incident “was trumped up to intensify international pressure on Burma by Sony VPCZ12C7E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12V9E/B battery internal and external anti-government elements who do not wish to see the positive changes in those countries’ policies toward Burma”.[92] Ban responded to an international campaign[105] by flying to Burma to negotiate, but Than Shwe rejected all of his requests.[106]


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On 11 August 2009 the trial concluded with Suu Kyi being sentenced to imprisonment for three years with hard labour. This sentence was commuted by the military rulers to further house arrest of 18 months.[ Sony VPCZ12M9E battery

Sony VPCZ12M9E/B battery107] On 14 August, U.S. Senator Jim Webb visited Burma, visiting with junta leader Gen. Than Shwe and later with Suu Kyi. During the visit, Webb negotiated Yettaw’s release and deportation from Burma.[10Sony PCG-6P2M Battery

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8] Following the verdict of the trial, lawyers of Suu Kyi said they would appeal against the 18-month sentence.[1Sony PCG-6R1M Battery

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Sony PCG-8X1M Battery09] On 18 August, United States President Barack Obama asked the country’s military leadership to set free all political prisoners, including Aung San Suu Kyi.[110] In her appeal, Sony PCG-6D1M Battery

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Sony PCG-791M BatteryAung San Suu Kyi had argued that the conviction was unwarranted. However, her appeal against the August sentence was rejected by a Burmese court on 2 October 2009. Although the court accepted the argument that the 1974 constitution, Sony SVE171B11M battery


Sony SVE151E11M batteryunder which she had been charged, was null and void, it also said the provisions of the 1975 security law, under which she has been kept under house arrest, remained in force. Sony PCG-6G1M Battery


Sony PCG-7X1M Battery The verdict effectively meant that she would be unable to participate in the elections scheduled to take place in 2010 – the first in Burma in two decades. Her lawyer stated that her legal team would pursue a new appeal within 60 days.[111]

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2009: International pressure for release and 2010 Burmese general election[edit]

It was announced prior to the Burmese general election that Aung San Suu Kyi may be released “so she can organize her party,”[112Sony PCG-6G2M Battery


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Sony PCG-7R1M Battery] However, Suu Kyi was not allowed to run.[113] On 1 October 2010 the government announced that she would be released on 13 November 2010.[114]


Burma’s relaxing stance, such as releasing political prisoners, was influenced[citation needed] in the wake of successful recent diplomatic visits by the US and other democratic governments, urging or encouraging the Burmese towards democratic reform. Sony PCG-6J1M Battery

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Sony PCG-7N1M BatteryU.S. President Barack Obama personally advocated the release of all political prisoners, especially Aung San Suu Kyi, during the US-ASEAN Summit of 2009.[115]

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Democratic governments[which?] hoped that successful general elections would be an optimistic indicator of the Burmese government’s sincerity towards eventual democracy.[116] The Hatoyama government Sony PCG-6L1M Battery


Sony PCG-7M1M Battery which spent 2.82 billion yen in 2008, has promised more Japanese foreign aid to encourage Burma to release Aung San Suu Kyi in time for the elections; and to continue moving towards democracy and the rule of law.[116][117]

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In a personal letter to Suu Kyi, UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown cautioned the Burmese government of the potential consequences of rigging elections as “condemning Burma to more years of diplomatic isolation and economic stagnation”.[118]

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The Burmese government has been granting Suu Kyi varying degrees of freedom throughout late 2009, in response to international pressure[citation needed]. She has met with many heads of state, and opened a dialog with the Minister of Labor Aung Kyi (not to be confused with Aung San Suu Kyi).[119] Sony PCG-8V1M Battery


On the evening of 13 November 2010, Suu Kyi was released from house arrest.[121] This was the date her detention had been set to expire according to a court ruling in August 2009[122] and came six days after Sony PCG-8V2M Battery

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Sony PCG-7H2M Battery a widely criticised general election. She appeared in front of a crowd of her supporters, who rushed to her house in Rangoon when nearby barricades were removed by the security forces. The Nobel Peace Prize laureate had been detained for 15 of the past 21 years.[123] The government newspaper New Light of Myanmar reported the release positively,[1Sony PCG-8W2M Battery


Sony PCG-7H1M Battery24] saying she had been granted a pardon after serving her sentence “in good conduct”.[125] The New York Times suggested that the military government may have released Suu Kyi because it felt it was in a confident position to control her supporters after the election.[12Sony PCG-7A1M Battery

4] The role that Suu Kyi will play in the future of democracy in Burma remains a subject of much debate.


Her son Kim Aris was granted a visa in November 2010 to see his mother shortly after her release, for the first time in 10 years.[ Sony PCG-7D1M Battery

Sony PCG-7G1M Battery126] He visited again in 5 July 2011, to accompany her on a trip to Bagan, her first trip outside Yangon since 2003.[127] Her son visited again in 8 August 2011, to accompany her on a trip to Pegu, her second trip.[128]


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Discussions were held between Suu Kyi and the Burmese government during 2011, which led to a number of official gestures to meet her demands. In October, around a tenth of Burma’s political prisoners were freed in an amnesty and trade unions were legalised.[129][130]

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In November 2011, following a meeting of its leaders, the NLD announced its intention to re-register as a political party in order to contend 48 by-elections necessitated by the promotion of parliamentarians to ministerial rank.[1Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery


Sony VGP-BPL21 battery31] Following the decision, Suu Kyi held a telephone conference with U.S. President Barack Obama, in which it was agreed that Secretary of State Hillary Clinton would make a visit to BurmaSony VGP-BPS13/Q battery

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Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery, a move received with caution by Burma’s ally China.[132] On 1 December 2011, Suu Kyi met with Hillary Clinton at the residence of the top-ranking US diplomat in Yangon.[133]

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On 21 December 2011, Thai Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra met Suu Kyi in Yangoon, becoming Suu Kyi’s “first-ever meeting with the leader of a foreign country”.[134]

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On 5 January 2012, British Foreign Minister William Hague met Aung San Suu Kyi and his Burmese counterpart. Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery


Sony VGP-BPS13AB batteryThis represented a significant visit for Suu Kyi and Burma. Suu Kyi studied in the UK and maintains many ties there, whilst Britain is Burma’s largest bilateral donor. Aung San Suu Kyi is on her visit to Europe and is due to visit the Swiss parliament and collect her 1991 Nobel Prize in Oslo.[135] Sony VGP-BPS13A battery


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2012 by-elections[edit]

In December 2011, there was speculation that Suu Kyi would run in the 2012 national by-elections to fill vacant seats.[13Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

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Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery6] On 18 January 2012, Suu Kyi formally registered to contest a Pyithu Hluttaw (lower house) seat in the Kawhmu Township constituency in special parliamentary elections to be held on 1 April 2012.[137Sony VGP-BPS13 battery

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Sony VGP-BPS21A/B battery [138] The seat was previously held by Soe Tint, who vacated it after being appointed Construction Deputy Minister, in the 2010 election.[139] She ran against Union Solidarity and Development Party candidate Soe Min, a retired army physician and native of Twante Township.[140]


Sony VGP-BPS21B batteryAung San Suu Kyi (Center) gives a speech to the supporters during the 2012 by-election campaign at her constituency Kawhmu township, Myanmar on 22 March 2012.

On 3 March 2012, Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery

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Sony VGP-BPS21A batteryat a large campaign rally in Mandalay, Suu Kyi unexpectedly left after 15 minutes, because of exhaustion and airsickness.[141]

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In an official campaign speech broadcast on Burmese state television’s MRTV on 14 March 2012, Suu Kyi publicly campaigned for reform of the 2008 Constitution, removal of restrictive laws, more adequate protections for people’s democratic rights, and establishment of an independent judiciary.[14Sony VGP-BPS13A battery

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2] The speech was leaked online a day before it was broadcast.[143] A paragraph in the speech, focusing on the Tatmadaw’s repression by means of law, was censored by authorities.[144]


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Suu Kyi has also called for international media to monitor the upcoming by-elections, while publicly pointing out irregularities in official voter lists, which include deceased individuals and exclude other eligible voters in the contested constituencies.[145][146] On 21 March 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi was quoted as saying “Fraud and rule violations are continuing and we can even say they are increasing.”[147]

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When asked whether she would assume a ministerial post if given the opportunity, she said the following:[148]


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I can tell you one thing – that under the present constitution, if you become a member of the government you have to vacate your seat in the national assembly. And I am not working so hard to get into parliament simply to vacate my seat.


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On 26 March 2012, Suu Kyi suspended her nationwide campaign tour early, after a campaign rally in Myeik (Mergui), a coastal town in the south, citing health problems due to exhaustion and hot weather.[149]


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On 1 April 2012, the NLD announced that Suu Kyi had won the vote for a seat in Parliament.[150] A news broadcast on state-run MRTV, reading the announcements of the Union Election Commission,


Sony VGP-BPS21 batteryconfirmed her victory, as well as her party’s victory in 43 of the 45 contested seats, officially making Suu Kyi the Leader of the Opposition in the lower house.[151]


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Although she and other MP-elects were expected to take office on 23 April when the Hluttaws resume session, National League for Democracy MP-elects, including Suu Kyi, said they might not take their oaths because of its wording; in its present form, parliamentarians must vow to “safeguard” the constitution.[15Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

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Sony VGP-BPL13 battery2][153] In an address on Radio Free Asia, she said “We don’t mean we will not attend the parliament, we mean we will attend only after taking the oath… Changing that wording in the oath is also in conformity with the Constitution. I don’t expect there will be any difficulty in doing it.”[154] Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery


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On 2 May 2012, National League for Democracy MP-elects, including Aung San Suu Kyi, took their oaths and took office, though the wording of the oath was not changed.[155] According to the Los Angeles Times, Sony VGP-BPS13B battery


Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery“Suu Kyi and her colleagues decided they could do more by joining as lawmakers than maintaining their boycott on principle.”[155] On 9 July 2012, she attended the Parliament for the first time as a lawmaker.[156]

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On 6 July 2012, Suu Kyi announced on the World Economic Forum’s website that she wants to run for the presidency in Myanmar’s 2015 elections.[1Sony VGN-FE11E battery

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9] The current Constitution, which came into effect in 2008, bars her from the presidency because she is the widow and mother of foreigners. These measures seem to have been written in part to prevent her ever getting there.[157]

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Ethnic controversy[edit]


Some activists criticised Aung San Suu Kyi for her silence on the 2012 Rakhine State riots.[158] After receiving a peace prize, she told reporters she did not know if the Rohingya could be regarded as Burmese citizens.[1Sony VGN-FE11SR battery

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Sony PCG-81411M battery59] Under the 1982 Citizenship Law, most Rohingya are unable to qualify for Burmese citizenship. As such, they are treated as illegal immigrants, with restrictions on their movement and withholding of land rights, education and public service.[158] Some describe her stance as politically motivated.[ Sony VGN-FE21H battery

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Sony PCG-81313M battery158] However she said that she wanted to work towards reconciliation and that she cannot take sides as “violence has been committed by both sides.”[160] According to The Economist, her “halo has even slipped among foreign human-rights lobbyists, disappointed at her failure to make a clear stand on behalf of the Rohingya minority.”

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However, she has spoken out “against a ban on Rohingya families near the Bangladeshi border having more than two children.”[161]

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Asked what democratic models Myanmar could look to, she said: “We have many, many lessons to learn from various places, not just the Asian countries like South Korea, Taiwan, Mongolia and Indonesia.” Sony VGN-FE31B battery


Sony PCG-81311M batteryShe also cited “the eastern European countries, which made the transition from communist autocracy to democracy in the 1980s and 1990s, and the Latin American countries, whichSony VGN-FE31H battery


Sony PCG-81213M battery made the transition from military governments. “And we cannot of course forget South Africa, because although it wasn’t a military regime, it was certainly an authoritarian regime.” She added: “We wish to learn from everybody who has achieved a transition to democracy, and also . Sony VGN-FE31HR battery

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Sony PCG-81212M battery.. our great strong point is that, because we are so far behind everybody else, we can also learn which mistakes we should avoid.”[162]

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In a nod to the current deep US political divide between Republicans led by Mitt Romney and the Democrats of Obama—battling to win the Presidential election on 6 November—she stressed with a smile “Those of you who are familiar with American politics I’m sure understand the need for negotiated compromise.”[162Sony VGN-FE31ZR battery


Sony PCG-81112M battery]


Aung San Suu Kyi greeting supporters from Bago State in 2011

Aung San Suu Kyi has received vocal support from Western nations in Europe,[163] Australia[163] and North[164] and South America, as well as India,[5] Israel,[165] Japan[166] the Philippines and South Korea.[1Sony VGN-FE41E battery

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Sony VGN-FE49VN battery67] In December 2007, the US House of Representatives voted unanimously 400–0 to award Aung San Suu Kyi the Congressional Gold Medal; the Senate concurred on 25 April 2008.[168] On 6 May 2008, President George Bush signed legislation awarding Suu Kyi the Congressional Gold Medal.[1Sony VGN-FE41MR battery

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Sony VGN-FE48M battery69] She is the first recipient in American history to receive the prize while imprisoned. More recently, there has been growing criticism of her detention by Burma’s neighbours in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, particularly from Indonesia,[170] Thailand,[171] Sony VGN-FE41Z battery

Sony VGN-FE48E battery the Philippines[172][173] and Singapore.[174] At one point Malaysia warned Burma that it faced expulsion from ASEAN as a result of the detention of Suu Kyi.[175] Other nations including South Africa,[176] Bangladesh[1Sony VGN-FE11E battery

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Sony PCG-81412M battery77] and the Maldives[178] also called for her release. The United Nations has urged the country to move towards inclusive national reconciliation, the restoration of democracy, and full respect for human rights.[1Sony VGN-FE11M battery

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79] In December 2008, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution condemning the human rights situation in Burma and calling for Suu Kyi’s release—80 countries voting for the resolution, 25 against and 45 abstentions.[ Sony VGN-FE11S battery

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Sony PCG-81313M battery180] Other nations, such as China and Russia, are less critical of the regime and prefer to cooperate only on economic matters.[181] Indonesia has urged China to push Burma for reforms.[182Sony VGN-FE21B battery

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Sony PCG-81312M battery] However, Samak Sundaravej, former Prime Minister of Thailand, criticised the amount of support for Suu Kyi, saying that “Europe uses Aung San Suu Kyi as a tool. If it’s not related to Aung San Suu Kyi, you can have deeper discussions with Myanmar.”[183]

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Vietnam, however, did not support calls by other ASEAN member states for Myanmar to free Aung San Suu Kyi, state media reported Friday, 14 August 2009.[184Sony VGN-FE21S battery

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] The state-run Việt Nam News said Vietnam had no criticism of Myanmar’s decision 11 August 2009 to place Suu Kyi under house arrest for the next 18 months, effectively barring her from elections scheduled for 2010. “It is our view that the Aung San Suu Kyi trial is an internal affair of Myanmar


Sony PCG-81311M battery Vietnamese government spokesman Le Dung stated on the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In contrast with other ASEAN member states, Dung said Vietnam has always supported Myanmar and hopes it will continue to implement the “roadmap to democracy” outlined by its government.[185]

“,Sony VGN-FE31B battery

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Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. The decision of the Nobel Committee mentions:[186]

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Sony PCG-81213M battery…Suu Kyi’s struggle is one of the most extraordinary examples of civil courage in Asia in recent decades. She has become an important symbol in the struggle against oppression…

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…In awarding the Nobel Peace Prize for 1991 to Aung San Suu Kyi, the Norwegian Nobel Committee wishes to honour this woman for her unflagging efforts and to show its support for the many people throughout the world who are striving to attain democracy, human rights and ethnic conciliation by peaceful means. Sony VGN-FE31Z battery


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—Oslo, 14 October 1991

In 1995 Aung San Suu Kyi delivered the keynote address at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing.[187] Sony VGN-FE31ZR battery

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Nobel Peace Prize winners (Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the Dalai Lama, Shirin Ebadi, Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Mairead Corrigan, Rigoberta Menchú, Prof. Elie Wiesel, U.S. President Barack Obama, Betty Williams, Sony VGN-FE41M battery


Sony PCG-81112M batteryJody Williams and former U.S. President Jimmy Carter) called for the rulers of Burma to release Suu Kyi in order to “create the necessary conditions for a genuine dialogue with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and all concerned parties Sony VGN-FE41MR battery

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Sony VGN-FE49VN battery and ethnic groups in order to achieve an inclusive national reconciliation with the direct support of the United Nations.”[25] Sony VGN-FE41Z battery

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Sony VGN-FE48M battery Some of the money she received as part of the award helps fund London-based charity Prospect Burma, which provides higher education grants to Burmese students.[188]

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On 16 June 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi was finally able to deliver her Nobel acceptance speech (Nobel lecture) at Oslo’s City Hall, two decades after being awarded the peace prize.[189][190]

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Sony PCG-41412L BatterySuu Kyi meeting Barack Obama at the White House in September 2012

In September 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi received in person the United States Congressional Gold Medal, which is the highest Congressional award. Although she was awarded this medal in 2008, at the time she was under house arrest, Sony SVS131B11L Battery

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Sony PCG-41411L Batteryand was unable to receive the medal. Aung San Suu Kyi was greeted with bipartisan support at Congress, as part of a coast-to-coast tour in the United States. In addition, Aung San Suu Kyi met President Barack Obama at the White House. The experience was described by Aung San Suu Kyi as “one of the most moving days of my life.”[191Sony SVS151B11L Battery

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Burma officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, commonly shortened to Myanmar is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by China, Thailand, India, Laos and Bangladesh. One-third of Burma's total perimeter of 1,930 kilometres (1,200 miles) Sony SVS13AA11L Battery
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forms an uninterrupted coastline along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. Its population of over 60 million makes it the world's 24th most populous country[1] and, at 676,578 square kilometres (261,227 sq mi), it is the world’s 40th largest country and the second largest in Southeast Asia. Sony SVS131B11L Battery

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Early civilizations in Burma included the Tibeto-Burman speaking Pyu in Upper Burma and the Mon in Lower Burma.[11Sony SVS151A11L Battery

Sony PCG-41412L Battery] In the 9th century, the Burmans of the Kingdom of Nanzhao entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Empire in the 1050s, the Burmese language and culture slowly became dominant in the country. Sony SVS151B11L Battery

Sony PCG-41411L BatteryDuring this period, Theravada Buddhism gradually became the predominant religion of the country. The Pagan Empire fell due to the Mongol invasions (1277–1301), Sony PCG-4121DL Battery


Sony PCG-41218L Battery and several warring states emerged. Sony SVS151G1GL Battery

Sony PCG-41218L Battery In the second half of the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo Dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia.[1Sony PCG-4121EL Battery


Sony PCG-41217L Battery2] The early 19th century Konbaung Dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Burma and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam as well. Sony PCG-4121DL Battery
The British conquered Burma after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony (a part of India until 1937 and then a separately administered colony). sony PCG-4R2L battery
Burma became an independent nation in 1948, initially as a democratic nation and then, following a coup in 1962, Sony PCG-4121EL Battery

Sony PCG-41217L Battery a military dictatorship which formally ended in 2011. For most of its independent years, the country’s myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world’s longest-running unresolved civil wars. sony PCG-4R1L battery

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sony PCG-6124L batteryDuring this time, the United Nations and several other organizations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country.[13][14Sony PCG-4121FL Battery

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Sony PCG-41216L Battery][15]

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The military junta was officially dissolved in 2011 following a general election in 2010 and a nominally civilian government installed, though the military retains enormous influence through the constitution that was ratified in 2008. sony PCG-4Q1L battery


sony PCG-6123L batterySince the military began relinquishing more of its control over the government – coupled with its release of Burma’s most prominent human rights activist, Aung San Suu Kyi, and many other political prisoners –sony PCG-6X1L battery


sony PCG-6122L battery the country’s foreign relations and human rights record have improved rapidly. Trade and other economic sanctions imposed by the European Union and the United States have been eased.[16][ sony PCG-6X2L battery

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sony PCG-6121L battery17] There is, however, continuing criticism of the treatment of the largely Muslim Rohingya minority, particularly following the government response to religious clashes.[18][19][20]

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Burma is a country rich in jade and gems, oil, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2011, its GDP stood at US$53.14 billion and was estimated to be growing at an annual rate of 5.5%.[21]


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In 1989, the military government officially changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma’s colonial period, including that of the country itself: “Burma” became “Myanmar”. The renaming remains a contested issue.[22sony PCG-6X7L battery

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sony PCG-6Z2L battery] Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use “Burma” because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country.[23] Sony PCG-41212L Battery

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The country’s official full name is the “Republic of the Union of Myanmar” Listeni/ˈmjɑːnˌmɑr/[6] (Burmese: ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်, Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw, pronounced: [pjìdàʊɴzṵ θàɴməda̰ mjəmà nàɪɴŋàɴdɔ̀]). Some countries, however, have not recognized this name and use the short form “Union of Burma” instead.[21][24] sony PCG-6XAL battery

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In English, the country is popularly known by either of its short names “Burma” or “Myanmar”. Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group. sony PCG-4R2L battery


sony PCG-6Z4L battery Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from “Bamar”,Sony SVS13AB1GL Battery

Sony PCG-71911L Battery the colloquial form of the group’s name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Bama (pronounced: [bəmà]) or Myamah (pronounced: [mjəmà]). The name Burma has been in use in English since the time of British colonial rule.

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Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of many countries, including the United Kingdom and Canada.[ Sony SVS131C24L Battery

Sony PCG-71811L Battery25] Official United States policy retains Burma as the country’s name, although the State Department’s website lists the country as “Burma (Myanmar)” and Barack Obama has referred to the country as Myanmar.[26][ Sony SVS131E1DL Battery

Sony PCG-71713L Battery27][28] The United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, France,[29] Germany,[30sony PCG-4R1L battery

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sony PCG-6Z3L battery] China, India, Norway,[31] Australia[32] and Japan.[25]

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There are also other variations; in Spain and Italy the country is commonly known as “Birmania”, in Portugal as “Birmânia”, whereas the Government of Brazil uses “Mianmar”.[33]

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Main article: History of Burma


Main articles: Prehistory of Burma, Pyu city-states, and Mon city-states
Sony PCG-71614L BatteryNeolithic paintings found inside Padah-Lin Caves, radiocarbon dated up to 13,000 years ago sony PCG-4Q3L battery

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Archaeological evidence shows that Homo erectus lived in the region now known as Burma as early as 400,000 years ago.[3Sony SVS151C2DL Battery

Sony PCG-61913L Battery4] The first evidence of Homo sapiens is dated to about 11,000 BC, in a Stone Age culture called the Anyathian with discoveries of stone tools in central Burma. Sony SVS151E1GL Battery

Sony PCG-61911L BatteryEvidence of neolithic age domestication of plants and animals and the use of polished stone tools dating to sometime between 10,000 and 6,000 BC has been discovered in the form of cave paintings near the city of Taunggyi.[35Sony PCG-61A11L Battery
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Sony PCG-61813L Battery] The Bronze Age arrived circa 1500 BC when people in the region were turning copper into bronze, growing rice and domesticating poultry and pigs; they were among the first people in the world to do so.[3Sony PCG-61A14L Battery
6] The Iron Age began around 500 BC with the emergence of iron-working settlements in an area south of present-day Mandalay.[3Sony PCG-71C11L Battery
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Sony PCG-61714L Battery7] Evidence also shows the presence of rice-growing settlements of large villages and small towns that traded with their surroundings as far as China between 500 BC and 200 AD.[38] sony PCG-6X1L battery

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Around the 2nd century BC the first-known city-states emerged in central Burma. The city-states were founded as part of the southward migration by the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu, the earliest inhabitants of Burma of whom records are extant, Sony PCG-71913L Battery
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Sony PCG-91112L Batteryfrom present-day Yunnan.[39][4sony PCG-6X6L battery


sony PCG-6Z1L battery0] The Pyu culture was heavily influenced by trade with India, importing Buddhism as well as other cultural, architectural and political concepts which would have an enduring influence on later Burmese culture and political organization.[
Sony PCG-91111L Battery41] By the 9th century AD several city-states had sprouted across the land: the Pyu states in the central dry zone, Mon states along the southern coastline and Arakanese states along the western littoral. Sony PCG-91211L Battery
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The balance was upset when the Pyu states came under repeated attacks from the Kingdom of Nanzhao between the 750s and the 830s. Sony SVE141C11L Battery

Sony PCG-61713L Battery In the mid-to-late 9th century the Mranma (Burmans/Bamar) of Nanzhao founded a small settlement at Pagan (Bagan). sony PCG-6X7L battery

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sony PCG-6XBL battery It was one of several competing city-states until the late 10th century when it grew in authority and grandeur.[42]

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Imperial Burma[edit]

Main articles: Pagan Kingdom, Toungoo Dynasty, and Konbaung Dynasty

See also: Ava Kingdom, Hanthawaddy Kingdom, Mrauk U Kingdom, and Shan states
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Pagodas and temples in present-day Pagan (Bagan), the capital of the Pagan Kingdom

Pagan gradually grew to absorb its surrounding states until the 1050s–1060s when Anawrahta founded the Pagan Empire, Sony SVE141L11L Battery

Sony SVE171G112 Battery the first ever unification of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Pagan Empire and the Khmer Empire were two main powers in mainland Southeast Asia.[ Sony SVE151E11L Battery
43] The Burmese language and culture gradually became dominant in the upper Irrawaddy valley, eclipsing the Pyu, Mon and Pali norms by the late 12th century. Sony PCG-61A11L Battery

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Sony PCG-61317L BatteryTheravada Buddhism slowly began to spread to the village level although Tantric, Mahayana, Brahmanic, Sony SVE151G11L Battery

Sony SVE171E12L Battery and animist practices remained heavily entrenched. Pagan’s rulers and wealthy built over 10,000 Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone alone. Repeated Mongol invasions (1277–1301) toppled the four-century-old kingdom in 1287.[44]

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Sony SVE171E11L BatteryTemples at Mrauk U

Pagan’s collapse was followed by 250 years of political fragmentation that lasted well into the 16th century. Like the Burmans four centuries earlier, Shan migrants who arrived with the Mongol invasions stayed behind. Sony SVE151J11L Battery
Sony SVE171C11L BatterySeveral competing Shan states came to dominate the entire northwestern to eastern arc surrounding the Irrawaddy valley. Sony PCG-61A14L Battery

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The valley too was beset with petty states until the late 14th century when two sizable powers, Ava Kingdom and Hanthawaddy Kingdom, emerged. In the west, Sony PCG-4121FL Battery

Sony PCG-41215L Batterya politically fragmented Arakan was under competing influences of its stronger neighbors until the Kingdom of Mrauk U unified the Arakan coastline for the first time in 1437. Sony PCG-71312L Battery


Early on, Ava fought wars of unification (1385–1424) but could never quite reassemble the lost empire. Having held off Ava, Hanthawaddy entered its golden age, and Arakan went on to become a power in its own right for the next 350 years. Sony PCG-71311L Battery
In contrast, constant warfare left Ava greatly weakened, and it slowly disintegrated from 1481 onward. In 1527, Sony PCG-61714L Battery

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Sony PCG-61315L Battery the Confederation of Shan States conquered Ava itself, and ruled Upper Burma until 1555.
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Like the Pagan Empire, Ava, Hanthawaddy and the Shan states were all multi-ethnic polities. Despite the wars, cultural synchronization continued. This period is considered a golden age for Burmese culture. Sony PCG-71218L Battery

Sony PCG-61316L Battery Burmese literature “grew more confident, popular, and stylistically diverse”, and the second generation of Burmese law codes as well as the earliest pan-Burma chronicles emerged.[45] Hanthawaddy monarchs introduced religious reforms that later spread to the rest of the country.[ Sony PCG-71217L Battery
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Sony PCG-61315L Battery46] Many splendid temples of Mrauk U were built during this period.




Bayinnaung’s Empire in 1580

Political unification returned in the mid-16th century, due to the efforts of one tiny Toungoo (Taungoo), a former vassal state of Ava. Toungoo’s young, ambitious king Tabinshwehti defeated the more powerful Hanthawaddy in 1541. Sony PCG-71315L Battery

Sony PCG-61312L BatteryHis successor Bayinnaung went on to conquer a vast swath of mainland Southeast Asia including the Shan states, Lan Na, Manipur, the Chinese Shan states, Siam, Lan Xang and southern Arakan. Sony PCG-71316L Battery

Sony PCG-61311L Battery However, the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia unravelled soon after Bayinnaung’s death in 1581, completely collapsing by 1599. Sony PCG-61911L Battery

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Sony PCG-61312L Battery Siam seized Tenasserim and Lan Na, and Portuguese mercenaries established Portuguese rule at Syriam (Thanlyin).
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The dynasty regrouped and defeated the Portuguese in 1613 and Siam in 1614. It restored a smaller, more manageable kingdom, encompassing Lower Burma, Upper Burma, Shan states, Lan Na and upper Tenasserim. Sony PCG-4121GL Battery
The Restored Toungoo kings created a legal and political framework whose basic features would continue well into the 19th century. Sony PCG-71317L Battery

Sony PCG-61211L BatteryThe crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs. Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous economy for more than 80 years. From the 1720s onward, Sony PCG-71318L Battery

Sony PCG-71216L Batterythe kingdom was beset with repeated Manipuri raids into Upper Burma, and a nagging rebellion in Lan Na. In 1740, Sony PCG-71614L Battery

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the Mon of Lower Burma founded the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom. Hanthawaddy forces sacked Ava in 1752, ending the 266-year-old Toungoo Dynasty.

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Sony PCG-41214L BatteryA British 1825 lithograph of Shwedagon Pagoda shows British occupation during the First Anglo-Burmese War.

After the fall of Ava, one resistance group, Alaungpaya’s Konbaung Dynasty defeated Restored Hanthawaddy, and by 1759, Sony PCG-71211L Battery
had reunited all of Burma (and Manipur), and driven out the French and the British who had provided arms to Hanthawaddy. By 1770, Alaungpaya’s heirs had subdued much of Laos (1765), defeated Siam (1767), Sony PCG-71212L Battery
Sony PCG-71215L Battery and defeated four invasions by China (1765–1769).[47Sony PCG-71911L Battery


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] With Burma preoccupied by the Chinese threat, Siam recovered its territories by 1770, and went on to capture Lan Na by 1776. Sony PCG-3B1L Battery
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Burma and Siam went to war until 1855, but all resulted in a stalemate, exchanging Tenasserim (to Burma) and Lan Na (to Siam). Faced with a powerful China and a resurgent Siam in the east, King Bodawpaya turned west, Sony PCG-3B3L Battery
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Sony PCG-5S2L Batteryacquiring Arakan (1785), Manipur (1814) and Assam (1817). It was the second largest empire in Burmese history but also one with a long ill-defined border with British India.[48]
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The breadth of this empire was short lived. Burma lost Arakan, Manipur, Assam and Tenasserim to the British in the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826). In 1852, the British easily seized Lower Burma in the Second Anglo-Burmese War. Sony PCG-3C2L Battery
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Sony PCG-5P4L BatteryKing Mindon tried to modernize the kingdom, and in 1875 narrowly avoided annexation by ceding the Karenni States. The British, Sony PCG-71912L Battery

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Sony PCG-71216L Batteryalarmed by the consolidation of French Indo-China, annexed the remainder of the country in the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885.

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Konbaung kings extended Restored Toungoo’s administrative reforms, and achieved unprecedented levels of internal control and external expansion. For the first time in history, the Burmese language and Sony PCG-3D3L Battery

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Sony PCG-5N2L Battery culture came to predominate the entire Irrawaddy valley. The evolution and growth of Burmese literature and theater continued, aided by an extremely high adult male literacy rate for the era (half of all males Sony PCG-3D4L Battery
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Sony PCG-5R2L Battery and 5% of females).[49] Nonetheless, the extent and pace of reforms were uneven and ultimately proved insufficient to stem the advance of British colonialism.

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British troops firing a mortar on the Mawchi road, July 1944.

The country was colonized by Britain following three Anglo-Burmese Wars (1824–1885). British rule brought social, economic, cultural and administrative changes. Sony PCG-71914L Battery

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With the fall of Mandalay, all of Burma came under British rule, being annexed on 1 January 1886. Throughout the colonial eraSony PCG-3F4L Battery

Sony PCG-5N4L Batterymany Indians arrived as soldiers, civil servants, construction workers and traders and, along with the Anglo-Burmese community, dominated commercial and civil life in Burma. Rangoon became the capital of British Burma and an important port between Calcutta and Singapore. Sony PCG-3B1L Battery


Burmese resentment was strong and was vented in violent riots that paralysed Yangon (Rangoon) on occasion all the way until the 1930s.[5Sony PCG-3G3L Battery

Sony PCG-3H4L Battery0] Some of the discontent was caused by a disrespect for Burmese culture and traditions such as the British refusal to remove shoes when they entered pagodas. Buddhist monks Sony PCG-3G5L Battery

Sony PCG-3H3L Batterybecame the vanguards of the independence movement. U Wisara, an activist monk, died in prison after a 166-day hunger strike to protest a rule that forbade him from wearing his Buddhist robes while imprisoned.[51] Sony PCG-91311L Battery

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On 1 April 1937, Burma became a separately administered colony of Great Britain and Ba Maw the first Prime Minister and Premier of Burma. Ba Maw was an outspoken advocate for Burmese self-rule and he opposed the participation of Great Britain, Sony PCG-5T1L Battery
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and by extension Burma, in World War II. He resigned from the Legislative Assembly and was arrested for sedition. In 1940, before Japan formally entered the Second World War, Aung San formed the Burma Independence Army in Japan. Sony SVE141D11L Battery
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A major battleground, Burma was devastated during World War II. By March 1942, within months after they entered the war, Japanese troops had advanced on Rangoon and the British administration had collapsed. Sony PCG-9Z2L Battery
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Sony PCG-8141L BatteryA Burmese Executive Administration headed by Ba Maw was established by the Japanese in August 1942. Wingate’s British Chindits were formed into long-range penetration groups trained to operate deep behind Japanese lines.[5Sony PCG-7151L Battery
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Sony PCG-8131L Battery2] A similar American unit, Merrill’s Marauders, followed the Chindits into the Burmese jungle in 1943.[53] Beginning in late 1944, allied troops launched a series of offensives that led to the end of Japanese rule in July 1945Sony PCG-7153L Battery

Sony PCG-7185L Battery. However, the battles were intense with much of Burma laid waste by the fighting. Overall, the Japanese lost some 150,000 men in Burma. Sony SVE141L11L Battery

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Sony PCG-5T3L BatteryOnly 1,700 prisoners were taken.[54] Sony PCG-7154L Battery


Although many Burmese fought initially for the Japanese, some Burmese, mostly from the ethnic minorities, also served in the British Burma Army.[55Sony PCG-7161L Battery

Sony PCG-7184L Battery] The Burma National Army and the Arakan National Army fought with the Japanese from 1942 to 1944, but switched allegiance to the Allied side in 1945.

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Following World War II, Aung San negotiated the Panglong Agreement with ethnic leaders that guaranteed the independence of Burma as a unified state. Aung Zan Wai, Pe Khin, Bo Hmu Aung, Sir Maung Gyi, Dr. Sein Mya Maung, Sony PCG-7171L Battery
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Myoma U Than Kywe were among the negotiators of the historical Panglong Conference negotiated with Bamar leader General Aung San and other ethnic leaders in 1947. In 1947, Aung Sony PCG-7173L Battery

Sony PCG-7183L Battery San became Deputy Chairman of the Executive Council of Burma, a transitional government. But in July 1947, political rivals[56] assassinated Aung San and several cabinet members.[57] Sony PCG-7174L Battery



Main article: Post-independence Burma, 1948–62

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Sony PCG-71212L BatteryBritish governor Hubert Elvin Rance and Sao Shwe Thaik at the flag raising ceremony on 4 January 1948 (Independence Day of Burma).

On 4 January 1948, the nation became an independent republic, named the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu as its first Prime Minister. Unlike most other former British colonies and overseas territories, Sony PCG-7181L Battery
Sony PCG-7182L Batteryit did not become a member of the Commonwealth. A bicameral parliament was formed, consisting of a Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber of Nationalities,[58] and multi-party elections were held in 1951–1952, 1956 and 1960. Sony SVE151J11L Battery

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The geographical area Burma encompasses today can be traced to the Panglong Agreement, which combined Burma Proper, which consisted of Lower Burma and Upper Burma, and the Frontier Areas, which had been administered separately by the British.[59] Sony SVE171E11L Battery

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In 1961, U Thant, then the Union of Burma’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations and former Secretary to the Prime Minister, was elected Secretary-General of the United Nations, a position he held for ten years.[ Sony PCG-41112L Battery
60] Among the Burmese to work at the UN when he was Secretary-General was a young Aung San Suu Kyi, who went on to become winner of the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize.

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Sony PCG-81314L BatteryShwedagon pagoda, Yangon, Burma in 1981

On 2 March 1962, the military led by General Ne Win took control of Burma through a coup d’état and the government has been under direct or indirect control by the military since then. Between 1962 and 1974, Sony PCG-51113L Battery

Sony PCG-81313L Battery Burma was ruled by a revolutionary council headed by the general, and almost all aspects of society (business, media, production) were nationalized or brought under government control under the Burmese Way to Socialism,[ Sony PCG-61713L Battery

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Sony PCG-21313L Battery61] which combined Soviet-style nationalisationSony PCG-51211L Battery

Sony PCG-81312L Battery  and central planning with the governmental implementation of superstitious beliefs.[citation needed] A new constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma was adopted in 1974. Sony PCG-51311L Battery

Sony PCG-81311L BatteryUntil 1988, the country was ruled as a one-party system, with the General and other military officers resigning and ruling through the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP).[6Sony PCG-51312L Battery

Sony PCG-81214L Battery2] During this period, Burma became one of the world’s most impoverished countries.[63]

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There were sporadic protests against military rule during the Ne Win years and these were almost always violently suppressed. On 7 July 1962, the government broke up demonstrations at Rangoon University, killing 15 students.[6Sony PCG-51411L Battery

Sony PCG-81114L Battery1] In 1974, the military violently suppressed anti-government protests at the funeral of U Thant. Student protests in 1975, 1976 and 1977 were quickly suppressed by overwhelming force.[62]

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Protesters gathering in central Rangoon, 1988

In 1988, unrest over economic mismanagement and political oppression by the government led to widespread pro-democracy demonstrations throughout the country known as the 8888 Uprising. Security forces killed thousands of demonstrators, Sony PCG-51511L Battery

Sony PCG-81113L Battery and General Saw Maung staged a coup d’état and formed the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). In 1989, Sony PCG-51513L Battery

Sony PCG-81112L BatterySLORC declared martial law after widespread protests. The military government finalised plans for People’s Assembly elections on 31 May 1989.[64] SLORC changed the country’s official English name from the “Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma” to the “Union of Myanmar” in 1989. Sony PCG-61412L Battery


In May 1990, the government held free elections for the first time in almost 30 years and the National League for Democracy (NLD), the party of Aung San Suu Kyi, won 392 out of a total 489 seats (i.e., 80% of the seats). Sony PCG-71111L Battery
Sony PCG-81111L Battery However, the military junta refused to cede power[65] and continued to rule the nation as SLORC until 1997, and then as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) until its dissolution in March 2011. Sony VPCF115FM battery
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On 23 June 1997, Burma was admitted into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Sony PCG-71311L Battery


Sony PCG-71315L BatteryOn 27 March 2006, the military junta, which had moved the national capital from Yangon to a site near Pyinmana in November 2005, officially named the new capital Naypyidaw, meaning “city of the kings”.[66] Sony VPCF11MFX battery
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Protesters in Yangon during the 2007 Saffron Revolution with a banner that reads non-violence: national movement in Burmese. In the background is Shwedagon Pagoda.

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Cyclone Nargis, 2–3 May 2008,

devastated southern Burma

In August 2007, Sony PCG-71218L Battery

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Sony PCG-71313L Battery an increase in the price of diesel and petrol led to a series of anti-government protests that were dealt with harshly by the government.[6Sony PCG-81213M battery

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7] The protests then became a campaign of civil resistance (also called the Saffron Revolution.[68][69])[7Sony VPCF11LFX battery
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Sony VPCF119HX battery0] led by Buddhist monks,[71Sony PCG-71111L Battery

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] hundreds of whom defied the house arrest of democracy advocate Aung San Suu Kyi to pay their respects at the gate of her house. The government finally cracked down on them on 26 September 2007. Sony VPCF117FX battery
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Sony VPCF114FX battery The crackdown was harsh, with reports of barricades at the Shwedagon Pagoda and monks killed. However, there were also rumours of disagreement within the Burmese armed forces, Sony VPCF11KFX battery

Sony VPCF11PFX batterybut none was confirmed. The military crackdown against unarmed Saffron Revolution protesters was widely condemned as part of the International reaction to the 2007 Sony PCG-81112L Battery


Sony PCG-81314L Battery Burmese anti-government protests and led to an increase in economic sanctions against the Burmese Government. Sony VPCF11CGX battery
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In May 2008, Cyclone Nargis caused extensive damage in the densely populated, rice-farming delta of the Irrawaddy Division.[ Sony VPCF111FX battery

Sony VPCF11BFX battery72] It was the worst natural disaster in Burmese history with reports of an estimated 200,000 people dead or missing, and damage totaled to 10 billion dollars (USD), and as many as 1 million left homeless.[7Sony VPCF11GGX battery

Sony VPCF11AFX battery3] In the critical days following this disaster, Burma’s isolationist government hindered recovery efforts by delaying the entry of United Nations planes delivering medicine, food, and other supplies.[74] Sony VPCF11NFX battery


In early August 2009, a conflict known as the Kokang incident broke out in Shan State in northern Burma. Sony PCG-81312M battery

Sony PCG-81313M battery For several weeks, junta troops fought against ethnic minorities including the Han Chinese,[75] Wa, and Kachin.[76] Sony VPCF119GX battery
Sony VPCF1190X battery [77] During 8–12 August, the first days of the conflict, as many as 10,000 Burmese civilians fled to Yunnan province in neighbouring China.[76][77][7Sony PCG-81113L Battery

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Democratic reforms[edit]

Main article: 2011–12 Burmese political reforms

The goal of the Burmese constitutional referendum of 2008, held on 10 May 2008, is the creation of a “discipline-flourishing democracy”.Sony VGP-BPL12 Battery

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As part of the referendum process, the name of the country was changed from the “Union of Myanmar” to the “Republic of the Union of Myanmar”, and general elections were held under the new constitution in 2010. Sony VGP-BPL14 Battery

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Observer accounts of the 2010 election describe the event as mostly peaceful; however, allegations of polling station irregularities were raised, Sony PCG-81214L Battery

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Sony PCG-81313L Batteryand the United Nations (UN) and a number of Western countries condemned the elections as fraudulent. Sony VGP-BPL14B Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS26 Battery [79] One report documented 77 percent as the official turnout rate of the election.[80] The military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party later declared victory, stating that it had been favoured Sony VGP-BPL21 Battery


Sony VGP-BPL22 Battery by 80 percent of the votes, but the claim was disputed by numerous pro-democracy opposition groups who asserted that the military regime had engaged in rampant fraud.[80][81] The military junta was dissolved on 30 March 2011.

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Sony VGP-BPS22A BatterySome assert the military is as present as ever and that what is now a ‘disciplined democracy’ is leading to further institutionalization of the military in Burmese politics. Such an assertion assumes reforms only occurred when the military was able to safeguard its own interests through the transition. Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS22 Battery Here, transition does not refer to a transition to a full democracy, but transition to a quasi-military rule. It is as yet premature to declare that the reforms of 2008[verification needed] and 2011 have led to a genuine democracy.[82]

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Since the 2010 election, the government has embarked on a series of reforms to direct the country towards liberal democracy, a mixed economy, and reconciliation, although doubts persist about the motives that underpin such reforms. Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS21/S BatteryThe series of reforms includes the release of pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest, the establishment of the National Human Rights Commission, the granting of general amnesties for more than 200 political prisoners, Sony VGP-BPS13A Battery

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Sony VGP-BPS21B Batterynew labour laws that permit labour unions and strikes, a relaxation of press censorship, and the regulation of currency practices.[83]

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The impact of the post-election reforms has been observed in numerous areas, including ASEAN’s approval of Burma’s bid for the position of ASEAN chair in 2014; the visit by United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in December 2011 Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

for the encouragement of further progress—it was the first visit by a Secretary of State in more than fifty years[84] (Clinton met with Burmese president Thein Sein, as well as opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi);[ Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery

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85] and the participation of Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy (NLD) party in the 2012 by-elections, facilitated by the government’s abolition of the laws that previously barred the NLD.[86Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery


Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery] As of July 2013, about 100[87][88] political prisoners remain imprisoned, while conflict between the Burmese Army and local insurgent groups continues.


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The by-elections occurred on 1 April 2012 and the NLD won 43 of the 45 available seats; previously an illegal organization, the NLD had never won a Burmese election until this time. The 2012 by-elections


Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery were also the first time that international representatives were allowed to monitor the voting process in Burma.[89Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery


Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery] Following announcement of the by-elections, the Freedom House organization raised concerns about “reports of fraud and harassment in the lead up to elections, including the March 23 deportation Sony VGP-BSP13/S Battery


Sony VGP-BPS14/S Battery of Somsri Hananuntasuk, executive director of the Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL), a regional network of civil society organizations promoting democratization.”[90] Sony VGP-BPS14 Battery



Civil war[edit]

Main articles: Internal conflict in Burma and Kachin Conflict

Civil wars have been a constant feature of Burma’s socio-political landscape since the attainment of independence in 1948. Sony VGP-BPS14/B Battery

Sony VGP-BPS14B BatteryThese wars are predominantly struggles for ethnic and sub-national autonomy, with the areas surrounding the ethnically Burman central districts of the country serving as the primary geographical setting of conflict. Foreign journalists and visitors require a special travel permit to visit the areas in which Burma’s civil wars continue.[91] Sony VGP-BPL14 battery

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In October 2012 the number of ongoing conflicts in Burma included the Kachin conflict,[92] between the Kachin Independence Army and the government;[93] Sony VGP-BPL14/S battery

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Sony VGP-BPS22A battery [94] a civil war between the Rohingya Muslims, and the government and non-government groups in Arakan State;[95] and a conflict between the Shan,[96][97] Lahu and Karen[98][99] minority groups, and the government in the eastern half of the country.

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A widely publicised Burmese conflict was the 2012 Rakhine State riots, a series of conflicts that primarily involved the ethnic Rakhine Buddhist people and the Rohingya Muslim people in the northern Rakhine State—an estimated 90,000 people were displaced as a result of the riots.[1Sony VGP-BPS14/S battery


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00] The Burmese government previously identified the Rohingya as a group of illegal migrants; however, the ethnic group has lived in Burma for numerous centuries.[101]

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In 2007 the German professor Bassam Tibi suggested that the Rohingya conflict may be driven by an Islamist political agenda to impose religious laws,[102] Sony VGP-BPS12 battery

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while non-religious causes have also been raised, such as a lingering resentment over the violence that occurred during the Japanese occupation of Burma in World War II—during this time period the British allied themselves with the Rohingya[103Sony vgp-bps24 battery
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Sony VGP-BPS26A battery] and fought against the puppet government of Burma (composed mostly of Bamar Japanese) that helped to establish the Tatmadaw military organization that remains in power as of March 2013.

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A UN envoy reported in March 2013 that unrest had re-emerged between Burma’s Buddhist and Muslim communities, with violence spreading to towns that are located closer to Yangon.[10Sony VGP-BPS12 battery


Sony VGP-BPS26 battery4] The BBC News media outlet obtained video footage of a man with severe burns who received no assistance from passers-by or police officers even though he was lying on the ground in a public area. Sony VGP-BPS12/Q battery

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Sony VGP-BPS22A batteryThe footage was filmed by members of the Burmese police force in the town of Meiktila and was used as evidence that Buddhists continued to kill Muslims after the European Union sanctions were lifted on 23 April 2013.[105]

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Sony VGP-BPL22 batteryAssembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw).

The constitution of Burma, its third since independence, was drafted by its military rulers and published in September 2008. Sony VGP-BPS20/S battery

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The country is governed as a presidential republic with a bicameral legislature, with a portion of legislators appointed by the military and others elected in general elections. The current head of state, inaugurated as President on 30 March 2011, is Thein Sein.

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The legislature, called the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, is bicameral and made up of two houses: The 224-seat upper house Amyotha Hluttaw (House of Nationalities) and the 440-seat lower house Pyithu Hluttaw (House of Representatives). Sony VGP-BPL14/B battery

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The upper house consists of 224 members, of whom 168 are directly elected and 56 are appointed by the Burmese Armed Forces while the lower house consists of 440 members, of whom 330 are directly elected and 110 are appointed by the armed forces. Sony VGP-BPL14/S battery

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The major political parties are the National League for Democracy, National Democratic Force and the two backed by the military: the National Unity Party, and the Union Solidarity and Development Party.



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Burma’s army-drafted constitution was approved in a referendum in May 2008. The results, 92.4% of the 22 million voters with an official turnout of 99%, are considered suspect by many international observers and by the National league of democracy with reports of widespread fraud, ballot stuffing, and voter intimidation.[106] Sony VGP-BPS14 battery

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The elections of 2010 resulted in a victory for the military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party and various foreign observers questioned the fairness of the elections.[107][10sony VPCEB3AFM battery

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8][109] One criticism of the election was that only government sanctioned political parties were allowed to contest in it and the popular National League for Democracy was declared illegal and is still barred from political activities.[11sony VPCEA24FM battery

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sony VPCEH35FM battery0] However, immediately following the elections, the government ended the house arrest of the democracy advocate and leader of the National League for Democracy, Aung San Suu Kyi.[11


sony VPCEH3BFM battery1] and her ability to move freely around the country is considered an important test of the military’s movement toward more openness.[110] After unexpected reforms in 2011, NLD senior leaders have decided to register as a political party and to field candidates in future by-elections.[112sony VPCEA36FM battery

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Burma rates as a highly corrupt nation on the Corruption Perceptions Index with a rank of 180th out of 183 countries worldwide and a rating of 1.5 out of 10 (10 being least corrupt and 0 being highly corrupt) as of 2011.[113]


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Foreign relations[edit]

Main article: Foreign relations of Burma

Though the country’s foreign relations, particularly with Western nations, have been strained, relations have thawed since the reforms following the 2010 elections. After years of diplomatic isolation and economic and military sanctions,[ sony VPCEB32FMbattery

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sony VPCEB23FM battery114] the United States relaxed curbs on foreign aid to Burma in November 2011[85] and announced the resumption of diplomatic relations on 13 January 2012[115] The European Union has placed sanctions on Burma, including an arms embargo, sony VPCEB14FX battery

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cessation of trade preferences, and suspension of all aid with the exception of humanitarian aid.[11sony VPCEB11GX battery


sony VPCEB190X battery6] U.S. and European government sanctions against the former military government, coupled with boycotts and other direct pressure on corporations by supporters of the democracy movement, have resulted in the withdrawal from the country of most U.S. and many European companies.[11sony VPCEB12FX battery


sony VPCEB1AFX battery7] On 13 April 2012 British Prime Minister David Cameron called for the economic sanctions on Burma to be suspended in the wake of the pro-democracy party gaining 43 seats out of a possible 45 in the 2012 by-elections with the party leader, sony VPCEB15FX battery


sony VPCEB1AGX battery Aung San Suu Kyi becoming a member of the Burmese parliament.[118]


Despite Western isolation, Asian corporations have generally remained willing to continue investing in the country and to initiate new investments, particularly in natural resource extraction. Sony PCG-6P2M Battery

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sony VPCEB15FM batteryThe country has close relations with neighbouring India and China with several Indian and Chinese companies operating in the country. Under India’s Look East policy, fields of cooperation between India and Burma include remote sensing,[1sony VPCEB16FX battery

sony VPCEB17FX battery19] oil and gas exploration,[120] information technology,[12Sony PCG-6R1M Battery

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1] hydro power[122] and construction of ports and buildings.[12sony VPCEB22FX battery


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3] In 2008, India suspended military aid to Burma over the issue of human rights abuses by the ruling junta, although it has preserved extensive commercial ties, which provide the regime with much-needed revenue.[12sony VPCEB25FX battery

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sony VPCEB23FX battery4] The thaw in relations began on 28 November 2011, Sony PCG-6C1M Battery

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when Belarusian Prime Minister Mikhail Myasnikovich and his wife Ludmila arrived in the capital, Naypyidaw, the same day as the country received a visit by US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, sony VPCEB2SFX battery

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sony VPCEB42FX battery who also met with pro-democracy opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi.[125] International relations progress indicators continued in September 2012 when Aung San Suu Kyi visited to the US[1sony VPCEB31FX battery


sony VPCEB3CFX battery26] followed by Burma’s reformist president visit to the United Nations.[127]


In May 2013, Sony PCG-6E1M Battery

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Sony PCG-7R1M BatteryThein Sein became the first Myanmar president to visit the U.S. White House in 47 years and President Barack Obama praised the former general for political and economic reforms, and the cessation of tensions between Myanmar and the U.S. sony VPCEB2YFX battery


sony VPCEB3DFX battery Political activists objected to the visit due to concerns over human rights abuses in Myanmar but Obama assured Thein Sein that Myanmar will receive the support from the U.S. Prior to President Thein Sein, sony VPCEB32FX battery

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sony VPCEB3AFX batterythe last Myanmar leader to visit the White House was Ne Win in September 1966. The two leaders discussed to release more political prisoners, the institutionalization of political reform and rule of law, sony VPCEB33GX battery


sony VPCEB37FX batteryand ending ethnic conflict in Myanmar—the two governments agreed to sign a bilateral trade and investment framework agreement on May 21, 2013.[128]

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In June 2013, Myanmar held its first ever summit, the World Economic Forum on East Asia 2013. A regional spinoff of the annual World Economic Forum in Davos, sony VPCEH12FX battery

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Switzerland, the summit was held on June 5–7 and attended by 1,200 participants, including 10 heads of state, 12 ministers and 40 senior directors from around the world.[129]

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sony VPCEH390X batteryThein Sein meets U.S. President Barack Obama in Yangon, 19 November 2012

In mid October, 2012. former UK Prime Minister Tony Blair “led a delegation” to shake hands with President Thein Sein, sony VPCEH16FX battery

and met with lower house speaker Shwe Mann. A British embassy spokesperson said he was there on behalf of The Office of Tony Blair, an umbrella group of foundations—inter-faith, Sony PCG-6H1M Battery

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Sony PCG-7N2M Battery sports, etc.—and governance initiatives that he started up after leaving office. The spokesperson said only that he had “productive discussions about the reform process”.[130]

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On 3 November 2012 European Commission President José Manuel Barroso met with Myanmar’s President Thein Sein in Myanmar.[131][132]


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On 6 November 2012 Australia’s Prime Minister, Julia Gillard met with Myanmar’s President Thein Sein on the sidelines of the 9th Asia–Europe Meeting becoming the first Australian head of government to meet Burma’s leader in nearly 30 years.[133]

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On 12 November 2012 Sweden’s Prime Minister, Fredrik Reinfeldt, met President U Thein Sein at the presidential palace in the new capital, Naypyidaw, Sony PCG-6J1M Battery

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Sony PCG-7N1M Battery while being accompanied on his visit by the Swedish Trade Minister Ewa Björling and two business delegations.[134]

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On 19 November 2012, US President Barack Obama visited Burma following his 2012 reelection and was accompanied by Hillary Clinton, returning almost a year after her first visit. Though he did not visit the capital, sony VPCEH1BFX battery


sony VPCEH2CFX batteryPresident Obama delivered a speech at Rangoon University, out of respect for the university where opposition to colonial rule first took hold. Obama’s speech was broadcast live via Burmese state television channels sony VPCEH1CFX battery

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sony VPCEH290X battery but its simultaneous spoken translations was stopped when Obama began speaking about the Kachin Conflict.[1sony VPCEH2AFX battery


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sony VPCEH27FX battery35] Obama also stated that recent violence in Rakhine state during the 2012 Rakhine State riots had to be addressed, he called for an end to communal violence between Muslims and Buddhists and then left to visit Thailand.[136][137] Sony PCG-6L1M Battery

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sony VPCEH23FX batteryMyanmar Air Force Mikoyan MiG-29 multirole fighter

Burma has received extensive military aid from India and China in the past[1Sony PCG-7Y1M Battery


Sony PCG-7H2M Battery38] According to some estimates, Burma has received more than US$200 million in military aid from India.[139] Burma has been a member of ASEAN since 1997. sony VPCEH2BFX battery

sony VPCEH22FX battery Though it gave up its turn to hold the ASEAN chair and host the ASEAN Summit in 2006, it is scheduled to chair the forum and host the summit in 2014.[140] In November 2008, Burma’s political situation with neighbouring sony SVE1513MCXS battery

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sony SVE1511KFXW battery Bangladesh became tense as they began searching for natural gas in a disputed block of the Bay of Bengal.[14Sony PCG-8V1M Battery

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Sony PCG-7H1M Battery1] The fate of Rohingya refugees also remains an issue between Bangladesh and Burma.[142]


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The country’s armed forces are known as the Tatmadaw, which numbers 488,000. The Tatmadaw comprises the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force. The country ranked twelfth in the world for its number of active troops in service.[ sony SVE15137CXS battery

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sony SVE1511GFXW battery21] The military is very influential in the country, with all top cabinet and ministry posts usually held by military officials. Official figures for military spending are not available. sony SVE15132CXS battery


sony SVE1511DFYS batteryEstimates vary widely because of uncertain exchange rates, but Burma’s military forces’ expenses are high.[14Sony PCG-8W1M Battery


Sony PCG-7G1M Battery3] The country imports most of its weapons from Russia, Ukraine, China and India.

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The country is building a research nuclear reactor near Pyin Oo Lwin with help from Russia. It is one of the signatories of the nuclear non-proliferation pact since 1992 and a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sony SVE15125CXS battery

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since 1957. The military junta had informed the IAEA in September 2000 of its intention to construct the reactor. Sony PCG-8W2M Battery

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Sony PCG-7D1M BatteryThe research reactor outbuilding frame was built by ELE steel industries limited of Yangon/Rangoon and water from Anisakhan/BE water fall will be used for the reactor cavity cooling system.[144][145] sony SVE15124CXS battery

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In 2010 as part of the Wikileaks leaked cables, Burma was suspected of using North Korean construction teams to build a fortified Surface-to-Air Missile facility.[146]


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Until 2005, the United Nations General Assembly annually adopted a detailed resolution about the situation in Burma by consensus.[147][14sony SVE15135CXS battery

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sony SVE1511BGXS battery7][148][149][150] But in 2006 a divided United Nations General Assembly voted through a resolution that strongly called upon the government of Burma to end its systematic violations of human rights.[15sony SVE15112FXS battery


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1] In January 2007, Russia and China vetoed a draft resolution before the United Nations Security Council[152] Sony PCG-6P2M Battery
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calling on the government of Burma to respect human rights and begin a democratic transition. South Africa also voted against the resolution.[153]

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On 19 November 2012, Barack Obama became the first American president to visit Myanmar.[154]

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Human rights[edit]

Main article: Human rights in Burma

Further information: Internal conflict in Burma and Persecution of Muslims in Burma

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This article’s factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2013) Sony PCG-6R1M Battery
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There is consensus that the military regime in Burma is one of the world’s most repressive and abusive regimes.[155][1sony SVE151190X battery

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sony SVE151290X battery56] On 9 November 2012, Samantha Power, Barack Obama’s Special Assistant to the President on Human Rights, wrote on the White House blog in advance of the president’s visit that “Serious human rights abuses against civilians in several regions continue, including against women and children.”[96] In addition, sony SVE1512HCXS battery

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sony SVE15128CXS battery members of the United Nations and major international human rights organisations have issued repeated and consistent reports of widespread and systematic human rights violations in Burma. The United Nations General Assembly has repeatedly[1sony SVE1512KCXS battery


sony SVE1513JCXW battery57] called on the Burmese Military Junta to respect human rights and in November 2009 the General Assembly adopted a resolution “strongly condemning the ongoing systematic violations of human rights sony SVE1513APXS battery

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sony SVE1513HCXS battery and fundamental freedoms” and calling on the Burmese Military Regime “to take urgent measures to put an end to violations of international human rights and humanitarian law.”[158sony SVE1713ACXB battery


sony SVE17137CXB battery] International human rights organizations including Human Rights Watch,[159] Amnesty International[16Sony PCG-6D1M Battery
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0] and the American Association for the Advancement of Science[16sony SVE1713BCXB battery


sony SVE171290X battery1] have repeatedly documented and condemned widespread human rights violations in Burma. The Freedom in the World 2011 report by Freedom House notes, “The military junta has .. sony SVE1713CCXB battery


sony SVE17135CXB battery. suppressed nearly all basic rights; and committed human rights abuses with impunity.” In July 2013, Sony PCG-6G1M Battery
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Sony PCG-7X1M Battery the Assistance Association for Political Prisoners indicated that there were approximately 100 political prisoners being held in Burmese prisons.[87][88][162][163]

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sony SVE17132CXB batteryMae La camp, Tak, Thailand, one of the largest of nine UNHCR camps in Thailand where over 700,000 refugees,asylum seekers, and stateless persons have fled.[164]

Child soldiers[edit] sony SVE1713ECXB battery


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Child soldiers have and continue to play a major part in the Burmese Army as well as Burmese rebel movements. The Independent reported in June, 2012 that “Children are being sold as conscripts into the Burmese military for as little as $40 and a bag of rice or a can of petrol.”[1sony SVE1712ACXB battery


sony SVE17125CXB battery65] The UN’s Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, Radhika Coomaraswamy, who stepped down from her position a week later, met representatives of the Government of Myanmar sony SVE1712BCXB battery

sony SVE17122CXB battery on 5 July 2012 and stated that she hoped the government’s signing of an action plan would “signal a transformation.”[ Sony VPCSA2Z9E battery
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Sony SVS1511N3ES battery166] In September 2012, the Myanmar Armed Forces released 42 child soldiers and the International Labour Sony SVS131B12M battery
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Organization met with representatives of the government as well as the Kachin Independence Army to secure the release of more child soldiers.[1Sony SVS151A12M battery
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Sony SVS1511M3EW battery67] According to Samantha Power, a U.S. delegation raised the issue of child soldiers with the government in October 2012. However, she did not comment on the government’s progress towards reform in this area.[96] Sony SVS1311P9EB battery
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A Bangkok Post article on 23 December 2012 reported that the Myanmar Armed Forces continued to use child soldiers including during the army’s large offensive against the KIA in December 2012. Sony PCG-4121DM battery
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Sony SVE1512B1E battery The newspaper reported that “Many of them were pulled off Yangon streets and elsewhere and given a minimum of training before being sent to the front line.”[168][unreliable source?]

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Child/forced/slave labour, systematic sexual violence and human trafficking[edit]

Forced labour, human trafficking, and child labour are common.[169] The military is also notorious for rampant use of sexual violence, Sony PCG-41213M battery
Sony SVE1511V1E batterya practice continuing as of 2012.[15] In 2007 the international movement to defend women’s human rights issues in Burma was said to be gaining speed.[170]

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Sony SVE1511Q1E batteryGenocide allegations and crimes against Rohingya people[edit]

Evidence gathered by a British researcher was published in 2005 regarding the extermination or ‘Burmisation’ of certain ethnic minorities, such as the Karen, Karenni and Shan.[171]

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The Rohingya people have consistently faced human rights abuses by the Burmese regime that has refused to acknowledge them as Burmese citizens (despite some of them having lived in Burma for numerous generations)—the Rohingya have been denied Burmese citizenship since the enactment of a 1982 citizenship law.[ Sony PCG-41214M battery
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Sony SVE1511L1E battery72] The Burmese regime has attempted to forcibly expel Rohingya and bring in non-Rohingyas to replace them[1Sony PCG-41212M battery
Sony SVE1511K1E battery73]—this policy has resulted in the expulsion of approximately half of the Rohingya population from Burma, while the Rohingya people have been described as “among the world’s least wanted”[174Sony PCG-41215M battery

Sony PCG-41216M battery
Sony SVE1511F1E battery] and “one of the world’s most persecuted minorities.”[175][176][173]


Thousands of homes were destroyed, 78 people died, 87 people were injured, and an estimated 90,000 people were displaced after the 2012 Rakhine State riots between Rohingya Muslims and Buddhists in Burma’s western Rakhine State.[100][17Sony PCG-41217M battery

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Sony SVE1511A1EW battery7] Rohingya are also not allowed to travel without official permission, are banned from owning land and are required to sign a commitment to have no more than two children.[172]


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Sony PCG-31114M battery As of July 2012, the Myanmar Government does not include the Rohingya minority group—classified as stateless Bengali Muslims from Bangladesh since 1982—on the government’s list of more than 130 ethnic races and, therefore, the government states that they have no claim to Myanmar citizenship.[178] Sony VPCEA3S1R Battery
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2012 Rakhine State riots[edit]

Main article: 2012 Rakhine State riots

The 2012 Rakhine State riots are a series of ongoing conflicts between Rohingya Muslims and ethnic Rakhine in northern Rakhine State, Sony PCG-6G2M Battery
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Myanmar. The riots came after weeks of sectarian disputes and have been condemned by most people on both sides of the conflict.[179] Sony SVE151C11M battery


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The immediate cause of the riots is unclear, with many commentators citing the killing of ten Burmese Muslims by ethnic Rakhine after the rape and murder of a Rakhine woman as the main cause.[180] Whole villages have been “decimated”.[1Sony SVE1711T1EB battery
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Sony PCG-4U2M battery80] Over 300 houses and a number of public buildings have been razed. According to Tun Khin, the president of the Burmese Rohingya Organisation UK (BROUK), as of 28 June 2012, 650 Rohingyas have been killed, 1,200 are missing, and more than 80,000 have been displaced.[18Sony SVE1711V1EB battery


Sony PCG-4R2M battery1] According to the Myanmar authorities, the violence, between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims, Sony PCG-6J2M Battery
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Sony PCG-7N2M Battery left 78 people dead, 87 injured, and thousands of homes destroyed. It displaced more than 52,000 people.[177]

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The government has responded by imposing curfews and by deploying troops in the regions. On 10 June 2012, Sony SVE1511G1EW battery
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Sony PCG-41314M battery a state of emergency was declared in Rakhine, allowing the military to participate in administration of the region.[182][183] The Burmese army and police have been accused of targeting Rohingya Sony SVE1511G1EB battery


Sony PCG-41313M battery Muslims through mass arrests and arbitrary violence.[181][184] A number of monks’ organizations that played a vital role in Burma’s struggle for democracy have taken measures to block any humanitarian assistance to the Rohingya community.[185]

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Freedom of speech[edit]

Main article: Censorship in Burma

Restrictions on media censorship were significantly eased in August 2012 following demonstrations by hundreds of protesters who wore shirts demanding that the government “Stop Killing the Press.”[18Sony SVE1511S1ESI battery
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Sony VPCCA2S1E battery6] The most significant change has come in the form that media organizations will no longer have to submit their content to a censorship board before publication. However, as explained by  Sony SVE1511B1EW battery

Sony VPCCA3S1E batteryone editorial in the exiled press The Irrawaddy, this new “freedom” has caused some Burmese journalists to simply see the new law as an attempt to create an environment of self-censorship as
Sony VPCCB3M1E battery  journalists “are required to follow 16 guidelines towards protecting the three national causes — non-disintegration of the Union, non-disintegration of national solidarity, perpetuation of sovereignty Sony SVE1511H1ESI battery
Sony SVE1511J1EW battery— and “journalistic ethics” to ensure their stories are accurate and do not jeopardize national security.”[186] Sony SVE1511H1EW battery

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Praise for the 2011 government reforms[edit]

Since the transition to new government in August 2011, Burma’s human rights record has been improving according to the Crisis Group.[18Sony PCG-6112M battery

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7] The Freedom in the World 2012 report notes improvement due to new reforms. Previously rated as a 7, the lowest rating, for civil liberties and political rights, the release of political prisoners and a loosening of restriction has given Burma a 6 for civil liberties in the most recent Freedom in the World.[18Sony PCG-6122M battery

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Sony VPCZ12Z9E/B battery8] The government has assembled a National Human Rights Commission consisted of 15 members from various backgrounds.[189] Several activists in exile including Thee Lay Thee Anyeint members have returned to Burma after President Thein Sein’s offer to expatriates to return home to work for national development.[ Sony PCG-6124M battery

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Sony VPCZ12X9E/B battery190] In an address to the United Nations Security Council in 22 September 2011, Burma’s Foreign Minister Wunna Maung Lwin confirmed the release of prisoners in near future.[ Sony VPCZ13M9E/B battery


Sony VPCZ12V9E/B battery191] The government has also relaxed reporting laws, but these remain highly restrictive.[192] In September 2011, several banned websites, including YouTube, Democratic Voice of Burma and Voice of America, Sony VPCZ13V9E battery


Sony VPCZ12V9E battery have been unblocked.[1Sony PCG-6L2M Battery

Sony PCG-7N1M Battery93] A 2011 report by the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations found that while constrained by donor restrictions on contact with the Myanmar government, international humanitarian non governmental organisations (NGOs) Sony VPCZ13Z9E/X battery


Sony VPCZ12M9E/B battery see opportunities for effective advocacy with government officials, especially at the local level. At the same time, international NGOs are mindful of the ethical quandary of how to work with the government without bolstering or appeasing it.[194]

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2013 onwards[edit]

Following Thein Sein’s first ever visit to the UK and a meeting with Prime Minister David Cameron, the Myanmar president declared that all of his nation’s political prisoners will be released by the end of 2013,

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in addition to a statement of support for the well-being of the Rohingya Muslim community. In a speech at Chatham House, he revealed that “We [Myanmar government] are reviewing all cases. I guarantee to you that by the end of this year, Sony VPCZ23K9E battery

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there will be no prisoners of conscience in Myanmar.”, in addition to expressing a desire to strengthen links between the UK and Myanmar’s military forces.[195] Sony VGP-BPL20 battery

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A street market in Yangon selling produce.

The country is one of the poorest nations in Southeast Asia, suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement and isolation. Sony VGP-BPS20/S battery

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The lack of an educated workforce skilled in modern technology contributes to the growing problems of the economy.[196


Sony VPCZ11X9E/B battery] The country lacks adequate infrastructure. Goods travel primarily across the Thai border (where most illegal drugs are exported) and along the Irrawaddy River. Railways are old and rudimentary, Sony VPCZ11 battery

Sony VPCZ11X9E batterywith few repairs since their construction in the late 19th century.[197] Highways are normally unpaved, except in the major cities.[ Sony PCG-6P2M Battery
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197] Energy shortages are common throughout the country including in Yangon and only 25% of the country’s population has electricity.[198]

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The military government has the majority stakeholder position in all of the major industrial corporations of the country (from oil production and consumer goods to transportation and tourism).[199][200]

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The national currency is Kyat. Inflation averaged 30.1% between 2005 and 2007.[201] Inflation is a serious problem for the economy.


In 2010–2011, Bangladesh exported products worth $9.65 million to Myanmar against its import of $179 million.[202] The annual import of medicine and medical equipment to Burma during the 2000s was 160 million USD.[203] Sony PCG-6E1M Battery
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In recent years, both China and India have attempted to strengthen ties with the government for economic benefit. Many nations, including the United States and Canada, and the European Union, have imposed investment and trade sanctions on Burma. Sony PCG-6G1M Battery
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The United States and European Union eased most of their sanctions in 2012.[204] Foreign investment comes primarily from China, Singapore, the Philippines, South Korea, India, and Thailand.[205]

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Sony PCG-7N2M BatteryRice cultivation accounts for much of the agriculture in Burma today.


Under British administration, Burma was the second-wealthiest country in South-East Asia. It had been the world’s largest exporter of rice. Burma also had a wealth of natural and labour resources. Sony PCG-6J1M Battery
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It produced 75% of the world’s teak and had a highly literate population.[23] The country was believed to be on the fast track to development.[ Sony PCG-7Y1M Battery
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Sony PCG-7M1M Battery23] However, agricultural production fell dramatically during the 1930s as international rice prices declined, and did not recover for several decades.[206] Sony PCG-6L1M Battery
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During World War II, the British destroyed the major oil wells and mines for tungsten, tin, lead and silver to keep them from the Japanese. Burma was bombed extensively by both sides. After a parliamentary government was formed in 1948, Sony PCG-7Y1M Battery
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Sony PCG-7N1M Battery Prime Minister U Nu embarked upon a policy of nationalization and the state was declared the owner of all land. The government also tried to implement a poorly considered Eight-Year plan. By the 1950s, Sony PCG-8V2M Battery
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Sony PCG-7H2M Battery rice exports had fallen by two thirds and mineral exports by over 96% (as compared to the pre-World War II period). Plans were partly financed by printing money, which led to inflation.[ Sony PCG-8V2M Battery

Sony PCG-7M1M Battery07] The 1962 coup d’état was followed by an economic scheme called the Burmese Way to Socialism, a plan to nationalise all industries, with the exception of agriculture. The catastrophic program turned Burma into one of the world’s most impoverished countries.[63] Sony PCG-8W1M Battery

Sony PCG-7H2M BatteryBurma’s admittance to Least Developed Country status by the UN in 1987 highlighted its economic bankruptcy.[208]



The major agricultural product is rice, which covers about 60% of the country’s total cultivated land area. Rice accounts for 97% of total food grain production by weight. Sony PCG-8W2M Battery

Sony PCG-7H1M Battery Through collaboration with the International Rice Research Institute 52 modern rice varieties were released in the country between 1966 and 1997, Sony PCG-7A1M Battery
helping increase national rice production to 14 million tons in 1987 and to 19 million tons in 1996. By 1988, modern varieties were planted on half of the country’s ricelands, Sony PCG-8W2M Battery
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including 98 percent of the irrigated areas.[2Sony PCG-7D1M Battery
Sony PCG-7G1M Battery09] In 2008 rice production was estimated at 50 million tons.[210]


Burma is also the world’s second largest producer of opium, accounting for 8% of entire world production and is a major source of illegal drugs, including amphetamines.[21Sony PCG-7D1M Battery
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Sony PCG-7H1M Battery1] Opium bans implemented since 2002 after international pressure have left ex-poppy farmers without sustainable sources of income in the Kokang and Wa regions. They depend on casual labour for income.[212]


Natural resources[edit]

Burma produces precious stones such as rubies, sapphires, pearls, and jade. Rubies are the biggest earner; 90% of the world’s rubies come from the country, whose red stones are prized for their purity and hue. Thailand buys the majority of the country’s gems. Sony PCG-8X1M Battery

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sony VPCF12Z1E/BI battery Burma’s “Valley of Rubies”, the mountainous Mogok area, 200 km (120 mi) north of Mandalay, is noted for its rare pigeon’s blood rubies and blue sapphires.[213]


Many U.S. and European jewellery companies, including Bulgari, Tiffany, and Cartier, refuse to import these stones based on reports of deplorable working conditions in the mines. sony VPCF11C5E battery


sony VPCF12S1E/B batteryHuman Rights Watch has encouraged a complete ban on the purchase of Burmese gems based on these reports and because nearly all profits go to the ruling junta, as the majority of mining activity in the country is government-run.[214sony VPCF11D4E battery

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sony VPCF13Z8E/BI battery] The government of Burma controls the gem trade by direct ownership or by joint ventures with private owners of mines.[215]


Other industries include agricultural goods, textiles, wood products, construction materials, gems, metals, oil and natural gas.

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Apartment building in Naypyidaw, the new capital of Burma


Main article: Tourism in Burma

Since 1992, the government has encouraged tourism in the country; however, fewer than 270,000 tourists entered the country in 2006 according to the Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board.[216] Burma’s Minister of Hotels and Tourism Saw Lwin has stated that the government receives a significant percentage of the income of private sector tourism services.[217]


The most popular available tourist destinations in Burma include big cities such as Yangon and Mandalay; religious sites in Mon State, Pindaya, Bago and Hpa-An; nature trails in Inle Lake, Kengtung, Putao, Pyin Oo Lwin; ancient cities such as Bagan and Mrauk-U; as well as beaches in Ngapali, Ngwe-Saung, Mergui.[218] Nevertheless much of the country is off-limits to tourists, and interactions between foreigners and the people of Burma, particularly in the border regions, are subject to police scrutiny. They are not to discuss politics with foreigners, under penalty of imprisonment and, in 2001, the Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board issued an order for local officials to protect tourists and limit “unnecessary contact” between foreigners and ordinary Burmese people.[219]


The only way for travelers to enter the country seems to be by air.[220] According to the website Lonely Planet, getting into Burma (Myanmar) is problematic: “No bus or train service connects Myanmar with another country, nor can you travel by car or motorcycle across the border – you must walk across.”, sony VPCF2 battery

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sony VPCF11C4E/B battery and states that, “It is not possible for foreigners to go to/from Myanmar by sea or river.”[220] They do say that there are a small number of border crossings, sony VPCF22J1E battery

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sony VPCF13M1E/B batterybut that these are limiting in that they do not allow travel into the country “You can cross from Ruili (China) to Mu-se, but not leave that way. From Mae Sai (Thailand) you can cross to Tachileik, but can only go as far as Kengtung. Those in Thailand on a visa run can cross to Kawthaung but cannot venture farther into Myanmar.”[220]

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Flights are available from most countries, though direct flights are limited to mainly Thai and other ASEAN airlines. According to Eleven magazine, “In the past, there were only 15 international airlines and increasing numbers of airlines have began launching direct flights from Japan, Qatar, Taiwan, South Korea, Germany and Singapore.”[2sony VPCF22S8E battery

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21] Expansions were expected in September 2013, but yet again are mainly Thai and other Asian based airlines according to Eleven Media Group’s Eleven, “Thailand-based Nok Air and Business Airlines and Singapore-based Tiger Airline”.[221] sony VPCF23Q1E battery


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Economic Sanctions[edit]

The Government of Burma is under economic sanctions by the U.S. Treasury Department (31 CFR Part 537, 16 August 2005)[222] and by Executive orders 13047 (1997),[223] 13310 (2003),[223] 13448 (2007),[223] 13464 (2008),[ sony VPCF231S1E battery

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sony VPCF13J0E/H battery223] and the most recent, 13619 (2012).[224] Debate as to the extent to which the American-led sanctions have had adverse effects on the civilian population or on the military rulers.[225][226]

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From May 2012 to February 2013, the United States began to lift its economic sanctions on Burma “in response to the historic reforms that have been taking place in that country.”[227] Sanctions remain in place for blocked banks[2sony VPCF11S1E battery


sony VPCF13E8E battery28] and for any business entities that are more than 50% owned by persons on “OFAC’s Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons list (SDN list)”.[229]


Government stakeholders in business[edit]

Main article: Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings

The military has the majority stakeholder position in all of the major industrial corporations of the country (from oil production and consumer goods to transportation and tourism).[199][200]


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Economic liberalization post 2011[edit]

In March 2012, a draft foreign investment law emerged, the first in more than 2 decades. Foreigners will no longer require a local partner to start a business in the country, and will be able to legally lease but not own property.[2sony VPCF11C4E/B battery


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sony VPCF12M1E/H battery30] The draft law also stipulates that Burmese citizens must constitute at least 25% of the firm’s skilled workforce, and with subsequent training, up to 50-75%.[230]


In 2012, the Asian Development Bank formally began re-engaging with the country, to finance infrastructure and development projects in the country. [23sony VPCF11Z1E/BI battery

sony VPCF12E1E/H battery1] The United States, Japan and the European Union countries have also begun to reduce or eliminate economic sanctions to allow foreign direct investment which will provide the Burmese government with additional tax revenue.[232]

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sony VPCF13E8E battery A block of flats in down-town Yangon, facing Bogyoke Market. Much of Yangon’s urban population resides in densely populated flats.

Burma has a population of about 56 million.[23sony VPCF11C4E/B battery

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sony VPCF13E4E battery3] Population figures are rough estimates because the last partial census, conducted by the Ministry of Home and Religious Affairs under the control of the military junta, was taken in 1983.[23sony VPCF11D4E battery


sony VPCF12M1E/H battery4] No trustworthy nationwide census has been taken in Burma since 1931. There are over 600,000 registered migrant workers from Burma in Thailand, and millions more work illegally. Burmese migrant workers account for 80% of Thailand’s migrant workers.[2sony VPC-F11M1E/H battery


sony VPCF12F4E/H battery35] Burma has a population density of 75 per square kilometre (190 /sq mi), one of the lowest in Southeast Asia. Refugee camps exist along Indian, Bangladeshi and Thai borders while several thousand are in Malaysia. Conservative estimates state that there are over 295,800 refugees from Burma, sony VPCF11S1E/B battery

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sony VPCF12E1E/H battery with the majority being Karenni, and Kayin and are principally located along the Thai-Burma border.[236] There are nine permanent refugee camps along the Thai-Burma border,


sony VPCF11Z1E/BI batterymost of which were established in the mid-1980s. The refugee camps are under the care of the Thai-Burma Border Consortium (TBBC). Since 2006,[237] over 55,000 Burmese refugees have been resettled in the United States.[238]

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There are over 53.42 million Buddhists, over 2.98 million Christians, over 2.27 million Muslims, over 300,000 Hindus and over 790,000 of those who believe in other religions in the country, according to an answer by Union Minister at Myanmar Parliament on 8 September 2011.[239]

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Ne Win’s rise to power in 1962 and his relentless persecution of “resident aliens” (immigrant groups not recognised as citizens of the Union of Burma) led to an exodus/expulsion of some 300,000 Burmese Indians.[24sony VPCF22L1E battery

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sony VPCF11S1E battery0] They migrated to escape racial discrimination and wholesale nationalisation of private enterprise a few years later in 1964.[241] The Anglo-Burmese at this time either fled the country or changed their names and blended in with the broader Burmese society. sony VPCF22S1E battery



Many Rohingya Muslims fled Burma and many refugees inundated neighbouring Bangladesh including 200,000 in 1978 as a result of the King Dragon operation in Arakan[242] and 250,000 in 1991.[243] sony VPCF22S8E battery



Burma is home to four major language families: Sino-Tibetan, Tai–Kadai, Austro-Asiatic, and Indo-European.[24sony VPCF23M1E battery

4] Sino-Tibetan languages are most widely spoken. They include Burmese, Karen, Kachin, Chin, and Chinese. The primary Tai–Kadai language is Shan. Mon, Palaung, and Wa are the major Austroasiatic languages spoken in Burma. sony VPCF23Q1E battery


sony VPCF24M1E battery The two major Indo-European languages are Pali, the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism, and English.[245]

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According to the UNESCO Institute of Statistics, Burma’s official literacy rate as of 2000 was 89.9%.[246] Historically, Burma has had high literacy rates. To qualify for least developed country status by the UN in order to receive debt relief, sony VPCF13J0E/H battery

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sony VPCF13M0E/B battery Burma lowered its official literacy rate from 78.6% to 18.7% in 1987.[247][clarification needed]

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Burma is ethnically diverse. The government recognises 135 distinct ethnic groups. While it is extremely difficult to verify this statement, sony VPCF11C4E/B battery

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sony VPCF13M8E/B battery there are at least 108 different ethnolinguistic groups in Burma, consisting mainly of distinct Tibeto-Burman peoples, but with sizeable populations of Tai–Kadai, Hmong–Mien, and Austroasiatic (Mon–Khmer) peoples.[248] The Bamar form an estimated 68% of the population.[2sony VPCF13Z8E/BI battery

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sony VPCF12M0E/B battery49] 10% of the population are Shan.[249] The Kayin make up 7% of the population.[249] The Rakhine people constitute 4% of the population. Overseas Chinese form approximately 3% of the population.[249][2sony VPCF13M1E/H battery


sony VPCF12S1E/B battery50] Burma’s ethnic minority groups prefer the term “ethnic nationality” over “ethnic minority” as the term “minority” furthers their sense of insecurity in the face of what is often described as “Burmanisation”—the proliferation and domination of the dominant Bamar culture over minority cultures. sony VPCF21Z1E/BI battery


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Mon, who form 2% of the population, are ethno-linguistically related to the Khmer.[249] Overseas Indians are 2%.[249sony VPCF24Q1E battery


sony VPCF13S0E/B battery] The remainder are Kachin, Chin, Anglo-Indians, Gurkha, Nepali and other ethnic minorities. Included in this group are the Anglo-Burmese. Once forming a large and influential community, sony VPCF23P1E battery


sony VPCF13S1E/B batterythe Anglo-Burmese left the country in steady streams from 1958 onwards, principally to Australia and the U.K.. Today, it is estimated that only 52,000 Anglo-Burmese remain in the country. There are 110,000 Burmese refugees in Thai border camps.[251] sony VPCF23N1E battery


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89% of the country’s population are Buddhist, according to a report on ABC World News Tonight in May 2008 and the Buddha Dharma Education Association.[252]

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Main article: Languages of Burma

Burmese, the mother tongue of the Bamar and official language of Burma, is related to Tibetan and to the Chinese languages.[24Sony VPCZ21L9E/B battery
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Sony VPCZ11V9R/B battery 5] It is written in a script consisting of circular and semi-circular letters, which were adapted from the Mon script, which in turn was developed from a southern Indian script in the 8th century. Sony VPCZ21S9E/B battery

Sony VPCZ11E7E battery The earliest known inscriptions in the Burmese script date from the 11th century. It is also used to write Pali, the sacred language of Theravada Buddhism, as well as several ethnic minority languages, including Shan, several Karen dialects, Sony VPCZ21V9E/B battery
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Sony VPCZ11D7E battery and Kayah (Karenni), with the addition of specialised characters and diacritics for each language.[253Sony VPCZ13A7E battery
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Sony VPCZ11C7E battery] The Burmese language incorporates widespread usage of honorifics and is age-oriented.[254] Burmese society has traditionally stressed the importance of education. In villages, secular schooling often takes place in monasteries. Secondary and tertiary education take place at government schools. Sony VPCZ13C7E battery
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Main articles: Religion in Burma, Buddhism in Burma, Hinduism in Burma, Christianity in Burma, Islam in Burma, and History of the Jews in Burma

Religion in Burma

Buddhism         Sony VPCZ13E7E battery
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Many religions are practised in Burma. Religious edifices and orders have been in existence for many years. Festivals can be held on a grand scale. The Christian and Muslim populations do, however, face religious persecution and it is hard, Sony VPCZ13F7E battery
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if not impossible, for non-Buddhists to join the army or get government jobs, the main route to success in the country.[255] Such persecution and targeting of civilians is particularly notable in Eastern Burma, where over 3000 villages have been destroyed in the past ten years.[256][257] Sony VPCZ12S9R/B battery

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[258] More than 200,000 Rohingya Muslims have settled in Bangladesh over the last 20 years to escape persecution.[259]

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Sony VPCZ12C5E batteryIn February 2012, 1000 Buddhist monks and followers gathered for the 18th annual Shwegyin Nikaya Conference at the compound of Dhammaduta Zetawon Tawya Monastery in Hmawbi Township, Yangon Region.

89% of the population embraces Buddhism (mostly Theravāda). Other religions are practiced largely without obstruction, Sony VPCZ12V9E/X battery
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Sony VPCZ12B7E batterywith the notable exception of some ethnic minorities such as the Muslim Rohingya people, who have continued to have their citizenship status denied and treated as illegal immigrants instead,[1Sony VPCZ12X9E/X battery
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Sony VPCZ12A7E battery72] and Christians in Chin State.[260] 4% of the population practices Islam; 4% Christianity; 1% traditional animistic beliefs; and 2% follow other religions, including Mahayana Buddhism, Sony VPCZ12F7E battery
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Sony VPCZ11Z9R/B battery Hinduism, East Asian religions and the Bahá’í Faith.[261][262][263] However, according to a U.S. State Department’s 2010 international religious freedom report, official statistics are alleged to underestimate the non-Buddhist population. Sony VPCZ12H7E battery
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Sony VPCZ11X9R/B battery Independent researchers put the Muslim population at 6 to 10% of the population. A tiny Jewish community in Rangoon had a synagogue but no resident rabbi to conduct services.[264]
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Although Hinduism is presently only practiced by 1% of the population, it was a major religion in Burma’s past. Several strains of Hinduism existed alongside both Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism in the Pyu period in the first millennium CE,[26Sony VPCZ12J7E battery
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Sony VPCZ12X9R/B battery5] and down to the Pagan period (9th to 13th centuries) when “Saivite and Vaishana elements enjoyed greater elite influence than they would later do.”[266]

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Main article: Culture of Burma



Rama (Yama) and Sita (Me Thida) in the Burmese version of the Ramayana, Yama Zatdaw.

A diverse range of indigenous cultures exist in Burma, the majority culture is primarily Buddhist and Bamar. Bamar culture has been influenced by the cultures of neighbouring countries. This is manifested in its language, cuisine, music, Sony VGN-NW20ZF Battery
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Sony VGN-FW56ZR Battery dance and theatre. The arts, particularly literature, have historically been influenced by the local form of Theravada Buddhism. Considered the national epic of Burma, the Yama Zatdaw, an adaptation of India’s Ramayana, has been influenced greatly by Thai, Mon, and Indian versions of the play.[ Sony VGN-NW26M Battery
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Sony VGN-SR59VG/H Battery267] Buddhism is practised along with nat worship, which involves elaborate rituals to propitiate one from a pantheon of 37 nats.[268][269]


Mohinga, traditional Burmese rice noodles in fish soup, is widely considered to be Burma’s national dish.

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In a traditional village, the monastery is the centre of cultural life. Monks are venerated and supported by the lay people. A novitiation ceremony called shinbyu is the most important coming of age events for a boy, during which he enters the monastery for a short time.[27Sony VGN-FW46M Battery
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Sony VGN-SR57X Battery0] All male children in Buddhist families are encouraged to be a novice (beginner for Buddhism) before the age of twenty and to be a monk after the age of twenty. Girls have ear-piercing ceremonies (နားSony VGN-FW51 Battery
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Sony VGN-SR57V Batteryသ) at the same time.[270] Burmese culture is most evident in villages where local festivals are held throughout the year, the most important being the pagoda festival.[254][271] Many villages have a guardian nat, and superstition and taboos are commonplace. Sony VGN-FW41J/H Battery

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Thingyan festival, the Burmese New Year

British colonial rule introduced Western elements of culture to Burma. Burma’s education system is modelled after that of the United Kingdom. Colonial architectural influences are most evident in major cities such as Yangon.[27Sony VGN-FW41M/H Battery
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Sony VGN-FW56Z Battery2] Many ethnic minorities, particularly the Karen in the southeast and the Kachin and Chin who populate the north and northeast, practice Christianity.[273] According to the The World Factbook, Sony VGN-FW56M Battery
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Sony VGN-SR49VN/H Battery the Burman population is 68% and the ethnic groups constitute 32%. However, the exiled leaders and organisations claims that ethnic population is 40%, which is implicitly contrasted with CIA report (official U.S. report).

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Main article: Burmese contemporary art

Burmese contemporary art has developed rather on its own terms and quite rapidly.
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One of the first to study western art was Ba Nyan. Together with Ngwe Gaing and a handful of other artists, they were pioneers of western painting style in Burma. Later, most of the students learnt from masters through apprenticeship. Sony VGN-FW56J Battery
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Sony VGN-FW54S Battery Some well known contemporary artists are Lun Gywe, Aung Kyaw Htet, MPP Yei Myint, Myint Swe, Min Wai Aung, Aung Myint and Po Po.


Most of the young artists who were born in the 1980s have greater chances of art practises inside and outside the country. Performance art is a popular genre among Burmese young artists.
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Main article: Media of Burma

Due to Burma’s political climate, there are not many media companies in relation to the country’s population, although a certain number exists. Some are privately owned. All programming must meet with the approval of the censorship board.
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The Burmese government announced on 20 August 2012 that it will stop censoring media before publication. Following the announcement, newspapers and other outlets no longer required approved by state censors; however, journalists in the country can still face consequences for what they write and say.[274]

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Burma was in the attention of the media’s eye when on 18 November 2012 Barack Obama visited the country, making it the first time a sitting U.S. president has traveled there.[275]
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In April 2013, international media reports were published to relay the enactment of the media liberalisation reforms that we announced in August 2012. For the first time in numerous decades, the publication of privately owned newspapers commenced in the country.[276]

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Main article: Cinema of Burma

Burma’s first film was a documentary of the funeral of Tun Shein – a leading politician of the 1910s, who campaigned for Burmese independence in London. The first Burmese silent film Myitta Ne Thuya (Love and Liquor) Sony VGN-NW24MR Battery
Sony VGN-NW26EG Battery in 1920 which proved a major success, despite its poor quality due to a fixed camera position and inadequate film accessories. During the 1920s and 1930s, many Burmese-owned film companies made and produced several films. Sony VGN-SR49VT/H Battery
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Sony VGN-FW11ZU battery The first Burmese sound film was produced in 1932 in Bombay, India with the title Ngwe Pay Lo Ma Ya (Money Can’t Buy It). After World War II, Burmese cinema continued to address political themes. Many of the films produced in the early Cold War era had a strong propaganda element to them.
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In the era that followed the political events of 1988, the film industry has been increasingly controlled by the government. Film stars who had been involved in the political activities were banned from appearing in films. The government issues strict rules on censorship and largely determines who produces films, as well as who gets academy awards.[ Sony VGN-NW21JF battery
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Over the years, the movie industry has also shifted to producing many lower budget direct-to-video films.


Most of the movies produced nowadays are comedies.[278] In 2008, only 12 films worthy of being considered for an Academy Award were made, although at least 800 VCDs were produced.[279]

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Burma is the primary subject of a 2007 graphic novel titled Chroniques Birmanes by Québécois author and animator, Guy Delisle. The graphic novel was translated into English under the title Burma Chronicles in 2008. In 2009, a documentary about Burmese videojournalists called Burma VJ was released.[2Sony VGN-NW21ZF battery

Sony VGN-FW21M battery80] This film was nominated for Best Documentary Feature at the 2010 Academy Awards.[281] The Lady (2011 film) had its world premiere on 12 September 2011 at the 36th Toronto International Film Festival.

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Sony VGN-FW21L batteryMen playing chinlone

The Lethwei, Bando, Banshay, Pongyi thaing martial arts and chinlone are the national sports in Burma.[citation needed]

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Sony VGN-FW21J batteryBurma, which has a total area of 678,500 square kilometres (262,000 sq mi), is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia, and the 40th-largest in the world. It lies between latitudes 9° and 29°N, and longitudes 92° and 102°E. As of February 2011, Burma consisted of 14 states and regions, Sony VGN-SR11M Battery

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67 districts, 330 townships, 64 sub-townships, 377 towns, 2914 Wards, 14220 village tracts and 68290 villages.


It is bordered on the northwest by the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh and the Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh states of India. Its north and northeast border straddles the Tibet Autonomous Region and Yunnan province for a Sino-Burman border total of 2,185 km (1,358 mi). Sony VGN-SR19VN Battery

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Sony VGN-SR59XG/H Battery It is bounded by Laos and Thailand to the southeast. Burma has 1,930 km (1,200 mi) of contiguous coastline along the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea to the southwest and the south, which forms one quarter of its total perimeter.[21]

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In the north, the Hengduan Mountains form the border with China. Hkakabo Razi, located in Kachin State, at an elevation of 5,881 metres (19,295 ft), is the highest point in Burma.[283] Many mountain ranges, such as the Rakhine Yoma, Sony VGN-SR21RM/H Battery

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the Bago Yoma, the Shan Hills and the Tenasserim Hills exist within Burma, all of which run north-to-south from the Himalayas.[284] The mountain chains divide Burma’s three river systems, which are the Irrawaddy, Salween (Thanlwin), Sony VGN-SR31M Battery

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and the Sittaung rivers.[285] The Irrawaddy River, Burma’s longest river, nearly 2,170 kilometres (1,348 mi) long, flows into the Gulf of Martaban. Fertile plains exist in the valleys between the mountain chains.[ Sony VGN-SR41M/S Battery

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Sony VGN-SR57V Battery284] The majority of Burma’s population lives in the Irrawaddy valley, which is situated between the Rakhine Yoma and the Shan Plateau.

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Administrative divisions (regions and states)[edit]

Main article: Administrative divisions of Burma

A clickable map of Burma/Myanmar exhibiting its first-level administrative divisions.

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The country is divided into seven states (ပြည်နယ်) and seven regions (တိုင်းဒေသကြီး), formerly called divisions.[286] The announcement on the renaming of division to regions was made on 20 August 2010.[28Sony VGN-SR39VN/S Battery


Sony VGN-SR45H/P Battery7] Regions are predominantly Bamar (that is, mainly inhabited by the dominant ethnic group). States, in essence, are regions that are home to particular ethnic minorities. The administrative divisions are further subdivided into districts, which are further subdivided into townships, wards, and villages.

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Limestone landscape of Mon State

Much of the country lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator. It lies in the monsoon region of Asia, with its coastal regions receiving over 5,000 mm (196.9 in) Sony VGN-SR29VN/S Battery

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Sony VGN-SR45H/B Battery of rain annually. Annual rainfall in the delta region is approximately 2,500 mm (98.4 in), while average annual rainfall in the Dry Zone, which is located in central Burma, is less than 1,000 mm (39.4 in). Sony VGN-SR31M/S Battery


Sony VGN-SR51B Battery Northern regions of the country are the coolest, with average temperatures of 21 °C (70 °F). Coastal and delta regions have an average maximum temperature of 32 °C (89.6 °F).[285] Sony VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

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The country’s slow economic growth has contributed to the preservation of much of its environment and ecosystems. Forests, including dense tropical growth and valuable teak in lower Burma, cover over 49% of the country, Sony VPCF11C4E/B Battery

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including areas of acacia, bamboo, ironwood and michelia champaca. Coconut and betel palm and rubber have been introduced. In the highlands of the north, oak, pine and various rhododendrons cover much of the land. Sony VPCF11D4E Battery

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[289] Heavy logging since the new 1995 forestry law went into effect has seriously reduced forest acreage and wildlife habitat.[2Sony VPCF11S1E/B Battery

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90] The lands along the coast support all varieties of tropical fruits and once had large areas of mangroves although much of the protective mangroves have disappeared. In much of central Burma (the Dry Zone), vegetation is sparse and stunted.

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Typical jungle animals, particularly tigers and leopards, occur sparsely in Burma. In upper Burma, there are rhinoceros, wild buffalo, wild boars, deer, antelope, and elephants, which are also tamed or bred in captivity for use as work animals, particularly in the lumber industry. Smaller mammals are also numerous, Sony VPCF22J1E Battery

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Sony VPCF13M1E/B Batteryranging from gibbons and monkeys to flying foxes and tapirs. The abundance of birds is notable with over 800 species, including parrots, peafowl, pheasants, crows, herons, and paddybirds. Among reptile species there are crocodiles, geckos, cobras, Burmese pythons, and turtles. Hundreds of species of freshwater fish are wide-ranging, plentiful and are very important food sources.[29Sony VPCF22M1E Battery

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Sony VPCF1318E/H Battery1] For a list of protected areas, see List of protected areas of Burma.




Main article: Health in Burma

Further information: HIV/AIDS in Burma

The general state of health care in Myanmar (Burma) is poor. The government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country’s GDP on health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the world.[292][293] Sony VPCF22S1E Battery

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Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment.

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HIV/AIDS, recognised as a disease of concern by the Burmese Ministry of Health, is most prevalent among sex workers and intravenous drug users. In 2005, the estimated adult HIV prevalence rate in Burma was 1.3% Sony VPCF23Q1E Battery


Sony VPCF12M1E/H Battery  (200,000–570,000 people), according to UNAIDS, and early indicators of any progress against the HIV epidemic are inconsistent.[294][295][296] However, the National AIDS Programme Burma found that 32% of sex workers and 43% of intravenous drug users in Burma have HIV.[296] Sony VPCF231S1E Battery



Burma’s government spends the least percentage of its GDP on health care of any country in the world, and international donor organisations give less to Burma, per capita, than any other country except India.[29Sony VPCF23S1E Battery


Sony VPCF12F4E/H Battery7] According to the report named “Preventable Fate”, published by Doctors without Borders, 25,000 Burmese AIDS patients died in 2007, deaths that could largely have been prevented by antiretroviral therapy drugs and proper treatment.[297]

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In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on The State of the World’s Midwifery. It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. Sony VPCF11S1E Battery

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Sony VPCF11Z1E/BI BatteryThe 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Myanmar is 240. This is compared with 219.3 in 2008 and 662 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 73 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5′s mortality is 47.

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Sony VPCF13M0E/B BatteryMain article: Education in Burma



Yangon University of Medicine 1

The educational system of Burma is operated by the government agency, the Ministry of Education. Universities and professional institutes from upper Burma and lower Burma are run by two separate entities, Sony VPCF13Z8E/BI Battery

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Sony VPCF13Z0E/B Battery the Department of Higher Education of Upper Burma and the Department of Higher Education of Lower Burma. Headquarters are based in Yangon and Mandalay respectively. Sony VPCF12Z1E/BI Battery


Sony VPCF13M8E/B Battery The education system is based on the United Kingdom’s system, due to nearly a century of British and Christian presences in Burma. Nearly all schools are government-operated, Sony VPCF13M1E/H Battery

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Sony VPCF12M0E/B Batterybut there has been a recent increase in privately funded English language schools. Schooling is compulsory until the end of elementary school, probably about 9 years old, while the compulsory schooling age is 15 or 16 at international level.


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There are 101 universities, 12 institutes, 9 degree colleges and 24 colleges in Burma, a total of 146 higher education institutions.[298]

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Sony VPCF12Z1E BatteryStudents on their way to school, Kalaymyo, Sagaing Region, Burma

There are 10 Technical Training Schools, 23 nursing training schools, 1 sport academy and 20 midwifery schools.

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There are 2047 Basic Education High Schools, 2605 Basic Education Middle Schools, 29944 Basic Education Primary Schools and 5952 Post Primary Schools. 1692 multimedia classrooms exist within this system.

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There are four international schools acknowledged by WASC and College Board—The International School Yangon (ISY), Crane International School Yangon (CISM), Yangon International School (YIS) and International School of Myanmar (ISM) in Yangon.

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Main article: Internet in Burma

Gnome globe current event.svg

This section’s factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2013) Sony VPCY21S1E/G Battery

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In Burma, Internet access for the public is less than 1%, through Internet cafes. Activity at these businesses is highly regulated. There is censorship, and the authorities take the opportunity to view e-mail and posts in the Internet blogs. Sony VGN-AR61ZRU Battery

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At least two Myanmar bloggers have been sent to prison. One of them, known by the name of Zarganar, was sentenced to 59 years in prison for publishing a video of destruction caused by the “Nargis” Cyclone in 2008; Zarganar was released on October 12, 2011.

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Sony VGN-AR21M BatteryMain article: Burmese units of measurement

According to The World Factbook, Burma is one of three countries along with Liberia and the United States of America that has not adopted the International System of Units (SI) metric system as their official system of weights and measures.[29Sony VGN-AR71J Battery

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Sony VGN-AR21B Battery9] The common units of measure are unique to Burma, but the government web pages use both imperial units[3Sony VGN-AR71M Battery


Sony VGN-AR11SR Battery00] and metric units.[301] In June 2011, the Burmese government’s Ministry of Commerce began discussing proposals to reform the measurement system and adopt the metric system used by most of its trading partners.[ Sony VGN-AR71MR Battery

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Sony VGN-AR11S Battery302] On 10 October 2013, Dr. Pwint San, Deputy Minister for Commerce, announced that the country is preparing to adopt the metric system[303]

Yangon also known as Rangoon, literally: “End of Strife”) is a former capital of Burma (Myanmar) and the capital of Yangon Region. Although the military government has officially relocated the capital to Naypyidaw since March 2006,[ sony VPCEH12FX battery

3] Yangon, with a population of over five million, continues to be the country’s largest city and the most important commercial centre.

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Although Yangon’s infrastructure is undeveloped compared to those of other major cities in Southeast Asia, it has the largest number of colonial buildings in the region today.[4

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] While many high-rise residential and commercial buildings have been constructed or renovated throughout downtown and Greater Yangon in the past two decades, most satellite towns that ring the city continue to be deeply impoverished. sony VPCEH13FX battery

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Yangon (ရန်ကုန်) is a combination of the two words yan (ရန်) and koun (ကုန်), which mean “enemies” and “run out of” respectively. It is also translated as “End of Strife”. “Rangoon” most likely comes from the British imitation of the pronunciation of “Yangon” in the Rakhine dialect (Arakanese) of Burmese, which is [rɔ̀ɴɡʊ́ɴ]. sony VPCEH16FX battery

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Yangon was founded as Dagon in the early 11th century (circa 1028–1043) by the Mon, who dominated Lower Burma at that time.[5sony VPCEH190X battery

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sony VPCEH34FX battery] Dagon was a small fishing village centred about the Shwedagon Pagoda. In 1755, King Alaungpaya conquered Dagon, renamed it “Yangon”, and added settlements around Dagon. The British captured Yangon during the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26), sony VPCEH1BFX battery


sony VPCEH32FX batterybut returned it to Burmese administration after the war. The city was destroyed by a fire in 1841.[6]

One of many houses destroyed during Cyclone Nargis

The British seized Yangon and all of Lower Burma in the Second Anglo-Burmese War of 1852, and subsequently transformed Yangon into the commercial and political hub of British Burma. Based on the design by army engineer Lt. Alexander Fraser, sony VPCEH1CFX battery


sony VPCEH2CFX batterythe British constructed a new city on a grid plan on delta land, bounded to the east by the Pazundaung Creek and to the south and west by the Yangon River. Yangon became the capital of all British Burma after the British had captured Upper Burma in the Third Anglo-Burmese War of 1885. sony VPCEH1DFX battery


sony VPCEH290X batteryBy the 1890s Yangon’s increasing population and commerce gave birth to prosperous residential suburbs to the north of Royal Lake (Kandawgyi) and Inya Lake.[7] The British also established hospitals including Rangoon General Hospital and colleges including Rangoon University. sony VPCEH2AFX battery



Colonial Yangon, with its spacious parks and lakes and mix of modern buildings and traditional wooden architecture, was known as “the garden city of the East.”[7] By the early 20th century, Yangon had public services and infrastructure on par with London.[8]

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Before World War II, about 55% of Yangon’s population of 500,000 was Indian or South Asian, and only about a third was Bamar (Burman).[9] Karens, the Chinese, the Anglo-Burmese and others made up the rest.

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After World War I, Yangon became the epicentre of Burmese independence movement, with leftist Rangoon University students leading the way. Three nationwide strikes against the British Empire in 1920, sony VPCEH23FX battery

sony VPCEH24FX battery 1936 and 1938 all began in Yangon. Yangon was under Japanese occupation (1942–45), and incurred heavy damage during World War II. The city was retaken by the Allies in May 1945. sony SVE1513MCXS battery

Yangon became the capital of Union of Burma on 4 January 1948 when the country regained independence from the British Empire.

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Contemporary Yangon[edit]

Soon after Burma’s independence in 1948, many colonial names of streets and parks were changed to more nationalistic Burmese names. In 1989, the current military junta changed the city’s English name to “Yangon”,sony SVE15137CXS battery

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sony SVE1511KFXW battery along with many other changes in English transliteration of Burmese names. (The changes have not been accepted by many Burmese who consider the junta unfit to make such changes, nor by many publications, news bureaux including, most notably, the BBC and foreign nations including the United Kingdom and United States.)[10][11]

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Since independence, Yangon has expanded outwards. Successive governments have built satellite towns such as Thaketa, North Okkalapa and South Okkalapa in the 1950s to Hlaingthaya, Shwepyitha and South Dagon in the 1980s.[6] Today, Greater Yangon encompasses an area covering nearly 600 square kilometres (230 sq mi).[1] sony SVE1512GCXW battery

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During Ne Win’s isolationist rule (1962–88), Yangon’s infrastructure deteriorated through poor maintenance and did not keep up with its increasing population. In the 1990s, sony SVE15115MFXS battery


sony SVE1511HFXW battery the current military government’s more open market policies attracted domestic and foreign investment, bringing a modicum of modernity to the city’s infrastructure. Some inner city residents were forcibly relocated to new satellite towns. sony SVE15124CXS battery


sony SVE1511GFXW battery Many colonial-period buildings were demolished to make way for high-rise hotels, office buildings, and shopping malls,[1sony SVE15126CXS battery

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sony SVE1511DFYS battery2] leading the city government to place about 200 notable colonial-period buildings under the Yangon City Heritage List in 1996.[13sony SVE15135CXS battery


sony SVE1511CFXS battery] Major building programs have resulted in six new bridges and five new highways linking the city to its industrial back country.[14][15][16] Still, much of Yangon remains without basic municipal services such as 24-hour electricity and regular garbage collection.

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Yangon has become much more indigenous Burmese in its ethnic make-up since independence. After independence, many South Asians and Anglo-Burmese left. Many more South Asians were forced to leave during the 1960s by Ne Win’s xenophobic government.[9sony SVE15112FXS battery

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sony SVE1411CFXW battery] Nevertheless, sizable South Asian and Chinese communities still exist in Yangon. The Anglo-Burmese have effectively disappeared, having left the country or intermarried with other Burmese groups.


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Yangon was the centre of major anti-government protests in 1974, 1988 and 2007. The 1988 People Power Uprising resulted in the deaths of hundreds, if not thousands of Burmese civilians,


sony SVE14A190X battery many in Yangoon where hundreds of thousands of people flooded into the streets of the then capital city. The Saffron Revolution saw mass shootings and the use of crematoria in Yangoon by the Burmese government to erase evidence of their crimes against monks, unarmed protesters, journalists and students.[17] sony SVE15114FXS battery

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In May 2008, Cyclone Nargis hit Yangon. While the city had few human casualties, three quarters of Yangon’s industrial infrastructure was destroyed or damaged, with losses estimated at US$800 million.[18] sony SVE151190X battery


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In November 2005, the military government designated Naypyidaw, 320 kilometres (199 mi) north of Yangon, as the new administrative capital, and subsequently moved much of the government to the newly developed city. At any rate, Yangon remains the largest city, and the most important commercial centre of Burma. sony SVE1511NFXS battery

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Yangon metropolitan area

Yangon is located in Lower Burma (Myanmar) at the convergence of the Yangon and Bago Rivers about 30 km(19 mi) away from the Gulf of Martaban at 16°48′ North, 96°09′ East (16.8, 96.15). Its standard time zone is UTC/GMT +6:30 hours.


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Yangon has a tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification system.[19] The city features a lengthy rainy season from May through October where a substantial amount of rainfall is received; sony SVE1512JCXW battery


sony SVE1522CX battery and a dry season from November through April, where little rainfall is seen. It is primarily due to the heavy precipitation received during the rainy season that Yangon falls under the tropical monsoon climate category. sony SVE1512KCXS battery

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sony SVE1513KCXS batteryDuring the course of the year, average temperatures show little variance, with average highs ranging from 29 to 36 °C (84 to 97 °F) and average lows ranging from 18 to 25 °C (64 to 77 °F). sony SVE1513BCXS battery


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Until the mid-1990s, Yangon remained largely constrained to its traditional peninsula setting between the Bago, Yangon and Hlaing rivers. People moved in, but little of the city moved out. Maps from 1944 show little development north of Inya Lake and areas that are now layered in cement and stacked with houses were then virtual backwaters. sony SVE1513HCXS battery


sony SVE151290X batterySince the late 1980s, however, the city began a rapid spread north to where Yangon International airport now stands. But the result is a stretching tail on the city, with the downtown area well removed from its geographic centre.[23sony SVE1513JCXW battery

sony SVE15128CXS battery] The city’s area has steadily increased from 72.52 square kilometres (28.00 sq mi) in 1901 to 86.2 square kilometres (33.3 sq mi) in 1940 to 208.51 square kilometres (80.51 sq mi) in 1974, to 346.13 square kilometres (133.64 sq mi) in 1985, sony SVE1713ACXB battery


sony SVE17137CXB battery and to 598.75 square kilometres (231.18 sq mi) in 2008.[1][24]

A colonial-era building

Downtown Yangon is known for its leafy avenues and fin-de-siècle architecture.[25] The former British colonial capital has the highest number of colonial period buildings in Southeast Asia.[4] Downtown Yangon is still mainly made up of decaying colonial buildings. sony SVE1713BCXB battery


sony SVE171290X battery The former High Court, the former Secretariat buildings, the former St. Paul’s English High School and the Strand Hotel are excellent examples of the bygone era. Most downtown buildings from this era are four-story mix-use (residential andsony SVE1713CCXB battery


sony SVE17135CXB battery  commercial) buildings with 14-foot (4.3 m) ceilings, allowing for the construction of mezzanines. Despite their less-than-perfect conditions, the buildings remain highly sought after and most expensive in the city’s property market.[26]

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In 1996, the Yangon City Development Committee created a Yangon City Heritage List of old buildings and structures in the city that cannot be modified or torn down without approval.[27] In 2012,


sony SVE17127CXB battery the city of Yangon imposed a 50 year moratorium on demolition of buildings older than 50 years.[28] The Yangon Heritage Trust, an NGO started by Thant Myint-U, aims to create heritage areas in Downtown, and attract investors to renovate buildings for commercial use.[28]


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A latter day hallmark of Yangon is the eight-story apartment building. (In Yangon parlance, a building with no elevators (lifts) is called an apartment building and one with elevators is called a condominium.[29sony SVE1713ECXB battery


sony SVE17122CXB battery] Condos which have to invest in a local power generator to ensure 24-hour electricity for the elevators are beyond the reach of most Yangonites.) Found throughout the city in various forms, eight-story apartment buildings provide relatively inexpensive housing for many Yangonites. sony SVE1712ACXB battery

sony SVE1712BCXB batteryThe apartments are usually eight stories high (including the ground floor) mainly because city regulations, until February 2008, required that all buildings higher than 75 feet (23 m) or eight stories install elevators).[3Sony VGN-FW21E Battery

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0] The current code calls for elevators in buildings higher than 62 feet (19 m) or six stories, likely ushering in the era of the six-story apartment building. Although most apartment buildings were built only within the last 20 years, they look much older and rundown due to shoddy construction and lack of proper maintenance. Sony VGN-FW21Z Battery

An apartment building in the downtown section

Unlike other major Asian cities, Yangon does not have any skyscrapers. Aside from a few high-rise hotels and office towers downtown, Sony VGN-FW21M Battery


most high-rise buildings (usually 10 stories and up) are “condos” scattered across prosperous neighborhoods north of downtown such as Bahan, Dagon, Kamayut and Mayangon. The tallest building in Yangon, Pyay Gardens, is a 25-story condo in the city’s north. Sony VGN-FW31M Battery

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Older satellite towns such as Thaketa, North Okkalapa and South Okkalapa are lined mostly with one to two story detached houses with access to the city’s electricity grid. Newer satellite towns such as North Dagon and South Dagon are still essentially slums in a grid layout. The satellite towns—old or new—receive little or no municipal services. Sony VGN-FW11ZU Battery

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Broad 100-foot (30-m) wide roads running south to north

Two narrow 30-foot (9.1-m) wide streets running south to north

Mid-size 50-foot (15-m) wide streets running south to north

The east-west grid of downtown Yangon was laid out by British military engineers Fraser and Montgomerie after the Second Anglo-Burmese War.[8Sony VGN-FW21ZR Battery


Sony VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery] The city was later developed by the Public Works Department and Bengal Corps of Engineers. The pattern of south to north roads is as follows: one broad 100-foot (30 m) wide broad road, Sony VGN-FW3ZJ Battery


Sony VGN-FW41M/H Battery two narrow streets, one mid-size street, two more narrow streets, and then another 100-foot (30 m) wide broad road. This order is repeated from west to east. The narrow streets are numbered; the medium and broad roads are named.

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For example, the 100-foot (30 m) Lanmadaw Road is followed by 30-foot (9.1 m)-wide 17th and 18th streets then the medium 50-foot (15 m) Sint-Oh-Dan Road, the 30-foot 19th and 20th streets, followed by another 100-foot (30 m) Sony VGN-FW41E/H Battery

wide Latha Road, followed again by the two numbered small roads 21st and 22nd streets, and so on.

The roads running parallel west to east were the Strand Road, Merchant Road, Maha Bandula (née Dalhousie) Road, Anawrahta (Fraser) Road, and Bogyoke Aung San (Montgomerie) Road.

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Sony VGN-NW21EF Battery The largest and best maintained parks in Yangon are located around Shwedagon Pagoda. To the southeast of the gilded stupa is the most popular recreational area in the city – Kandawgyi Lake. The 150-acre (61-ha) Sony VGN-FW51 Battery

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lake is surrounded by the 110-acre (45-ha) Kandawgyi Nature Park,[31] and the 69.25-acre (28-ha) Yangon Zoological Gardens, which consists of a zoo, Sony VGN-FW51MF/H Battery

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an aquarium and an amusement park.[32] West of the pagoda towards the former Hluttaw (Parliament) complex is the 130-acre (53-ha) People’s Square and People’s Park, (the former parading ground on important national days when Yangon was the capital.)[33Sony VGN-FW56E Battery


Sony VGN-FW56Z Battery] A few miles north of the pagoda lies the 37-acre (15-ha) Inya Lake Park – a favorite hangout place of Yangon University students, and a well-known place of romance in Burmese popular culture. Sony VGN-FW56J Battery

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International Terminal, Yangon International Airport

Yangon International Airport, located 12 miles (19 km) from downtown, is the country’s main gateway for domestic and international air travel. It has direct flights to regional cities in Asia – mainly, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh city, Sony VGN-FW31J Battery

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Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Kunming, and Singapore. Although domestic airlines offer service to about 20 domestic locations, most flights are to tourist destinations such as Bagan, Mandalay, Heho and Ngapali, and to the capital, Naypyidaw.

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Sony VGN-FW56ZR BatteryYangon Central Railway Station

Yangon Central Railway Station is the main terminus of Myanmar Railways’ 5,403-kilometre (3,357 mi) rail network[35] whose reach covers Upper Myanmar (Naypyidaw, Mandalay, Shwebo), upcountry (Myitkyina), Shan hills (Taunggyi, Lashio) and the Taninthayi coast (Mawlamyaing, Dawei). Sony VGN-FW11S Battery


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Yangon Circular Railway runs a 45.9-kilometre (28.5 mi) 39-station commuter rail network that connects Yangon’s satellite towns. The system is heavily utilized by the local populace, selling about 150,000 tickets daily.[36] The popularity of the commuter line has jumped since the government reduced petrol subsidies in August 2007.[36]

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Buses and cars[edit]

Yangon has a 4,456 kilometres (2,769 mi) road network of all types (tar, concrete and dirt) in March 2011. Many of the roads are in poor condition and not wide enough to accommodate an increasing number of cars.[3Sony VGN-FW11Z Battery


Sony VGN-FW46Z Battery7] The vast majority of Yangonites cannot afford a car and rely on an extensive network of buses to get around. Over 300 public and private bus lines operate about 6,300 crowded buses around the city, Sony VGN-FW11ZU Battery


Sony VGN-FW46S Batterycarrying over 4.4 million passengers a day.[1][38] All buses and 80% of the taxis in Yangon run on compressed natural gas (CNG), following the 2005 government decree to save money on imported petroleum.[39Sony VGN-FW21SR Battery

Sony VGN-FW21ZR Battery] Highway buses to other cities depart from Dagon Ayeyar Highway Bus Terminal for Irrawaddy delta region and Aung Mingala Highway Bus Terminal for other parts of the country.[40]

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Sony VGN-NW21MF/P BatteryA bus modified for right-hand drive on Yangon roads

Motor transportation in Yangon is highly expensive for most of its citizens. As the government allows only a few thousand cars to be imported each year in a country with over 50 million people,[


Sony VGN-NW20SF Battery41] car prices in Yangon (and in Burma) are among the highest in the world. In July 2008, the two most popular cars in Yangon, 1986/87 Nissan Sunny Super Saloon and 1988 Toyota Corolla SE Limited, cost the equivalent of about US$20,000 and US$29,000 respectively.[4


Sony VGN-NW26JG Battery2] A sports utility vehicle, imported for the equivalent of around US$50,000, goes for US$250,000.[41] Illegally imported unregistered cars are cheaper – typically about half the price of registered cars. Sony VGN-NW21ZF Battery


Sony VGN-NW26EG Battery Nonetheless, car usage in Yangon is on the rise, a sign of rising incomes for some, and already causes much traffic congestion in highway-less Yangon’s streets. In 2011, Yangon had about 300,000 registered motor vehicles in addition to an unknown number of unregistered ones.[37]

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Since 1970, cars have been driven on the right side of the road in Burma, as part of a military decree.[43] However, as the government has not required left hand drive (LHD) cars to accompany the right side road rules, many cars on the road are still right hand drive (RHD) made for driving on the left side. Japanese used cars, Sony VGN-NW31JF Battery


Sony VGN-NW24MG Battery which make up most of the country’s imports, still arrive with RHD and are never converted to LHD. As a result, Burmese drivers have to rely on their passengers when passing other cars.

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Within Yangon city limits, it is illegal to drive trishaws, bicycles, and motorcycles. Since February 2010, pickup truck bus lines have been forbidden to run in 6 townships of Downtown Yangon, namely Latha, Sony VGN-NW20EF/P Battery


Sony VGN-NW24JG Battery Lanmadaw, Pabedan, Kyauktada, Botahtaung and Pazundaung Townships.[44] In May 2003, a ban on using car horns was implemented in six townships of Downtown Yangon to reduce noise pollution.[45] In April 2004, the car horn ban was expanded to cover the entire city.[45] Sony VGN-NW20EF/S Battery

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Yangon’s four main passenger jetties, all located on or near downtown waterfront, mainly serve local ferries across the river to Dala and Thanlyin, and regional ferries to the Irrawaddy delta.[46] The 22-mile (35 km) Sony VGN-NW11Z/T Battery


Sony VGN-NW24EG Battery Twante Canal was the quickest route from Yangon to the Irrawaddy delta until the 1990s when roads between Yangon and the Irrawaddy Division became usable year round. While passenger ferries to the delta are still used, those to Upper Burma via the Irrawaddy river are now limited mostly to tourist river cruises. Sony VGN-NW11Z/S Battery


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Yangon is the most populous city by far in Burma although estimates of the size of its population vary widely. (All population figures are estimates since no official census has been conducted in Burma since 1983.) Sony VGN-NW11S/T Battery

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A UN estimate puts the population as 4.35 million in 2010 but a 2009 U.S. State Department estimate puts it at 5.5 million.[2][47] The U.S. State Department’s estimate is probably closer to the real number since the UN number is a straight-line projection, Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery


Sony VGN-NW20EF Battery and does not appear to take the expansion of city limits in the past two decades into account. The city’s population grew sharply after 1948 as many people (mainly, the indigenous Burmese) from other parts of the country moved into the newly built satellite towns of North Okkalapa, Sony VGN-NW20ZF Battery

South Okkalapa, and Thaketa in the 1950s and East Dagon, North Dagon and South Dagon in the 1990s. Immigrants have founded their regional associations (such as Mandalay Association, Mawlamyaing Association, etc.) Sony VGN-NW24S Battery

in Yangon for networking purposes. The government’s decision to move the nation’s administrative capital to Naypyidaw has drained an unknown number of civil servants away from Yangon. Sony VGN-NW26M Battery


Yangon is the most ethnically diverse city in the country. While Indians formed the slight majority prior to World War II,[9] today, the majority of the population is of Bamar (Burman) descent. Large communities of Indians/South Asians and the Chinese still exist especially in the traditional downtown neighborhoods. Sony VGN-NW31EF Battery


Sony VGN-NS20EF/W Battery Intermarriage between ethnic groups—especially between the Bamar and the Chinese, and the Bamar and other indigenous Burmese—is common. A large number of Rakhine and Karen live in the city.

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Burmese is the principal language of the city. English is by far the preferred second language of the educated class. In recent years, however, the prospect of overseas job opportunities has enticed some to study other languages: Mandarin Chinese is most popular, followed by Japanese, French, and Korean.[48] Sony VGN-NS10E/S Battery


Central Yangon

Yangon is the country’s hub for the movie, music, advertising, newspaper and book publishing industries. All media is heavily regulated by the military government. Sony VGN-NS10L/S Battery

Television broadcasting is off limits to the private sector. All media content must first be approved by the government’s media censor board, Press Scrutiny and Registration Division.[49]


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Most television channels in the country are broadcast from Yangon. TV Myanmar and Myawaddy TV are the two main channels, providing Burmese-language programming in news and entertainment. Other special interest channels are MWD-1 and MWD-2, Sony VGN-NS11J/S Battery


Sony VGN-NS20EF/P BatteryMRTV-3, the English-language channel that targets overseas audiences via satellite and via Internet, MRTV-4 and Channel 7[disambiguation needed] are with a focus on non-formal education programs and movies, and Movie 5, a pay-TV channel specializing in broadcasting foreign movies.[50]


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Yangon has three radio stations. Myanmar Radio National Service is the national radio service and broadcasts mostly in Burmese (and in English during specific times.) Sony VGN-NS20E/P Battery


Sony VGN-NS30E/S Battery Pop culture oriented Yangon City FM and Mandalay City FM radio stations specialize in Burmese and English pop music, entertainment programs, live celebrity interviews, etc. New radio channels such as Shwe FM and Pyinsawaddy FM can also be tuned with the city area. Sony VGN-NS20J/P Battery

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Nearly all print media and industries are based out of Yangon. All three national newspapers – two Burmese language dailies Myanma Alin (မြန်မာ့အလင်း) and Kyemon (ကြေးမုံ), and the English language The New Light of Myanmar —Sony VGN-SR19VN Battery

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are published by the government. Semi-governmental The Myanmar Times weekly, published in Burmese and in English, is mainly geared for Yangon’s expatriate community. Over twenty special interest journals and magazines covering sports, fashion, finance, crime, literature (but never politics) vie for the readership of the general populace.

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Access to foreign media is extremely difficult. Satellite television in Yangon (and in Burma) is highly expensive as the government imposes an annual registration fee of one million kyats.[49] Certain foreign newspapers and periodicals such as the International Herald Tribune and the Straits Sony VGN-SR21RM/H Battery


Sony VGN-SR59XG/H Battery Times can be found only in a few (mostly downtown) bookstores. Internet access in Yangon, which has the best telecommunication infrastructure in the country, is slow and erratic at best, and the Burmese government implements one of the world’s most restrictive regimes of Internet control.[ Sony VGN-SR29VN Battery


Sony VGN-SR59VG/H Battery51] International text messaging and voice messaging was permitted only in August 2008.[52]



Common facilities taken for granted elsewhere are luxury prized items in Yangon (and Burma). The price of a GSM mobile phone was about K1.1 million in August 2008.[52] In 2007, the country of 55 million had only 775,000 phone lines (including 275,000 mobile phones),[53][54] and 400,000 computers.[53


Sony VGN-SR59TH/H Battery] Even in Yangon, which has the best infrastructure, the estimated telephone penetration rate was only 6% at the end of 2004, and the official waiting time for a telephone line was 3.6 years.[5Sony VGN-SR31M Battery


Sony VGN-SR57X Battery5] Most people cannot afford a computer and have to use the city’s numerous Internet cafes to access a heavily restricted Internet, and a heavily censored local intranet.[51] According to official statistics, in July 2010, the country had over 400,000 Internet users, with the vast majority hailing from just two cities, Sony VGN-SR41M/P Battery

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Sony VGN-SR57V BatteryYangon and Mandalay. Although Internet access was available in 42 cities across the country, the number of users outside the two main cities was just over 10,000.[56]





The Karaweik at night time, at Kandawgyi Lake, which is one of a few major recreational parks in Yangon.

Yangon’s property market is the most expensive in the country and beyond the reach of most Yangonites. Most rent outside downtown and few can afford to rent downtown area apartments. (In 2008, rents for a typical 650-to-750-square-foot (60 to 70 m2) apartments in downtown and vicinity range between K70,000 and K150,000 and those for high end condos between K200,000 and K500,000.)[57] Sony VGN-SR41M/W Battery


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Most men of all ages (and some women) spend their time at ubiquitous tea-shops, found in any corner or street of the city. Watching European football (mostly English Premier League with occasional La Liga, Serie A, Bundesliga) Sony VGN-SR51MF/P Battery


Sony VGN-SR45H/P Battery matches while sipping tea is a popular pastime among many Yangonites, rich and poor alike. The average person stays close to his or her neighbourhood haunts. The well-to-do tend to visit shopping malls and parks on weekends. Some leave the city on weekends for Chaungtha and Ngwesaung beach resorts in Ayeyarwady Division.


Sony VGN-SR45H/N BatteryHindu temple procession cart

Yangon is also home to many pagoda festivals (paya pwe), held during dry-season months (November – March). The most famous of all, the Shwedagon Pagoda Festival in March, attracts thousands of pilgrims from around the country.


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Yangon’s museums are the domain of tourists and rarely visited by the locals.


Most of Yangon’s larger hotels offer some kind of nightlife entertainment, geared towards tourists and the well-to-do Burmese. Some hotels offer traditional Burmese performing arts shows complete with a traditional Burmese orchestra. Sony VGN-SR51MF/W Battery


Sony VGN-SR51B Battery The pub scene in larger hotels is more or less the same as elsewhere in Asia. Other options include karaoke bars and pub restaurants in Yangon Chinatown.


Due to the problems of high inflation, the lack of high denomination notes, and the fact that many of the population do not have access to checks, or credit or debit cards, it is common to see citizens carrying a considerable amount of cash.[5Sony VGN-SR39VN/S Battery


Sony VGN-SR51B/S Battery8] (The highest denomination of Burmese currency kyat is 5000 (~US$5.)) Credit cards are only rarely used in the city, chiefly in the more lavish hotels.



As the city has the best sporting facilities in the country, most national-level annual sporting tournaments such as track and field, football, volleyball, tennis and swimming are held in Yangon. The 40,000-seat Aung San Stadium and the 32,000-seat Thuwunna Stadium are the main venues for the highly popular annual State and Division football tournament. Sony VGN-SR39XN/S Battery

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Sony VGN-SR51B/P Battery Until April 2009, the now defunct Myanmar Premier League, consisted of 16 Yangon-based clubs,[59] played all its matches in Yangon stadiums, and attracted little interest from the general public or commercial success despite the enormous popularity of football in Burma. Sony VGN-SR29XN/S Battery

Most Yangonites prefer watching European football on satellite TV. It remains to be seen whether the Myanmar National League, the country’s first professional football league, and its Yangon-based club Yangon United FC will attract a sufficient following in the country’s most important media market. Sony VGN-SR31M/S Battery

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Yangon is also home to annual the Myanmar Open golf tournament, and the Myanmar Open tennis tournament. The city hosted the 1961 and 1969 South East Asian Games. During colonial times, cricket was played mostly by British officials in the city. Sony VGN-NR31E/S Battery


Sony VGN-NR21S/T Battery First-class cricket was played in the city in January 1927 when the touring Marylebone Cricket Club played Burma and the Rangoon Gymkhana. Two grounds were used to host these matches, the BAA Ground and the Gymkhana Ground.[6Sony VGN-NR31ER/S Battery


Sony VGN-NR21S/S Battery0][61] These matches mark the only time Burma and Rangoon Gymkhana have appeared in first-class cricket, and the only time first-class cricket has been played in Burma. After independence cricket all but died out in the country.

A street market in Downtown Yangon selling produce. Sony VGN-NR31J/S Battery


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Yangon is the country’s main center for trade, industry, real estate, media, entertainment and tourism. The city alone represents about one fifth of the national economy. According to official statistics for FY 2010–2011, the size of the economy of Yangon Region was 8.93 trillion kyats, or 23% of the national GDP.[62]


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The city is Lower Burma’s main trading hub for all kinds of merchandise – from basic food stuffs to used cars although commerce continues to be hampered by the city’s severely underdeveloped banking industry and communication infrastructure. Sony VGN-NR31MR/S Battery

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Bayinnaung Market is the largest wholesale centre in the country for rice, beans and pulses, and other agricultural commodities.[63] Much of the country’s legal imports and exports go through Thilawa Port, the largest and busiest port in Burma. Sony VGN-NR31SR/S Battery

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Sony VGN-NR11Z/T BatteryThere is also a great deal of informal trade, especially in street markets that exist alongside street platforms of Downtown Yangon’s townships. However, on 17 June 2011, the YCDC announced that street vendors, who had previously been allowed to legally open shop at 3 pm, would be prohibited from selling on the streets, Sony VGN-NR31Z/T Battery


Sony VGN-NR11Z/S Batteryand permitted to sell only in their townships of residence, presumably to clean up the city’s image.[64] Since 1 December 2009, high-density polyethylene plastic bags have been banned by city authorities.[65] Sony VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery



Manufacturing accounts for a sizable share of employment. At least 14 light industrial zones ring Yangon,[66] directly employing over 150,000 workers in 4,300 factories in early 2010.[ Sony VGN-NR38E/S Battery

67] The city is the centre of country’s garment industry which exported US$292 million in 2008/9 fiscal year. More than 80 percent of factory workers in Yangon work on a day-to-day basis. Most are young women between 15 and 27 years of age who come from the countryside in search of a better life.[


Sony VGN-NR11S/S Battery68] The manufacturing sector suffers from both structural problems (e.g. chronic power shortages) and political problems (e.g. economic sanctions). In 2008, Yangon’s 2500 factories alone needed about 120 MW of power;[69] Sony VGN-NR38M/S Battery


Sony VGN-NR11M/S Battery yet, the entire city received only about 250 MW of the 530 MW needed.[70] Chronic power shortages limit the factories’ operating hours between 8 am and 6 pm.[71] Sony VGN-NR38S/S Battery



Construction is a major source of employment. The construction industry has been negatively affected by the move of state apparatus and civil servants to Naypyidaw,[7Sony VGN-NR38Z/S Battery

Sony VGN-NR38Z/T Battery2] new regulations introduced in August 2009 requiring builders to provide at least 12 parking spaces in every new high-rise building, and the general poor business climate. As of January 2010, the number of new high-rise building starts approved in 2009–2010 was only 334, compared to 582 in 2008–2009.[73]

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Tourism represents a major source of foreign currency for the city although by Southeast Asian standards the actual number of foreign visitors to Yangon has always been quite low—about 250,000 before the Saffron Revolution in September 2007. The number of visitors dipped even further following the Saffron Revolution and Cyclone Nargis.[74] Sony VGN-AR71S Battery


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The recent improvement in the country’s political climate has attracted an increasing number of businessmen and tourists. Between 300,000 to 400,000 visitors that went through Yangon International in 2011. However, Sony VGN-AR71SR Battery


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Sony VGN-AR61MR Battery after years of underinvestment, Yangon’s modest hotel infrastructure—only 3000 of the total 8000 hotel rooms in Yangon are “suitable for tourists”—is already bursting at seams, and will need to be expanded to handle additional visitors.[75] As part of an urban development strategy, a hotel zone has been planned in Yangon’s outskirts, encompassing government- and military-owned land in Mingaladon, Hlegu and Htaukkyant Townships.[76] Sony VGN-AR71ZRU Battery

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See also: List of universities and colleges in Yangon



University of Medicine 1

Yangon has the best educational facilities and the highest number of qualified teachers in Burma where state spending on education is among the lowest in the world.[7Sony VGN-CR11SR Battery


Sony VGN-AR51SRU Battery7] A 2007 estimate by the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies puts the spending for education at 0.5 percent of the national budget.[78] The disparity in educational opportunities and achievement between rich and poor schools is quite stark even within the city. Sony VGN-CR11Z Battery

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Sony VGN-AR51MR BatteryWith little or no state support forthcoming, schools have to rely on forced “donations” and various fees from parents for nearly everything – school maintenance to teachers’ salaries,[79] forcing many poor students to drop out.

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While many students in poor districts fail to reach high school, a handful of Yangon high schools in wealthier districts like Dagon 1, Sanchaung 2, Kamayut 2, Bahan 2, Latha 2, and TTC provide the majority of students admitted to the most selective universities in the country, highlighting the extreme shallowness of talent pool in the country.[8Sony VGN-CR19XN Battery

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Sony VGN-AR71L Battery0] The wealthy bypass the state education system altogether, sending their children to private English language instruction schools such as YIEC, Sony VGN-AR71E Battery

Sony VGN-AR71J Batteryor abroad (typically Singapore or Australia) for university education.[81] In 2008, international schools in Yangon cost at least US$8,000 a year.[82]

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Yangon is home to over 20 universities and colleges. While Yangon University remains the best known (its main campus is a part of popular Burmese culture e.g. literature, music, film, etc.), the nation’s oldest university is now mostly a graduate school, Sony PCG-81212M battery


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deprived of undergraduate studies. Following the 1988 nationwide uprising, the military government has repeatedly shut down universities, and has dispersed most of undergraduate student population to new universities in the suburbs such as Dagon University, the University of East Yangon and the University of West Yangon. Sony PCG-81213M battery


Sony PCG-81411M batteryNonetheless many of the country’s most selective universities are still in Yangon. Students from around the country still have to come to study in Yangon as some subjects are offered only at its universities. The University of Medicine 1, Sony PCG-81311M battery

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Sony PCG-81313M battery University of Medicine 2, Yangon Technological University, University of Computer Studies and Myanmar Maritime University are the most selective in the country.[83]

Yangon General Hospital Sony PCG-81113M battery


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The general state of health care in Yangon is poor. According to a 2007 estimate, the military government spends 0.4% of the national budget on health care, and 40% to 60% on defense.[78] By the government’s own figures, it spends 849 kyats (US$0.85) Sony PCG-81212M battery

per person.[84] Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals including the flagship Yangon General Hospital lack many of the basic facilities and equipment.


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Wealthier Yangonites still have access to country’s best medical facilities and internationally qualified doctors. Only do Yangon and Mandalay have any sizable number of doctors left as many Burmese doctors have emigrated. The well-to-do go to private clinics or hospitals like Pun Hlaing International Hospital and Bahosi Medical Clinic.[citation needed] Still, medical malpractice is widespread even in private clinics and hospitals that serve the well-to-do. In 2009 and 2010, a spate of high profile deaths[84] brought out the severity of the problem, even for the relatively well off Yangonites. The wealthy do not rely on domestic hospitals and travel abroad (usually Bangkok or Singapore) for treatment.[85]